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DICKENS 



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Plate I 
CHARLES DICKENS 

From a scarce I^iihograph by 
SOL. EYTINGE, Junr. 

This Portrait was published during the Novelist's last visit to America 
(1867-68), by Fields, Osgood & Co., of Boston, their advertisement describing 
it as "an Authentic Portrait of Charles Dickens, drawn on stone by S. 
Eytinge, Jr., whose Illustrations of Dickens's Novels have been so popular." 
The late Mr. J. R. Osgood did not recall any actu.il sitting for the Portrait, 
but remembers that Eytinge often saw Dickens while making the drawing. 
The impression from which the present reproduction was made is particularly 
interesting on account of the quotation from "A Christmas Carol" in the 
autograph of Dickens. 

LeHt by Mr. Sluart M. Samuel. 



^ 



, DICKENS 

► AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

CRUIKSHANK, SEYMOUR, BUSS, "PHIZ," CATTERMOLE 

LEECH, DOYLE, STANFIELD, MACLISE, TENNIEL 

FRANK STONE, LANDSEER, PALMER, TOPHAM 

MARCUS STONE, AND LUKE FILDES 



BY 

FREDERIC G. KITTON 

AUTHOR OF "CHARLES DICKENS BY PEN AND PENCIL," ETC. 



WITH TWENTY-TWO PORTRAITS AND FACSIMILES OF 

SEVENTY ORIGINAL DRAWINGS NOW REPRODUCED 

FOR THE FIRST TIME 



SECOND EDITION 



LONDON 
GEORGE REDWAY 

1899 




TO 

CHARLES DICKENS'S DAUGHTER 
KATE PERUGINI 

THBSB NOTES UPON THE ILLUSTRATIONS 
TO HER FATHER'S WRITINGS 

are respectfully dedicated 

BY THE AUTHOR 



PREFACE 

IN the matter of pictorial embellishment, the writings of Charles 
Dickens may be regarded as occupying a unique position. The 
original issues alone present a remarkable array of illustrations ; 
and when we remember the innumerable engravings specially prepared 
for subsequent editions, as well as for independent publication, we are 
fain to confess that, in this respect at least, the works of " Boz " take 
precedence of those of any other novelist. These designs, too, are ol 
particular interest, inasmuch as they are representative of nearly every 
branch of the art of the book-illustrator; both the pencil of the 
draughtsman and the needle of the etcher have been requisitioned, 
while the brush of the painter has depicted for us many striking 
scenes culled from the pages of Dickens. 

The evolution of a successful picture, as exhibited by means of pre- 
paratory sketches, is eminently instructive to the student of Art. The 
present volume should therefore appeal not merely to the Dickens 
Collector, but to all who appreciate the artistic value of tentative studies 
wrought for a special purpose. The abso\ute/acstmi/es, here given for the 
first time, enable us to obtain an insight into the methods adopted by the 
designers in developing their conceptions, those methods being further 
manifested by the aid of correspondence which, happily, is still extant. 

Referring to Dickens's intercourse with his Illustrators, Forster 
significantly observes that the artists certainly had not an easy time with 
him. The Novelist's requirements were exacting even beyond what is 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

ordinary between author and illustrator ; for he was apt (as he him- 
self admitted) "to build up temples in his mind not always makeable 
with hands." While resenting the notion that Dickens ever received 
from any artist "the inspiration he was always striving to give," 
his biographer assures us that, so far as the illustrations are con- 
cerned, he had rarely anything but disappointments, — a declaration 
which apparently substantiates the statement (made on good authority) 
that the Novelist would have preferred his books to remain un- 
adorned by the artist's pencil. That the vast majority of his readers 
approved of such embellishment cannot be questioned, for the genius 
of Cruikshank and " Phiz " has done much to impart reality to the 
persons imagined by Dickens. We are perhaps even more indebted 
to the excellent illustrations than to the Author's descriptions for 
the ability to realise the outward presentments of Pickwick, Fagin, 
Micawber, and a host of other characters, simply because the material 
eye absorbs impressions more readily than the mental eye. 

That Dickens's association with his Illustrators was something 
more than mere coadjutorship is evidenced both in Forster's " Life " 
and in the published " Letters." From these sources we derive much 
information tending to prove the existence of a warm friendship sub- 
sisting between Author and Artists ; indeed, the latter (with two or 
three exceptions) were privileged to enjoy the close personal intimacy 
of Dickens and his family circle. Recalling the fact that the Novelist 
not unfrequently availed himself of the traits and idiosyncrasies of his 
familiars, it seems somewhat strange that in the whole range of his 
creations we fail to discover a single attempt at the portraiture of an 
artist ; for those dilettanti wielders of the brush. Miss La Creevy and 
Henry Gowan, can scarcely be included under that denomination. 



PREFACE ix 

During the earlier part of this century the illustrators of books 
seldom, if ever, resorted to the use of the living model. Such experts 
as Cruikshank, Seymour, "Phiz," Maclise, Doyle, and Leech were 
no exceptions to this rule ; but at the beginning of the sixties there 
arose a new "school" of designers and draughtsmen, prominent 
among them being Leighton, Millais, Walker, and Sandys. Those 
popular Royal Academicians, Mr. Marcus Stone and Mr. Luke Fildes 
(the illustrators respectively of "Our Mutual Friend" and "Edwin 
Drood "), are almost the only surviving members of that confraternity ; 
they, however, speedily relinquished black-and-white Art in order to 
devote their attention to the more fascinating pursuit of painting. 
While admitting the technical superiority of many of the illustrations 
in the later editions of Dickens's works (such as those by Frederick 
Barnard and Charles Green), the collector and bibliophile claim for 
the designs in the original issue an interest which is lacking in subse- 
quent editions ; that is to say, they possess the charm of association 
— a charm that far outweighs possible artistic defects and conventions ; 
for, be it remembered, these designs were produced under the direct 
influence and authorisation of Dickens, and by artists who worked 
hand in hand with the great romancer himself. 

It is averred that " Phiz," who rightly retains the premier position 
among Dickens's Illustrators, placed very little value upon his tenta- 
tive drawings, which, as soon as they had served their purpose, were 
either thrown upon the fire or given away incontinently to those who 
had the foresight to ask for them. Fortunately, the recipients were dis- 
criminating enough to treasure these pencilHngs, many of them having 
since been transferred to the portfolios of collectors. For the privilege 
of reproducing interesting examples I am indebted to Her Grace the 



X PREFACE 

Duchess of St. Albans, Mr. J. F. Dexter, Mr. M. H. Spielmann, Mr. 
W. H. Lever, Messrs. Robson & Co., the Committee of Nottingham 
Castle Museum, and others. I am especially grateful to Mr. Augustin 
Daly, of New York, for so generously permitting me to photograph 
the famous " Pickwick " drawings by Seymour, together with a hitherto 
unpublished portrait of that artist. The portrait of Dickens forming 
the frontispiece to this volume is reproduced from a unique impression 
of a very scarce lithograph in the possession of Mr. Stuart M. Samuel. 

In order to give an effect of continuity to my Notes, I have lightly 
sketched the career of each Artist, introducing in chronological 
sequence the facts relating to his designs for Dickens. In several 
cases, the proof-sheets of these chapters have been revised by the re- 
presentatives of the Artists to whom they refer, and for valued aid in 
this direction my cordial thanks are due to the Rev. A. J. Buss, Mr. 
Field Stanfield, Mr. A. H. Palmer, and Mr. F. W. W. Topham. Those 
of Dickens's Illustrators who are still with us have furnished me with 
much information, and have kindly expressed their approval of what I 
have written concerning them. I therefore avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity of tendering my sincere thanks, for assistance thus rendered, to 
Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A., Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A., Mr. W. P. Frith, R. A., 
and Sir John Tenniel, R.I., whose mark of approbation naturally im- 
parts a special value to the present record. I am still further indebted 
to Mr. Stone and Mr. Fildes for the loan of a number of their original 
drawings and sketches for Dickens, which have not hitherto been 
published. 

Owing to the circumstance that many of the so-called " Extra" 
Illustrations are now extremely rare, my list of them could never 
have been compiled but for advantages afforded me by collectors, in 



PREFACE xi 

allowing me to have access to their Dickensiana. The kind offices 
of Mr. W. R. Hughes, Mr. Thomas Wilson, Mr. W. T. Pevier, 
and Mr. W. T. Spencer are gratefully acknowledged in this connec- 
tion, as well as those of Mr. Dudley Tenney of New York, who has 
rendered me signal service in respect of American Illustrations. 

To Forster's " Life of Dickens " and to the published " Letters" I 
am naturally beholden for information not otherwise procurable, while 
certain interesting details concerning " Phiz's " drawings and etchings 
are quoted from Mr. D. C. Thomson's •' Life and Labours of 
Habl6t K. Browne," which is more extended in its general scope 
than my previously-issued Memoir of the artist. 

I am privileged to associate the names of Miss Hogarth and Mrs. 
Perugini with this account of Charles Dickens and his collaborateurs i 
to the former I am obliged for permission to print some of the 
Novelist's correspondence which has never previously been made 
public, while the latter has favoured me with the loan of photo- 
graphic portraits. Finally, I must express my indebtedness for much 
valuable aid to George Cattermole's daughter, Mrs. Edward Franks, 
the " cousin " to whom the Novelist alluded in a letter to her father 
dated February 26, 1841, and to whose "clear blue eyes" he desired 
to be commended. 

F. G. KITTON. 



St. Albans, SepUmber 1898. 



CONTENTS 



PREFACE vii 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK i 

ROBERT SEYMOUR 29 

ROBERT W. BUSS 47 

HABL6t K. BROWNE ("PHIZ") 58 

GEORGE CATTERMOLE 121 

ILLUSTRATORS OF THE CHRISTMAS BOOKS . .136 

JOHN LEECH 138 

RICHARD DOYLE 149 

CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A 153 

DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 161 

SIR JOHN TENNIEL 17* 

FRANK STONE, A.R.A. I7S 

SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A 180 

SAMUEL PALMER 182 

F. W. TOPHAM 189 

MARCUS STONE, R.A 192 

LUKE FILDES, R-A. .... 204 



APPENDIX 

L ILLUSTRATORS OF CHEAP EDITIONS 219 

II. CONCERNING "EXTRA ILLUSTRATIONS" . . . .227 
III. DICKENS IN ART 243 



INDEX 249 

IP"! 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PlaU. Suhjtct. 

I. Portrait of Charles Dickens 

X Portrait of GEOftcB Cruikshank . 

3. "Jemima Evans." — Skitchts by Bn 

4. " The Four Miss W\\!asK»r—Sk€t<hts by Sot 

5. < ' Thoughts about People."— J*//<^^j fy Sot 

6. " The Parish Engine."— i^i«/M« by Bon . 

7. Studies for Scenes and Characters. — Sitlches by Bat . 

8. " Mr. Bumble Degraded in the Eyes of the Paupers."— 

Olivtr Twisl 

9. " Mr. Claypole as he Appeared when his Master was 

OvX."— Oliver Twist 

la "Oliver Amazed at the Dodger's Mode of 'Going to 
Work.' "—Oliver Twist 

11. Studies for Bill Sikes, Nancy, and the Artful Dodger. — 

Oliver Twist 

12. Studies for Bill Sikes in the Condemned QAX.— Oliver 

Twist 

13. Study for " Fagin in the Condemned CeW."— Oliver TMst 

14. First Idea for " Fagin in the Condemned Cell " and other 

Sketches.— 0/iirr Twist 

ij. Portrait of Robert Seymour 

16. "Mr. Pickwick Addresses ihcO-Mh."— The Pitkwick Papers 

17. " The Pugnacious Cabman." — Tie Pickwick Papers 

18. "Dr. Slammer's Defiance of Jingle."— 7X<r Pickwick 

Papers 

19. First Study for "The Dying Clown."— 7X< Pickwick 

Papers 

aa "The Runaway Chaise."— 7;4f/1rV/Sw* /'o/VrJ . 

31. "The Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's Kitchen." — 7X« 

Pickwick Papers 

28. Portrait of Robert W. Buss 

93. Unused Design for the Title-Page. — The Pickwick Papers 

24. " The Break-down." — The Pickwick Papers . 

25. " A Souvenir of Dickens " 

26. Dolly Varden. — Bamaby Pudge 

27. Florence Dombey and Captain Cuttle. — Dombey ami Son 

28. Portraits of Habl6t K. Browne and Robert Young . 

29. " A Sudden Reci^nition, Unexpected on Both Sides." — 

Nicholas Nickleby 

30. Studies for the Cheeryble Brothers. — Nicholas Nickleby , 

31. Master Humphrey and the Deaf Gentleman. — Master 

Humphreys Clock 

32. "The Dombey Family." — Dombey and Son . 

33. " Paul and Mrs. Pipchin." — Dombey and Son , 

34. " Mr. Peggott/s Dream comes True." — David Copperfitld 

35. " Mr. Chadband ' Improving' a Tough Subject." — Bleak 

ffoMse . . , , 



ArHst. 

Sou Eytinoe, Junr. 

Baugnibt 

G. Cruikshank 



Taylor 
R. Seymour 



R. W, Buss 



From Photographs 



H. K. Browne 



Frontispiece 
Fating page I 

4 

6 

8 

10 

13 

14 

16 
18 
10 

33 

24 

36 
29 

3» 
34 

36 

38 
40 

42 
47 
48 
50 
Sa 
54 
56 
58 

64 
68 

7a 
76 
80 
84 

92 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

No. of 

Plate. Subject. Artist. 

36. Dolly \3.r6en.—Bamaby Rudge H. K. Brownb . Facing page 98 

37. Miss Haredale. — Barnaby Rudge 1, ... ,, IIO 

38. Portrait of George Cattkrmole From a Photograph ... „ 121 

39. qxi^^H'Wa2sl— The Old Curiosity Shop . . . . G. Cattermolk ... „ 124 

40. The Death-bed of Little Nell (Two Studies).— 7:4« Old 

Curiosity Shop n ... ,, 126 

41. The Night Watchman and The "Maypole" Inn. — 

Barnaby Rudge ,1 ... ,, 130 

42. The Murder at the Warren.— .ffarxa^y A'«(i^< . . . „ 132 

43. Portrait of John Leech Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A. ... „ 138 

44. " Richard and Margaret."— 7X/! CAjWj. . . . J. Leech ... „ 140 

45. "John, Dot, and Tilly Slowboy."— T^A* Cricket on the 

Hearth „ ... „ 142 

46. "CaXehafWoiW— The Criciei on the //earth . . „ ... „ 144 

47. '• The Tetteihys."— The ffaunteJ JIfan .... „ ... „ 146 

SFrom a Photc^raph, and ) 
from the Painting by > 149 
E. M. Ward, R.A. ) 
49. Portraits of Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., and FRANK 

Stone, A.R.A. From Photographs ... „ 153 

JO. "Vfai" &nd"VeAce."— The Battle o/Lt/e . . . C Stanfibld, R.A. ... „ 156 

51. "The Tower of the Chimes" and "The Spirit of the 

Chimes."— 7X« Chimes D. Maclisb, R.A. ... ,, 162 

52. "Milly and theOld Man."— 7'A«.fla«n/«rfiJ/o« . . F. Stonk, A.R.A. ... „ 176 

,„, ... «. ,«« ( From a Photograph, and ) 

53. Portraits of Sir John Tknniei, R.I.. and Sir Edwin ^^^ ^^^ ^^^J^ ^g^ 

LANDSEER.R.A I Sir F. Grant. P.R.A.) 

54. Portraits of F. W. TOPHAM and Samuel Palmer . . From Photographs ... ,, 182 

55. " The Villa D'Este."—/'iV/«>-« /roOT //*&' . . . S. Palmer 186 

56. Portrait of Marcus Stone, R.A. From a Photograph 193 

57. Studies for "Mr. Venus Surrounded by the Trophies of 

his Alt"— Our Afutua I Friend .... Marcus Stonb, R.A 194 

58. Monsieur Defarge and Doctor Manette. — A Tale of Two 

Cities „ ... „ 196 

59. " Black and White." — American Notes .... „ ... „ 198 

60. "Taking Leave of Joe." — Great Expectations . . ,, ... „ 200 

61. Portrait of Luke FiLDES, R.A. From a Photograph 204 

62. Study for the Head of Neville Landless. — The Mystery of 

Edwin Drood . . L. FiLDBS, R.A. ... „ ao6 

63. Studies for Edwin Drood. — The Mystery of Edwin Drood „ ... „ 208 

64. Studies for Mr. Jasper. — The Mystery of Edwin Drood . „ ... „ 210 

65. Study for " Good-bye, Rosebud, Darling." — Th* Mystery 

of Edwin Drood „ ... „ 2t2 

66. Study for Mr. Grewgious. — The Mystery of Edwin Drood ,, ... „ 214 

67. Do. do. do. do. „ ... ,, 216 

68. Portraits of Alfred Crowquill (A. H. Forrester) and 

Frederick Barnard, R.I From Photographs ... „ 228 

69. PortraitsofF.W. Pailthorpe and Charles Green, R.I. ,, ... „ 232 

The Frontispiece Portrait of Charles Dickens was photo-engraved by Mr. E. Gilbert Hester, and tht 
Collotype Plates were prepared and printed by Mr. James H^att, 



I 



Plate II 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 

From the Lithograph by 
BAUGNIET 

This Portrait is a reproduction of a proof impression, showing the retouch- 
ing by Cruikshank himself. 



DICKENS 

AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 

First Start in Life— Early Productions— " Sketches by Boz"— Introduction to Dickens — 
First and Second Series of the " Sketches "—Extra Plates— Additional Designs for the 
Complete Edition — Portraiture of Artist and Author — Historic Value of Cruikshank's 
Illustrations— Some Slight Inaccuracies— Frontispiece of the First Cheap Edition— Tenta- 
tive Sketches and Unused Designs—" Oliver Twist "—Incongruities Detected in a Few 
of the Plates— Thackeray's Eulogium — Working Tracings and Water-Colour Replicas — 
Trial Sketches— A Note from Cruikshank to Dickens— Sketches of Bill Sikes in the 
Condemned Cell— How the Design for "Fagin in the Condemned Cell" was Conceived 
— A Criticism by Raskin — The Cancelled Plate — Cruikshank's Claim to the Origin of 
"Oliver Twist" — Designs for Dickens's Minor Writings in Bentley's Miscellany — 
"The Lamplighter's Story"— Cruikshank's Last Illustration for Dickens — "Frauds on the 
Fairies " — The Artist's Remuneration — Death. 

TH E name of George Cruikshank, which stands first in the long 
and imposing list of Dickens Illustrators, is familiar to every 
one as that of a pencil humorist of no common calibre, 
whose genius as a designer and whose marvellous skill as an 
etcher have evoked enthusiastic praise from John Ruskin and other 
eminent critics. He undoubtedly inherited his artistic talent from 
his father, who was not only an etcher and engraver, but (as 
George himself has recorded) "a first-rate water-colour draughts- 
man." So experienced an artist was therefore thoroughly capable of 
training his sons, George and Isaac Robert, for the same profession. 

Like most boys, George dreamt of the sea, aspiring to become 
a second Captain Cook ; but, happily, the death of his father com- 
pelled him to take up seriously the work of designing, in order that 
he might assist in maintaining his mother and sister. His first start 



2 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

in life originated in a publisher seeing some of his sketches, which 
indicated such unusual talent that he was immediately engaged to 
illustrate children's books, songs, and other cheap literature peculiar 
to the period. Then the young artist essayed the more profitable 
arena of political caricaturing, distinctly making his mark as a satirist. 
Realising at this time his imperfections as a draughtsman, he deter- 
mined to acquire the art of drawing with correctness, entering the 
Royal Academy as a student ; but, finding it difficult to work on 
pedantic lines, his resolution soon waned, and, after one course of 
study, he left the place for a short interval of — forty years ! Although 
he never became the learned artist, nor was able to draw with 
academic accuracy, he wielded his pencil with a facility and vigour 
that delighted all beholders, and this deftness, combined with a 
remarkable sense of humour and satire, speedily brought him com- 
missions from every quarter. 

It was as a book-illustrator that George Cruikshank undoubtedly 
excelled, and some idea of his industry in this direction (during a 
period of eighty years of his busy life) may be obtained from G. C. 
Reid's comprehensive catalogue of his works, where we find enume- 
rated more than five thousand illustrations on paper, wood, copper, 
and steel. This, however, by no means exhausts the list, for the 
artist survived the publication of the catalogue several years, and was 
" in harness " to the end of his long career. If the works described 
by Mr. Reid be supplemented by the profusion of original sketches 
and ideas for his finished designs, the number of Cruikshank's pro- 
ductions may be estimated at about fifteen thousand ! 

Before his introduction to Charles Dickens in 1836, the versatile 
artist had adorned several volumes, which, but for his striking illus- 
trations, would probably have enjoyed but a brief popularity. His 
etchings and drawings on wood are invariably executed in an ex- 
ceedingly delicate manner, at the same time preserving a breadth of 
effect unequalled by any aquafortiste of his day. "Only those who 
know the difficulties of etching," observes Mr. P. G. Hamerton, "can 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 3 

appreciate the power that lies behind his unpretending skill ; there 
is never, in his most admirable plates, the trace of a vain effort." 

Dickens's clever descriptions of "every-day life and every-day 
people" were originally printed in the Monthly Maga- 
, Rr> '^''*^' ^^ Evening Chronicle and the Morning Chronicle, 

jO-__-^ Bell's Life in London, and "The Library of Fiction," 
and subsequently appeared in a collected form under 
the general title of "Sketches by Bo?." Early in 1836 Dickens sold 
the entire copyright of the " Sketches " to John Macrone, of St. James's 
Square, who published a selection therefrom in two duodecimo volumes, 
with illustrations by George Cruikshank. It was at this time that 
Charles Dickens first met the artist, who was his senior by about 
a score of years, and already in the enjoyment of an established 
reputation as a book-illustrator.- That the youthful author, as well 
as his publisher, realised the value of Cruikshank's co-operation 
is manifested in the Preface to the " Sketches," where Dickens, 
after appropriately comparing the issue of his first book to the 
launching of a pilot balloon, observes : " Unlike the generality of 
pilot balloons which carry no car, in this one it is very possible for a 
man to embark, not only himself, but all his hopes of future fame, and 
all his chances of future success. Entertaining no inconsiderable feeling 
of trepidation at the idea of making so perilous a voyage in so frail a 
machine, alone and unaccompanied, the author was naturally desirous 
to secure the assistance and companionship of some well-known in- 
dividual, who had frequently contributed to the success, though his 
well-known reputation rendered it impossible for him ever to have 
shared the hazard, of similar undertakings. To whom, as possessing 
this requisite in an eminent degree, could he apply but to George 
Cruikshank .'' The application was readily heard and at once acceded 
to ; this is their first voyage in company, but it may not be the 
last" Each of the two volumes contains eight illustrations, and it 
may justly be said of these little vignettes that they are among the 



4 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

artist's most successful efforts with the needle. Although highly 
popular from the beginning, the " Sketches " were now received with 
even greater fervour, and several editions were speedily called for. 
As the late Mr. G. A. Sala contended, the coadjutorship of so ex- 
perienced a draughtsman as George Cruikshank, who knew London 
and London life "better than the majority of Sunday-school children 
know their Catechism," was of real importance to the young reporter 
of the Morning Chronicle, with whose baptismal name (be it re- 
membered) his readers and admirers were as yet unacquainted. 

During the following year (1837) Macrone published a Second 
Series of the " Sketches " in one volume, uniform in size and character 
with its predecessors, and containing ten etchings by Cruikshank ; for 
the second edition of this extra volume two additional illustrations were 
done, viz., "The Last Cab-Driver" and "May-day in the Evening."' 
It was at this time that Dickens repurchased from Macrone the entire 
copyright of the "Sketches," and arranged with Chapman & Hall 
for a complete edition, to be issued in shilling monthly parts, octavo 
size, the first number appearing in November of that year. The 
completed work contained all the Cruikshank plates (except that 
entitled " The Free and Easy," which, for some unexplained reason, 
was cancelled) and the following new subjects : " The Parish Engine," 
"The Broker's Man," "Our Next-door Neighbours," "Early Coaches," 
"Public Dinners," "The Gin-Shop," "Making a Night of It," "The 
Boarding-House," "The Tuggses at Ramsgate," "The Steam Ex- 
cursion," " Mrs. Joseph Porter," and " Mr. Watkins Tottle." 

Cruikshank also produced a design for the pink wrapper enclosing 
each of the twenty monthly parts ; this was engraved on wood by 
John Jackson, the original drawing (adapted from one the artist 
had previously made for Macrone) being now in the possession of 
Mr. William Wright, of Paris. The subject of the frontispiece is 

' A set of the twenty-eight etchings, proofs before letters (First and Second Series), 
realised ^^30 at Sotheby's in 1889. Lithographic replicas of the plates in the Second Series 
were published in Calcutta in 1837. 



Plate III 

"JEMIMA EVANS" 

Facsimile of Unused Designs for ' ' Sketches by Boz " by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



■rilyjAii- A*«'«^*' **^ ^<*»t. t4»4x^ 




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J. 



ij juJ^i^ L-L no"^ 



M 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 5 

the same as that of the title-page in the Second Series. The altera- 
tion in the size of the illustrations for this cheap edition necessitated 
larger plates, so that the artist was compelled to re-etch his designs. 
These reproductions, although on an extended scale, were executed 
with even a greater degree of finish, and contain more "colour" 
than those in the first issue ; but the general treatment of the smaller 
etchings is more pleasing by reason of the superior freedom of line 
therein displayed. As might be anticipated, a comparison of the 
two sets of illustrations discloses certain slight variations, which are 
especially noticeable in the following plates : " Greenwich Fair ; " 
musicians and male dancer added on left. " Election for Beadle ; " 
three more children belonging to Mr. Bung's family on right, and 
two more of Mr. Spruggins's family on left, thus making up the full 
complement in each case. "The First of May" (originally entitled 
" May-day in the Evening ") ; the drummer on the left, in the 
first edition, looks straight before him, while in the octavo edition 
he turns his face towards the girl with the parasol. " London 
Recreations ; " in the larger design the small child on the right 
is stooping to reach a ball, which is not shown in the earlier 
plate- 
Additional interest is imparted to some of the etchings in 
" Sketches by Boz " owing to the introduction by the artist of 
portraits of Charles Dickens and himself, there being no less than 
five delineations of the face and figure of the youthful " Boz " as he 
then appeared. In the title-page of the Second Series (as well as 
in the reproduction of it in the octavo edition), the identity of the 
two individuals waving flags in the car of the balloon has been 
pointed out by Cruikshank, who wrote on the original pencil-sketch, 
" The parties going up in the balloon are intended for the author and 
the artist," — which may be considered a necessary explanation, as 
the likenesses are not very apparent. 

In the plates entitled "Early Coaches," "A Pickpocket in 
Custody," and " Making a Night of It," Cruikshank has similarly 



6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

attempted to portray his own lineaments and those of Dickens ; he 
was more successful, however, in the illustration to " Public Dinners," 
where the presentments of himself and the novelist, as stewards 
carrying official wands, are more life-like. There exist, by the way, 
several seriously-attempted portraits of Dickens by Cruikshank, con- 
cerning the earliest of which it is related that author and artist were 
members of a club of literary men known during its brief existence as 
" The Hook and Eye Club," and that at one of their nightly meetings 
Dickens was seated in an arm-chair conversing, when Cruikshank 
exclaimed, "Sit still, Charley, while I take your portrait!" This 
impromptu sketch, now the property of Colonel Hamilton, has been 
etched by F. W. Pailthorpe, and a similar drawing is included in 
the Cruikshank Collection at South Kensington. Among other con- 
temporary portrait-studies (executed in pencil and slightly tinted in 
colour) is one bearing the following inscription in the artist's autograph : 
"Charles Dickens, Author of Sketches by Boz, the Pickwick Papers, 
&c., &c., &c.," — an admission that seems to dispose of Cruikshank's 
subsequent claim to the authorship of " Pickwick." 

It has been remarked that Cruikshank was so accurate in the 
rendering of details that future antiquaries will rely upon his plates 
as authoritative in matters of architecture, costume, &c. For example, 
in the etching of " The Last Cab-Driver," he has depicted an obsolete 
form of cabriolet, the driver being seated over the right wheel; and 
in that of "The Parish Engine" we may discover what kind of 
public fire-extinguisher was then in use — a very primitive implement 
in comparison with the modern "steamer." In the latter plate, by 
the way, we behold the typical beadle of the period, who after- 
wards figured as Bumble in " Oliver Twist." Apropos of this 
etching, Mr. Frederick Wedmore points out (in Temple Bar, April 
1878) that it is "an excellent example of Cruikshank's eye for pictur- 
esque line and texture in some of the commonest objects that met 
him in his walks : the brickwork of the house, for instance, prettily 
indicated, the woodwork of the outside shutters, and the window, on 



Plate IV 

"THE FOUR MISS WILLISES"- 

Facsimilt of an Unused Design for " Sketches by Boi " by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 









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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 7 

which various lights are pleasantly broken. I know no artist," he 
continues, " so alive as Cruikshank to the pretty sedateness of Georgian 
architecture. Then, too, there is the girl with basket on arm, a figure 
not quite ungraceful in line and gesture. She might have been much 
better if Cruikshank had ever made himself that accurate draughtsman 
of the figure which he hardly essayed to be, and she and all her 
fellows — it is only fair to remember — might have been better, again, 
had the artist who designed her done his finest work in a happier 
period of English dre^s." Mr. Wedmore alludes to another etching 
in " Sketches by Boz " as being " perhaps the best of all in Cruikshank 
as proof of that sensitive eye for what is picturesque and character- 
istic in every-day London. It is called 'The Streets, Morning,' the 
design somewhat empty of 'subject,' only a comfortable sweep who 
does not go up the chimney, and a wretched boy who does, are 
standing at a stall taking coffee, which a woman, with pattens striking 
on pavement and head tied up close in a handkerchief, serves to the 
scanty comers in the early morning light. A lamp-post rises behind 
her ; the closed shutters of the baker are opposite ; the public-house 
of the Rising Sun has not yet opened its doors ; at some house-corner 
further off a solitary figure lounges homeless ; beyond, pleasant light 
morning shadows cross the cool grey of the untrodden street ; a 
church tower and spire rise in the delicate distance, where the turn 
of the road hides the further habitations of the sleeping town." 

It may be hypercritical to resent, on the score of inaccuracy, an 
occasional oversight on the part of Cruikshank ; but it is nevertheless 
interesting to note that in the plate entitled " Election for Beadle," 
Cruikshank has omitted from the inscription on Spruggins's placard 
a reference to "the twins," the introduction of which caused that 
candidate to become temporarily a favourite with the electors ; in 
"Horatio Sparkins," the "dropsical" figure of seven (see label on 
right) is followed by a little "id." instead of the diminutive "|d." 
mentioned in the text ; in " The Pawnbroker's Shop " it will be 
observed that the words " Money Lent " on the glass door should 



8 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

appear reversed, so as to be read from the outside; while in the 
etching illustrating "Private Theatres," the artist has forgotten to 
include the "two dirty men with the corked countenances," who are 
specially referred to in the "Sketch." 

The first cheap edition of " Sketches by Boz," issued by Chapman 
& Hall in 1850, contained a new frontispiece, drawn on wood by 
Cruikshank, representing Mr. Gabriel Parsons being released from 
the kitchen chimney, — an incident in " Passage in the Life of 
Mr. Watkins Tottle." 

George Cruikshank not unfrequently essayed several "trial" 
designs before he succeeded in realising to his satisfaction the subject 
he aimed at portraying. Some of these are extremely slight pencil 
notes — "first ideas," hastily made as soon as conceived — while others 
were subjected to greater elaboration, and differing but slightly, 
perhaps, from the etchings ; on certain drawings are marginal memo- 
randa — such as studies of heads, expressions, and attitudes — which 
are valuable as showing how the finished pictures were evolved. 
The majority of the designs are executed in pencil, while a few are 
drawn with pen-and-ink ; occasionally one may meet with a sketch 
in which the effect is broadly washed in with sepia or indian-ink, and, 
more rarely still, with a drawing charmingly and delicately wrought 
in water-colours. Besides original sketches, the collection at the 
South Kensington Museum contains a series of working tracings, by 
means of which the artist transferred his subjects to the plates. 
There are no less than three different suggestions for the frontispiece 
of the first cheap edition of " Sketches by Boz," together with various 
renderings of the design for the wrapper of the first complete edition, 
in which the word "Boz" in the title constitutes a conspicuous feature, 
being formed of the three letters superimposed, while disposed about 
them are several of the prominent characters. Probably the most 
interesting in this collection is a sheet of slight sketches signed by 
the artist, although they are merely tentative jottings for his 
etchings. One of these pencillings (an unused subject) represents a 



I 



Plate V 

"THOUGHTS ABOUT PEOPLE" 

Faaimile of an Unused Design for " Sketches by Boz " by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 9 

man proposing a toast at a dinner-table, doubtless intended as an 
illustration for "Public Dinners"; and here, too, are marginal studies 
of heads — including one of a Bill Sikes type — together with a signifi- 
cant note (apparently of a later date) in the autograph of Cruikshank, 
which reads thus : " Some of these suggestions to Chas. Dickens, 
and which he wrote to in the second part of ' Sketches by Boz ' ! " 

A large number of studies for " Sketches by Boz " may also be 
seen in the Print Room of the British Museum, many of which are 
very slight. In some instances we find the same subject rendered 
in different ways, and it is worthy of note that a few of these 
designs were never etched ; among the most remarkable of the 
unused sketches is a rough drawing for the wrapper of the monthly 
parts (octavo edition), with ostensible portraits of author and artist 
introduced. This collection includes "first ideas" for "Thoughts 
about People," "Hackney Coaches," "The Broker's Man," &c., and 
a careful examination shows that the sketches for the plates illus- 
trating " Seven Dials " and " The Pickpocket in Custody " are 
entitled by the artist " Fight of the Amazons " and " The Hospital 
Patient" respectively. In one of the trial sketches for "The Last 
Cabman," the horse is represented as having fallen to the ground, 
the passenger being violently ejected from the vehicle. 

On August 22, 1836, Charles Dickens entered into an agree- 
ment with Richard Bentley to edit a new monthly 
q^ , magazine called Bentley s Miscellany, and to furnish that 

18^7-^0. periodical with a serial tale. George Cruikshank's ser- 
vices as illustrator were also retained, and his design for 
the wrapper inspired Maginn to indite, for "The Bentley Ballads," 
the "Song of the Cover," whence this characteristic verse is 
quoted : — 

" Bentley, Boz, and Cruikshank stand 
Like expectant reelers ; 
' Music ! ' ' Play up ! ' pipe in hand 
Beside \h& fluted pillars 



lo DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Boz and Cruikshank want to dance, — 

None for frolic riper ; 
But Bentley makes the first advance, 

Because he pays the piper." 

The first number of the Miscellany was issued in January 1837, 
and in February appeared the initial chapter of the editor's story, 
entitled "Oliver Twist, or, the Parish Boy's Progress," which was 
continued in succeeding numbers until its completion in March 1839, 
with etchings by Cruikshank. 

The dramatic character of this stirring romance of low London 
life afforded the artist unusual scope for the display of his talent ; 
indeed, his powerful pencil was far more suited to the theme than 
that of any of his contemporaries. The principal scenes in the 
novel proved most attractive to him, and he fairly revelled in de- 
lineating the tragic episodes associated with the career of Fagin and 
Sikes. These twenty-four etchings are on the same scale as those 
in the first collected edition of the " Sketches," but they are broader 
and more effective in treatment. In October 1838, — that is, about 
five months before completion in the Miscellany, — the entire story 
was issued by Chapman & Hall in three volumes post octavo, and 
there can be no doubt that its remarkable success was brought about 
in no small meeisure by Cruikshank's inimitable pictures. Nearly 
eight years later (in January 1846) a cheaper edition, containing 
all the illustrations, was commenced in ten monthly parts, demy 
octavo, and subsequently published in one volume by Bradbury & 
Evans. On the cover for the monthly numbers Cruikshank has 
portrayed eleven of the leading incidents in the story, some of the 
subjects being entirely new, while others are practically a repetition 
of the etched designs. The plates in this edition, having suffered 
from previous wear-and-tear, were subjected to a general touching- 
up, as a comparison with the earlier issue clearly indicates, such 
reparation (carried out by jui engraver named Findlay, much to 
Cruikshank's annoyance) being especially noticeable in cases where 



i 



Plate VI 

"THE PARISH ENGINE" 

FattimiU of the Original Drawing for the First Octavo Edition of 
"Sketches by Bor" by 

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK ii 

"tones" have been added to wall-backgrounds and other parts of 
the designs. Apart from actual proof impressions, the "Oliver 
Twist" etchings are naturally to be found in their best state in 
BentUys Miscellany, where they are seen in their pristine beauty. 
In some of the plates it will be observed that Cruikshank has intro- 
duced " roulette " (or dotted) work with excellent effect, although, 
of course, this disqualifies them as examples of pure etching. The 
first cheap edition of "Oliver Twist," issued in 1850 by Chapman 
& Hall, contains a frontispiece only by George Cruikshank, repre- 
senting Mr. Bumble and Oliver in Mrs. Mann's parlour, as described 
in the second chapter. 

It has been said that Cruikshank could not draw a pretty woman. 
At any rate, he neglected his opportunity in " Oliver Twist," for he 
fails in so depicting Rose Maylie, while his portrayal of Nancy is par- 
ticularly ugly and repelling, whereas she certainly possessed physical 
charms not unfrequently found in women of her class. Although the 
artist has imparted too venerable an appearance to the Artful Dodger, 
he hcis seized in a wonderful manner the characteristics of criminal 
types in his rendering of Fagin and Bill Sikes. In many of Cruik- 
shank's etchings the accessories are very dpropos, and sometimes not 
without a touch of quiet humour. For example, in the plate repre- 
senting Oliver recovering from the fever, there is seen over the 
chimney-piece a picture of the Good Samaritan, in allusion to Mr. 
Brownlow's benevolent intentions with respect to the invalid orphan ; 
while in that depicting Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Comey taking tea, 
may be noticed the significant figure of Paul Pry on the mantel- 
shelf. Some of the designs are marked by slight incongruities, which, 
however, do not detract from their interest. In the etching " Oliver 
Plucks up a Spirit," it will be observed that the small round table 
which the persecuted lad overthrows during his desperate attack 
upon Noah Claypole could not possibly assume, by such accidental 
means, the inverted position as here shown. In the plate entitled 
"The Evidence Destroyed," the lantern (according to the text) should 



12 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

have been lowered into the dark well, but doubtless the error was 
intentional on the part of the artist, in order to secure effect; in 
" Mr. Fagin and his Pupil Recovering Nancy," the girl is represented 
as being exceedingly robust, whereas she was really "so reduced with 
watching and privation as hardly to be recognised as the same Nancy." 
Again, in the illustration depicting Sikes attempting to destroy his 
dog, we see in the distance the dome of St. Paul's, while, as a matter 
of fact, the desperate ruffian had not reached a point so near the 
metropolis when he thought of drowning the faithful animal.* In 
"The Last Chance," where the robber contemplates dropping from 
the roof of Fagin's house to escape his pursuers, the rope (described 
in the letterpress as being thirty-four feet long) is barely half that 
length, and could never have extended to the ground ; while the dog, 
who lay concealed until his master had tumbled off the parapet, must 
have been distinctly visible to all observers if he stood so promi- 
nently on the ridge-tiles as here indicated. The latter etching is one 
of the most fascinating of the series, for here Cruikshank has realised 
every feature of the dramatic scene, — the harassed expression on 
the evil face of the hunted criminal, the squalid tenements half 
shrouded by approaching darkness, the excitement of the people 
crowding the windows of the opposite houses ; indeed, the tragic 
and repulsive element in the picture constitutes a remarkable effort 
on the part of the artist. 

In considering the story as a whole, it is difHcult to say how 
much of the powerful impression we are conscious of may be due to 
the illustrator. In his famous eulogy on Cruikshank, Thackeray 
remarked : " We are not at all disposed to undervalue the works and 
genius of Mr. Dickens, and we are sure that he would admit as readily 
as any man the wonderful assistance that he has derived from the 
artist who has given us portraits of his ideal personages, and made 

' In a large water-colour replica of this subject, signed " George Cruikshank, Octr. 14th, 
1873, in my 82nd year," the artist stated that the landscape represented the old Pentonville 
fields, north of London. 



I 



4 



Plate VII 

STUDIES FOR 
SCENES AND CHARACTERS IN "SKETCHES BY BOZ' 

Facsimile of the Original Sketches by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



In the centre of the sheet the Artist has written : " Some of these suggestions 
to Chas. Dickens, nnd which he wrote to in the second part of ' Sketches by 
Boi." " 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 13 

them familiar to all the world. Once seen, these figures remain im- 
pressed on the memory, which otherwise would have had no hold 
upon them, and the Jew and Bumble, and the heroes and heroines 
of the Boz Sketches, become personal acquaintances with each of us. 
O that Hogarth could have illustrated Fielding in the same way ! 
and fixed down on paper those grand figures of Parson Adams, and 
Squire Allworthy, and the great Jonathan Wild." Again, with 
more especial reference to the "Oliver Twist" designs, the kindly 
" Michael Angelo Titmarsh " wrote : " The sausage scene at Fagin's ; 
Nancy seizing the boy ; that capital piece of humour, Mr. Bumble's 
courtship, which is even better in Cruikshank's version than in Boz's 
exquisite account of the interview ; Syke's ^ farewell to his dog ; and 
the Jew — the dreadful Jew — that Cruikshank drew! What a fine 
touching picture of melancholy desolation is that of Sykes and the 
dog ! The poor cur is not too well drawn, the landscape is stiff and 
formal ; but in this case the faults, if faults they be, of execution 
rather add to than diminish the effect of the picture ; it has a strange, 
wild, dreary, broken-hearted look ; we fancy we see the landscape 
as it must have appeared to Sykes, when ghastly and with bloodshot 
eyes he looked at it. As for the Jew in the dungeon, let us say 
nothing of it — what can we say to describe it .■* " 

— The complete set of twenty- four working tracings of the original 
designs for " Oliver Twist," some of which exhibit variations from 
the finished etchings, realised jC^^o at Sotheby's in March 1892. 
Water-colour replicas of all the subjects were prepared by Cruikshank 
in 1866 for Mr. F. W. Cosens, which the artist supplemented by 
thirteen smaller drawings and a humorous title-page, the entire series 
being reproduced in colour for an edition de luxe of " Oliver Twist," 
published by Chapman & Hall in 1894. The Cruikshank Collec- 
tions in the British and South Kensington Museums include many 
of the artist's sketches and "first ideas" for the "Oliver Twist" 

' The name of Sikes is frequently thus mis-spelt. It is odd that Dickens himself first 
wrote it " Sykes," as may be seen in the original manuscript of the story. 



14 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

/ plates, as well as a number of the matured designs. Here are several 
/ trial sketches for the monthly wrapper of the first octavo edition, 
/ executed in pencil with slight washes of sepia added ; the original 
/ drawings for "Rose Maylie and Oliver" (known to collectors as the 
"Fireside" plate, to which reference will presently be made), and 
for "Mr. Bumble Degraded in the Eyes of the Paupers" (with 
marginal sketches), the title of which is appended in Dickens's auto- 
graph, where, instead of "the eyes," the word "presence" was 
originally written. Here, also, we find the first sketch of Noah 
Claypole enjoying an oyster-supper, with the following query written 
by the artist: "Dr. Dickens, 'Title' wanted — will any of these do? 
Yours, G. Ck." The proposed titles are then given, thus: "Mr. 
Claypole Astonishing Mr. Bumble and 'the Natives' ;" " Mr. Claypole 
Indulging;" "Mr. Claypole as he Appeared when his Master was 
Out," — the latter being adopted. On the back of a pen-and-ink draw- 
ing of " Oliver's Reception by Fagin and the Boys," Cruikshank sug- 
gested a different title, viz., "OHver Introduced to the Old Gentleman 
by Jack Dawkins." A beautiful little water-colour drawing of the 
subject, entitled " Oliver Introduced to the Respectable Old Gentle- 
man," is in the Print Room of the British Museum, where we may 
also discover a portrait of Oliver himself — a profile study of the head 
as seen in the drawing now referred to. On the back of a sketch of 
Mr. Brownlow at the bookstall (for the plate entitled " Oliver Amazed 
at the Dodger's Mode of 'Going to Work'") is the rough draft of an 
unsigned note in the autograph of Cruikshank, evidently addressed 
to Dickens : — 

" Thursday Eg.., June 15, '37. 

" Mv DEAR Sir, — Can you let me have a subject for the second 
Plate ? The first is in progress. By the way, would you like to see 
the Drawing ? I can spare it for an hour or two if you will send for it" 

I am enabled to reproduce in facsimile a very interesting sheet 
of sketches for prominent characters in "Oliver Twist," containing 



Plate VIII 

"MR. BUMBLE DEGRADED IN THE EYES OF THE 
PAUPERS" 

Facsimile of the Original Sketch for "Oliver Twist " by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



The Inscription above the Sketch is in the Autograph of Dickens. 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 15 

no less than five studies of Fagin, including the "first idea" for the 
famous etching of the Jew in the condemned cell. Still more note- 
worthy are four studies of Bill Sikes in the condemned cell, evidently 
made early in the progress of the book, thus seeming to indicate that 
the artist conjectured this would be the fate of the burglar instead of 
the Jew ; or is it possible that the existence of these studies may be 
considered as a corroboration of his assertion (in a letter to the 
Times, presently to be quoted) that he, and not Dickens, must be 
credited with the idea of putting either Sikes or Fagin in the cell ? 

Concerning Cruikshank's powerful conception of Fagin in the 
condemned cell ("the immortal Fagin of 'Oliver Twist,'" as 
Thackeray styled him), it is related by Mr. George Hodder (in 
" Memories of my Time ") that when the great George brought forth 
this picture, where the Jew is seen biting his finger-nails and suffering 
the tortures of remorse and chagrin, Horace Mayhew took an oppor- 
tunity of asking him by what mental process he had conceived such an 
extraordinary notion ; and his answer was, that he had been labouring 
at the subject for several days, but had not succeeded in getting the 
effect he desired. At length, beginning to think the task was almost 
hopeless, he was sitting up in bed one morning, with his hand 
covering his chin and the tips of his fingers between his lips, the 
whole attitude expressive of disappointment and despair, when he 
saw his face in a cheval-glass which stood on the flioor opposite 
to him. " That's it ! " he involuntarily exclaimed ; " that's just the 
expression I want I " and by this accidental process the picture was 
formed in his mind. Many years afterwards Cruikshank declared 
this statement to be absurd, and when interrogated by Mr. Austin 
Dobson, who met the artist at Mr. Frederick Locker's house in 1877, 
he said he had never been perplexed about the matter, but attributed 
the story to the fact that, not being satisfied whether the knuckles 
should be raised or depressed, he had made studies of his own hand 
in a glass, and illustrated his account by putting his hand to his 
mouth, looking, with his hooked nose, wonderfully like the character 



i6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

he was speaking of. Respecting another illustration in the story, 
where "The Jew and Morris Bolter begin to Understand each Other," 
Professor Ruskin observes that it is "the intensest rendering of 
vulgarity, absolute and utter," with which he is acquainted. 

The latter portion of " Oliver Twist " was written in anticipation 
of the magazine, in order that the complete story might be promptly 
launched in volume form. The illustrations for the final chapters 
had consequently to be produced simultaneously and with all possible 
speed, so that the artist had no time to submit his designs to Dickens. 
One of these plates, viz., " Rose Maylie and Oliver," depicted a scene 
in the new home of the Rev. Harry Maylie; he, his wife, and mother, 
are seated by the fire, while Oliver stands by Rose Maylie's side. 
When Dickens first saw this etching he so strongly disapproved of it 
that the plate was forthwith cancelled and another design substituted ; 
but, the book being then on the eve of publication, it was impossible 
to prevent a small number of impressions of this illustration being 
circulated, and copies of the work containing the scarce " Fireside " 
plate are therefore eagerly sought after by collectors. Dickens, in 
expressing to Cruikshank his disapprobation of this etching, un- 
doubtedly realised the delicacy of the situation, in the possibility of 
injuring the susceptibilities of the artist, as the following carefully- 
worded intimation testifies : — 

" I returned suddenly to town yesterday afternoon, to look at 
the latter pages of ' Oliver Twist ' before it was delivered to the 
booksellers, when I saw the majority of the plates in the last volume 
for the first time. 

" With reference to the last one — Rose Maylie and Oliver — without 
entering into the question of great haste, or any other cause, which 
may have led to its being what it is, I am quite sure there can be 
little difference of opinion between us with respect to the result. May 
I ask you whether you will object to designing this plate afresh, and 
doing so at once, in order that as few impressions as possible of the 
present one may go forth ? 



Plate IX 

"MR. CLAYPOLE AS HE APPEARED WHEN HIS 
MASTER WAS OUT" 

Facsimile of the Original Sketch for " OUver Twist " by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 

The Inscriptions are in the Autograph of the Artist. 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 17 

" I feel confident you know me too well to feel hurt by this 
enquiry, and, with equal confidence in you, I have lost no time in 
preferring it" 

It seems, however, that Cruikshank did not immediately proceed 
to carry out the author's wish, but endeavoured to improve the plate 
by retouching and adding further tints by means of stippling, &c. In 
the South Kensington Collection there is an early proof of the etching 
in which the shadow tints are washed in with a brush, and the fact 
that these alterations were subsequently carried out is established by 
the existence of a unique impression of the plate in its second state. 
This proof was probably submitted to Dickens and again rejected, 
for no impressions having the stippled additions are known to have 
been published. The substituted design, bearing the same title as 
the suppressed one, does not much excel it in point of interest, as 
the artist himself readily admitted ; it represents Rose Maylie and 
Oliver standing in front of the tablet put up in the church to 
the memory of Oliver's mother, this etching appearing in Bentlefs 
Miscellany and in all but the earliest copies of the book. The 
substituted plate (like many others in the volume) was afterwards 
considerably "touched up," for it will be noticed that in the earlier 
impressions Rose's dress is light in tone, while subsequently it was 
changed to black. 

A very circumstantial story relative to Cruikshank's connection 
with "Oliver Twist" was published in a Transatlantic journal 
called T/u Round Table, and reprinted immediately after Dickens's 
death in a biography of the novelist by Dr. Shelton Mackenzie, 
who avers that he had been informed that Dickens intended to 
locate Oliver in Kent, and to introduce hop-picking and other pic- 
turesque features of the county he knew so well : that the author 
changed his purpose, and brought the boy to London : and further, 
that for such important alterations in the plot Cruikshank was 
responsible. But the more remarkable portion of this narrative 
is Dr. Mackenzie's account of his visit to Cruikshank in 1847, 



i8 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

at the artist's house in Myddleton Terrace, Pentonville, concerning 

which he writes : — 

" I had to wait while he was finishing an etching, for which a 
printer's boy was waiting. To while away the time, I gladly complied 
with his suggestion that I should look over a portfolio crowded with 
etchings, proofs, and drawings, which lay upon the sofa. Among 
these, carelessly tied together in a wrap of brown paper, was a series 
of some twenty-five to thirty drawings, very carefully finished, through 
most of which were carried the now well-known portraits of Fagin, Bill 
Sikes and his dog, Nancy, the Artful Dodger, and Master Charles 
Bates— all well known to the readers of ' Oliver Twist '—and many 
others who were not introduced. There was no mistake about it, and 
when Cruikshank turned round, his work finished, I said as much. 
He told me that it had long been in his mind to show the life of a 
London thief by a series of drawings, engraved by himself, in which, 
without a single line of letterpress, the story would be strikingly and 
clearly told. ' Dickens,' he continued, ' dropped in here one day just 
as you have done, and, while waiting until I could speak with him, 
took up that identical portfolio and ferreted out that bundle of 
drawings. When he came to that one which represents Fagin in 
the condemned cell, he silently studied it for half-an-hour, and told 
me that he was tempted to change the whole plot of his story ; not 
to carry Oliver Twist through adventures in the country, but to take 
him up into the thieves' den in London, show what their life was, and 
bring Oliver safely through it without sin or shame. I consented to 
let him write up to as many of the designs as he thought would suit 
his purpose ; and that was the way in which Fagin, Sikes, and Nancy 
were created. My drawings suggested them, rather than his strong 
individuality suggested my drawings." 

Forster naturally characterises this story as a deliberate untruth, 
related with "a minute conscientiousness and particularity of detail 
that might have raised the reputation of Sir Benjamin Backbite 
himself," and points out that the artist's version, as here narrated, is 






Plate X 

"OLIVER AMAZED AT THE DODGER'S MODE 
OF 'GOING TO WORK'" 



Facsimile of the First Sketch for the Etching by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



Til' 



;i//. 



TL,(>^ fUr^h 




X 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 19 

completely refuted by Dickens's letter to Cruikshank, which unques- 
tionably proves that the closing illustrations had not even been seen 
by the novelist until the book was ready for publication. Cruik- 
shank, on reading in the Times a criticism of Forster's biography, 
in which this charge against Dickens was commented upon, at once 
indited the following letter to that journal, where it appeared on 
December 30, 1871 :— 

" To the Editor of • The Times' 

" Sir, — As my name is mentioned in the second notice of Mr. John 
Forster's ' Life of Charles Dickens,' in your paper of the 26th inst, 
in connection with a statement made by an American gentleman (Dr. 
Shelton Mackenzie) respecting the origin of ' Oliver Twist,' I shall be 
obliged if you will allow me to give some explanation upon this subject. 
For some time past I have been preparing a work for publication, in 
which I intend to give an account of the origin of ' Oliver Twist,' and 
I now not only deeply regret the sudden and unexpected decease of 
Mr. Charles Dickens, but regret also that my proposed work was not 
published during his lifetime. I should not now have brought this 
matter forward, but as Dr. Mackenzie states that he got the information 
from me, and as Mr. Forster declares his statement to be a falsehood, 
to which, in fact, he would apply a word of three letters, I feel called 
upon, not only to defend the Doctor, but myself also from such a gross 
imputation. D^^j^Mackenzie^Joas confused some circumstances with 
respect to Mr. Dickens looking over some drawings and sketches 
in my studio, but there is no doubt whatever that I did tell this 
gentleman that I was the originator of the story of ' Oliver Twist,* 
as I have told very many others who may have spoken to me on 
the subject, and which facts I now beg permission to repeat in the 
columns of the Times, for the information of Mr. Forster and the 
public generzilly. 

" When Bentley's Miscellany was first started, it was arranged that 



20 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Mr. Charles Dickens should write a serial in it, and which was to be 
illustrated by me ; and in a conversation with him as to what the 
subject should be for the first serial, I suggested to Mr. Dickens that 
he should write the life of a London boy, and strongly advised him 
to do this, assuring him that I would furnish him with the subject 
and supply him with all the characters, which my large experience of 
London life would enable me to do. 

" My idea was to raise a boy from a most humble position up to a 
high and respectable one — in fact, to illustrate one of those cases of 
common occurrence, where men of humble origin, by natural ability, 
industry, honest and honourable conduct, raise themselves to first- 
class positions in Society. And as I wished particularly to bring the 
habits and manners of the thieves of London before the public (and 
this for a most important purpose, which I shall explain one of these 
days), I suggested that the poor boy should fall among thieves, but 
that his honesty and natural good disposition should enable him to 
pass through this ordeal without contamination ; and after I had fully 
described the full-grown thieves (the Bill Sykeses) and their female 
companions, also the young thieves (the Artful Dodgers) and the 
receivers of stolen goods, Mr. Dickens agreed to act on my sugges- 
tion, and the work was commenced, but we differed as to what sort 
of boy the hero should be. Mr. Dickens wanted rather a queer kind 
of chap, and, although this was contrary to my original idea, I com- 
plied with his request, feeling that it would not be right to dictate 
too much to the writer of the story, and then appeared ' Oliver 
Asking for More ; ' but it so happened just about this time that an 
inquiry was being made in the parish of St. James's, Westminster, 
as to the cause of the death of some of the workhouse children who 
had been 'farmed out,' and in which inquiry my late friend Joseph 
Pettigrew (surgeon to the Dukes of Kent and Sussex) came forward 
on the part of the poor children, and by his interference was mainly 
the cause of saving the lives of many of these poor little creatures. 
I called the attention of Mr. Dickens to this inquiry, and said that 



Plate XI 

STUDIES FOR 
BILL SIKES, NANCY, AND THE ARTFUL DODGER 

Facsimile of Original Sketches by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 

Lent hy Messrs. Roism &• Co. 



« 



fl3oao(j ; 




^->iS3 




^.■»* T* 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 21 

if he took up this matter, his doing so might help to save many a 
poor child from injury and death ; and I earnestly begged of him to 
let me make Oliver a nice pretty little boy, and if we so represented 
him, the public — and particularly the ladies — would be sure to take 
a greater interest in him, and the work would then be a certain 
success. Mr. Dickens agreed to that request, and I need not add 
here that my prophecy was fulfilled : and if any one will take the 
trouble to look at my representations of 'Oliver,' they will see that 
the appearance of the boy is altered after the two first illustrations, 
and, by a reference to the records of St. James's parish, and to the 
date of the publication of the Miscellany, they will see that both 
dates tally, and therefore support my statement. 

" I had, a long time previously to this, directed Mr. Dickens's 
attention to Field Lane, Holborn Hill, wherein resided many thieves 
and receivers of stolen goods, and it was suggested that one of these 
receivers, a Jew, should be introduced into the story ; and upon one 
occasion Mr. Dickens and Mr, Harrison Ainsworth called upon me 
at my house in Myddleton Terrace, Pentonville, and in course of 
conversation I then and there described and performed the character 
of one of these Jew receivers, whom I had long had my eye upon ; 
and this was the origin of ' Fagin.' 

" Some time after this, Mr. Ainsworth said to me one day, ' I 
was so much struck with your description of that Jew to Mr. Dickens, 
that I think you and I could do something together,' which notion 
of Mr. Ains worth's, as most people are aware, was afterwards carried 
out in various works. Long before ' Oliver Twist ' was ever thought 
of, I had, by permission of the city authorities, made a sketch of one 
of the condemned cells in Newgate prison ; and as I had a great 
object in letting the public see what sort of places these cells were, 
and how they were furnished, and also to show a wretched condemned 
criminal therein, I thought it desirable to introduce such a subject 
into this work ; but I had the greatest difficulty to get Mr. Dickens 
to allow me to carry out my wishes in this respect ; but I said I 



22 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

must have either what is called a Christian or what is called a Jew 
in a condemned cell, and therefore it must be 'Bill Sikes' or 
' Fagin ; ' at length he allowed me to exhibit the latter. 

" Without going further into particulars, I think it will be allowed 
from what I have stated that I am the originator of ' Oliver Twist,' 
and that all the principal characters are mine ; but I was much dis- 
appointed by Mr. Dickens not fully carrying out my first suggestion. 

"I must here mention that nearly all the designs were made 
from conversation and mutual suggestion upon each subject, and 
that I never saw any manuscript of Mr. Dickens until the work was 
, nearly finished, and the letter of Mr. Dickens which Mr. Forster 
mentions only refers to the last etching— done in great haste — no 
proper time being allowed, and of a subject without any interest ; 
in fact, there was not anything in the latter part of the manuscript 
that would suggest an illustration ; but to oblige Mr. Dickens I did 
my best to produce another etching, working hard day and night, 
but when done, what is it ? Why, merely a lady and a boy standing 
inside of a church looking at a stone wall ! 

/- " Mr. Dickens named all the characters in this work himself, but 
/ before he had commenced writing the story he told me that he had 
heard an omnibus conductor mention some one as Oliver Twist, 
which name, he said, he would give the boy, as he thought it would 
answer his purpose. I wanted the boy to have a very different name, 
I such as Frank Foundling or Frank Steadfast ; but I think the word 
\ Twist proves to a certain extent that the boy he was going to employ 
for his purpose was a very different sort of boy from the one intro- 
duced and recommended to him by, Sir, your obedient servant, 

George Cruikshank. 

" Hampstead Road, Decetnber 29, 1871." 

In 1872 Cruikshank issued a pamphlet entitled "The Artist and 
the Author, a Statement of Facts," where he positively asserted that 
not only was he the actual originator of "Oliver Twist," but also 



PI.ATK XII 

STUDIES FOR 
BILL SIKES IN THE CONDEMNED CELL 

Facnmilt of Original Sketches by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 23 

of many of Harrison Ainsworth's weird romances ; that these authors 
"wrote up to his suggestions and designs," just as Combe did with 
regard to " Dr. Syntax " and Rowlandson's previously-executed illus- 
trations. In another published letter, dated more than a year prior to 
that printed in the Times, the artist emphatically declared that the 
greater part of the second volume of " Sketches by Boz " was written 
from his hints and suggestions, and he significantly added, " I am pre- 
paring to publish an explanation of the reason why I did not illustrate 
the whole of Mr. Dickens's writings, and this explanation will not at 
all redound to his credit." Indeed, so thoroughly was he imbued with 
this conviction, that on April 20, 1874, in responding to a vote of 
thanks accorded him by the Mayor of Manchester for an address on 
Intemperance, he reiterated his statement relative to the origin of 
"Oliver Twist." The Mayor having referred to the artist's designs 
in Dickens's novels, Cruikshank intimated that the only work of the 
novelist he had illustrated was "Sketches by Boz"; his worship re- 
marked, "You forget 'Oliver Twist,'" whereupon Cruikshank replied, 
"That came out of my own brain. I wanted Dickens to write me a 
work, but he did not do it in the way I wished. I assure you I went 
and made a sketch of the condemned cell maiay years before that work 
was published. I wanted a scene a few hours before strangulation, 
and Dickens said he did not like it, and I said he must have a Jew 
or a Christian in the cell. Dickens said, ' Do as you like,' and I put 
Fcigin, the Jew, into the cell. Dickens behaved in an extraordinary 
way to me, and I believe it had a little effect on his mind. He was 
a most powerful opponent to Teetotalism, and he described us as 
'old hogs.' "^ 

Unfortunately for Cruikshank's claim to the origin of "Oliver 
Twist," he cdlowed more than thirty years to elapse before making it 
public When questioned on this point he would say that ever since 

' This is, doubtless, a reference to an article by Dickens entitled "Whole Hogs," which 
appeared in Household Words, ^nga&X. 23, 1851, protesting against the extreme views of the 
Temperance party. 



ik 



24 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

these works were published, and even when they were in progress, he 
had in private society, when conversing upon such matters, always 
explained that the original ideas and characters of these works. eman- 
ated from him ! Mr, Harrison Ainsworth has recorded that Dickens 
was so worried by Cruikshank putting forward suggestions that he 
resolved to send him only printed proofs for illustration. In a 
letter to Forster (January 1838) the novelist wrote, alluding to the 
severity of his labours : " I have not done the ' Young Gentleman,' 
nor written the preface to ' Grimaldi,' nor thought of ' Oliver Twist,' or 
even supplied a subject for the plate,'' the latter intimation sufficiently 
indicating that Dickens was more directly concerned in the selection of 
suitable themes for illustration than Cruikshank would have us believe. 
The author of "Sketches by Boz" abundantly testified in those 
remarkable papers that his eyes, like Cruikshank's, had penetrated 
the mysteries of London ; indeed, we find in the "Sketches" all the 
material for the story of poor Oliver, where it is more artistically and 
dramatically treated. It is not improbable, of course, that from Cruik- 
shank's familiarity with life in the Great City he was enabled to offer 
useful hints to the young writer, and even perhaps to make suggestions 
respecting particular characters ; but this constitutes a very unim- 
portant share in the production of a literary work. To what extent 
the interchange between artist and author was carried can never be 
satisfactorily determined ; but of this there can be no doubt, that 
Cruikshank's habit of exaggeration, combined with his eagerness in 
over-estimating the effect of his work, led him (as Mr. Blanchard 
Jerrold remarks) "into injudicious statements or over-statements," 
which were sometimes provocative of much unpleasant controversy. 
It is, however, no exaggeration to say that the pencil of George 
Cruikshank was as admirable in its power of delineating char- 
acter as was the mighty pen of Charles Dickens, and that in the 
success and popularity of " Oliver Twist" they may claim an equal 
share. 



ti 



Plate XIII 

"FAGIN IN THE CONDEMNED CELL 

Facsimilt of a Trial Sketch by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 25 

Certain humorous pieces written by Dickens for Richard Bentley 
Minor ^^""^ ^'^° illustrated by Cruikshank. The first paper, 

Writings entitled " Public Life of Mr. Tulrumble, once Mayor 
In "Bent' of Mudfog" (published in January 1837), contains an 
ley's Mis- etching of Ned * Twigger in the kitchen of Mudfog 
cellany. j^j^j]^ ^^j^j ^^^ j^^j^^ contribution, purporting to be a 

" Full Report of the Second Meeting of the Mudfog Association 
for the Advancement of Everything" (September, 1838) is em- 
bellished with a very ludicrous illustration, entitled " Automaton Police 
Office and Real Offenders, from the model exhibited before Section 
B of the Mudfog Association." This design depicts the interior 
of a police-court in which all the officials are automatic — an in- 
genious rendering of the idea propounded by Mr. Coppernose to 
the President and members of the Association. To the second paper 
the artist also supplied a woodcut portrait of " The Tyrant Sowster," 
of whom he made no less than six studies before he succeeded in 
producing a satisfactory presentment of Mudfog's "active and intelli- 
gent " beadle. 

In his juvenile days Dickens wrote a farce entitled " The Lamp- 
lighter," which, owing to its non-acceptance by the theatrical manage- 
ment for whom it Wcis composed, he converted into an amusing tale 
called "The Lamplighter's Story." This constituted his share in 
a collection of light essays and other papers gratuitously supplied 
by well-known authors, and issued in volume form under the title 
of "The Pic Nic Papers," for the benefit of the widow of Macrone, 
Dickens's first publisher. The work, edited by Dickens, was 
launched by Henry Colborn in 1 841, in three volumes, with fourteen 
illustrations by Cruikshank, " Phiz," and other artists. The first 
volume opened with " The Lamplighter's Story," for which Cruik- 
shank provided an etching entitled "The Philosopher's Stone," the 
subject represented being the unexpected explosion of Tom Grig's 

' In the original title on the plate, Ned Twigger's Christian name is incorrectly given 
as Tom. 



26 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

crucible. This was the last illustration executed by the artist for 
Dickens's writings,^ and it may be added that some impressions of 
the plate were issued in proof state "before letters," but these are 
exceedingly rare. Although for many years afterwards they con- 
tinued fast friends, it may be (as Mr. Graham Everitt conjectures) 
that Cruikshank found it impossible to co-operate any longer with 
so exacting an employer of artistic labour as Charles Dickens, who 
remonstrated, with some show of reason, that he was the best 
judge of what he required pictorially, — an argument, however, which 
did not suit the independent spirit of the artist. Of his genius 
Dickens was ever a warm admirer, and remarking upon the ex- 
clusion of so able a draughtsman from the honours of the Royal 
Academy, because, forsooth! his works were not produced in cer- 
tain mediums, the novelist pertinently asks : " Will no Associates be 
found upon its books one of these days, the labours of whose oil 
and brushes will have sunk into the profoundest obscurity, when 
many pencil-marks of Mr. Cruikshank and Mr. Leech will be still 
fresh in half the houses in the land ? " 

It will be remembered that George Cruikshank published a 
version of the Fairy Tales, converting them into stories somewhat 
resembling Temperance tracts. Dickens was greatly incensed, and, 
half-playfully and half-seriously, protested against such alterations 
of the beautiful little romances, this re-writing them "according 
to Total Abstinence, Peace Society, and Bloomer principles, and 
expressly for their propagation ; " in an article published in House- 
hold Words, October i, 1853, entitled "Frauds on the Fairies," 
the novelist enunciates his opinions on the subject, and gives 
the story of Cinderella as it might be "edited" by a gentleman 
with a " mission." This elicited a reply from Cruikshank (in a short- 
lived magazine bearing his name, and launched by him in 1854), 

1 Cruikshank designed the illustrations for the "Memoirs of Grimaldi," 1838, but this 
work was merely edited by Dickens, and therefore does not come within the scope of the 
present volume. 



Platk XIV 

FIRST IDEA AND SKETCH FOR 

"FAGIN IN THE CONDEMNED CELL" 

And Various Studies for Scbnes and Ciiaractbrs in 
"Olivrr Twist" 

Paciimile oi Original Drawings by 
GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 



VI X > 



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GEORGE CRUIKSHANK 27 

which took the form of " A Letter from Hop-o'-my-Thumb to Charles 
Dickens, Esq.," commencing with "Right Trusty, Well-Beloved, 
Much-Read, and Admired Sir," the artist contending that he was 
justified in altering "a common fairy-tale" when his sole object 
was to remove objectionable passages, and, in their stead, to inculcate 
moral principles. There is no doubt, however, that Dickens's rebuke 
seriously affected the sale of the Fairy Library. 

In 1847 Dickens instituted a series of theatrical entertainments 
for certain charitable objects, the distinguished artists and writers 
who formed the goodly company of amateur actors including George 
Cruikshank. On one occasion they made a tour in the provinces, 
giving performances at several important towns, and on the conclusion 
of this "splendid strolling" Dickens wrote an amusing little jeu 
cCesprti in the form of a history of the trip, adopting for the purpose 
the phraseology of Mrs. Gamp. It was to be a new "Piljian's 
Projiss," with illustrations by the artist-members ; but, for some 
reason, it was destined never to appear in the mamner intended by 
its projector. Forster has printed all that was ever written of the 
little jest, where we find a humorous description of Cruikshank in 
Mrs. Gamp's vernacular : " I was drove about like a brute animal 
and almost worritted into fits, when a gentleman with a large shirt- 
collar and a hook nose, and a eye like one of Mr. Sweedlepipe's 
hawks, and long locks of hair, and wiskers that I wouldn't have no 
lady as I was engaged to meet suddenly a turning round a corner, 
for any sum of money you could offer me, says, laughing, ' Halloa, 
Mrs. Gamp, what are you up to ? ' I didn't know him from a man 
(except by his clothes) ; but I says faintly, ' If you're a Christian 
man, show me where to get a second-cladge ticket for Manjester, 
and have me put in a carric^e, or I shall drop ! ' Which he kindly 
did, in a cheerful kind of a way, skipping about in the strangest 
manner as ever I see, making all kinds of actions, and looking and 
vinking at me from under the brim of his hat (which was a good 
deal turned up), to that extent, that I should have thought he meant 



28 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

something but for being so flurried as not to have no thoughts at 
all until I was put in a carriage. . . ." When Mrs. Gamp was 
informed, in a whisper, that the gentleman who assisted her into the 
carriage was "George," she replied, "What George, sir? I don't 
know no George." "The great George, ma'am — the Crookshanks," 
was the explanation. Whereupon Mrs. Gamp continues : " If you'll 
believe me, Mrs. Harris, I turns my head, and see the wery man 
a making picturs of me on his thumb-nail at the winder!" The 
artist took part in several plays under Dickens's management, but, 
cilthough it is not recorded that he created great sensation as an 
actor, it seems evident that his impersonations met with the 
approval of the novelist, who was a thorough martinet in Thespian 
matters. 
^ That George Cruikshank was by no means a prosperous man is 
perhaps explained by the fact that he never was highly remunerated 
for his work. "Time was," wrote Thackeray, "when for a picture 
with thirty heads in it he was paid three guineas — a poor week's 
pittance, truly, and a dire week's labour ! " The late Mr. Sala de- 
clared that for an illustrative etching on a plate, octavo size, George 
never received more than twenty-five pounds, and had been paid 
as low as ten,— that he had often drawn "a charming little vignette 
on wood" for a guinea. On February i, 1878, this remarkable 
designer and etcher — the most skilled book-illustrator ot his day — 
passed painlessly away at his house in Hampstead Road, having 
attained the ripe old age of eighty-five. His remains were interred 
at Kensal Green, but were ultimately removed to the crypt of St. 
Paul's Cathedral, where a bust by Adams perpetuates his memory. 



r 




<Ji U^^ ?7^0C£/T-^ 



fr 



I 



Plate XV 

ROBERT SEYMOUR 

From an Unpublished Drawing by 
TAYLOR 

Lent by Mr. A ugiistin Daly. 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 

Early Years— A Taste for High Art— Drawings on Wood for Figaro and Belts Ufe in London— 
Essays the Art of Etching— Designs for " Maxims and Hints for an Angler"— Proposes 
to Publish a Book of Humorous Sporting Subjects —A " Club of Cockney Sportsmen " — 
Charles Whitehead and Charles Dickens — The Inception of " The Pickwick Papers " 
—Seymour's Illustrations— The Artist Succumbs to Overwork— Suicide of Seymour— 
Dickens's Tribute— Seymour's Last Drawing for " Pickwick "—" The Dying Clown"— His 
Original Designs — Seymour's Conception of Mr. Pickwick — Letter from Dickens to the 
Artist— "First Ideas" and Unused Sketches— A Valuable Collection— Scarcity of Seymour's 
"Pickwick" Plates— Design for the Wrapper of the Monthly Parts— Mrs. Seymour's 
Account of the Origin of "The Pickwick Papers"— An Absurd Claim Refuted— "The 
Library of Fiction "— Seymoui^s Illustrations for " The Tuggses at Ramsgate." 

CONCERNING the artist who was primarily engaged in the 
illustration of "Pickwick," very little has been recorded, 
owing perhaps to the fact that his career, which terminated 
so tragically and so prematurely, was brief and uneventful. The 
following particulars of his life and labours, culled from various 
sources, will, I trust, enable the reader to appreciate Robert 
Seymour's true position respecting his connection with Charles 
Dickens's immortal work. 

Born "in or near London" in 1798, Robert Seymour indicated 
at a very early age a decided taste for drawing, whereupon his father, 
Henry Seymour, a Somerset gentleman, apprenticed him to a skilful 
/pa ttern-draughtsman named Vaughan, of Duke Street, Smithfieldj 
Although this occupation was most uncongenial to young Seymour, 
it caused him to adopt a neat style of drawing which ultimately 
proved of much utility. He aspired to a higher branch of Art than 

' In another account (written by a contemporary of the artist) it is stated that Seymour was 
the natural son of Vaughan himself, and that the child bore the name of the mother, under 
whose care he remained until his father acknowledged the paternity, when he took the boy 
into his workshop. 



30 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

that involved in the delineation of patterns for calico-printers ; but 
for a time he remained with Vaughan, pleasantly varying the mono- 
tony of his daily routine by producing miniature portraits of friends 
who consented to sit to him, receiving in return a modest though 
welcome remuneration. Still cherishing an inclination towards " High 
Art," he and a colleague named Work (significant patronymic !) 
deserted Vaughan, and, renting a room at the top of the old tower 
at Canonbury, they purchased a number of plaster-casts, lay-figures, 
&c., from which the two juvenile enthusiasts began to study with 
great assiduity. In Seymour's case tangible results were speedily 
forthcoming, for he presently painted a picture of unusually large 
dimensions, quaintly described by his fellow-student as containing 
representations of "the Giant of the Brocken, the Skeleton Hunt, 
the Casting of Bullets, and a full meal of all the German horrors 
eagerly swallowed by the public of that day." This remarkable 
canvas was, it seems, a really creditable work, and found a place on 
the walls of a gallery in Baker Street Baazar. Seymour, like many 
other ambitious young artists possessing more talent than pence, 
quickly realised the sad fact that, though the pursuit was in itself a 
very agreeable one, it meant penury to the painter unless he owned 
a private fortune or commanded the purse-strings of rich patrons. 
The artist's widow afterwards declared that he invariably sold his 
pictures direct from the easel ; but there is no doubt that with him 
"High Art" proved a financial failure, and he reluctantly turned his 
attention to the more lucrative (if less attractiveXoCCUpatioTTofdesigning 
on wood, for which he was peculiarly fitted by his previous practice 
in clean, precise draughtsmanship during that probationary period 
in Vaughan's workshop! 

Seymour was endowed by Nature with a keen sense of the 
ludicrous, and this, aided by a knowledge of drawing, enabled him 
to execute designs of so humorous a character that his productions 
were immediately welcomed by the proprietors of such publications 
as Figaro and Belts Life in London, to which were thus given a 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 31 

vitality and a popularity they did not previously possess. Although 
at first the recompense was but scanty, hardly sufficient, indeed, to 
procure the necessaries of life, yet Robert Seymour felt it was the 
beginning of what might eventually resolve itself into a fairly re- 
munerative vocation. His talent speedily brought him profitable 
commissions for more serious publications, while his pencil was 
simultaneously employed in sketching and drawing amusing incidents, 
especially such as related to 'fishing and shooting, — forms of sport 
which constituted his favourite recreation.! Living at this time in 
the then rural suburb of Islington, he had many opportunities of 
observing the methods of Cockney sportsmen, who were wont to 
wander thither on Sundays and holidays, and whose inexperience 
with rod and gun gave rise to many absurdities and comic fiascos, 
thus affording the young artist abundant material for humorous 
designs. 

Until 1827, Seymour confined his labours to drawing for the 
wood-engravers. [He now essayed the art of etching upon plates 
of steel or copper, simulating the style and manner of George Cruik- 
shank ; he even ventured to affix the nom cU plume of " Shortshanks " 
to his early caricatures, until he received a remonstrance from 
the famous George himselfj Having attained some proficiency in 
both etching and lithography, he determined to make practical 
use of his experience, and in 1833 designed a /series of twelve 
lithographic platesi for a new edition of a work entitled " Maxims 
and Hints for an Angler," in which the humours of the pisca- 
torial art were excellently rendered ; he also executed a number 
of similar designs portraying, with laughable effect, the adventures 
and misadventures of the very "counter-jumpers" whose ways 
and habits came under his keen, observant eye. These amusing 
pictures, drawn on stone with pen-and-ink, and published as a 
collection of " Sketches by Seymour," achieved an immense popu- 
larity, and were chiefly the means of rendering his name generally 
familiar. 



32 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Seymour was very fond of horticultural pursuits, and took great 
pains in cultivating his own garden ; but the result of his efforts in 
this direction proved disappointing, and when dilating upon his want of 
success, it was suggested that the misfortunes of an cimateur gardener 
might be made the subject of some entertaining drawings. After 
pondering over this idea, and mindful of the fact that he still possessed 
a number of unpublished sketches reflecting upon the abilities of 
amateur sportsmen, he resolved upon reproducing some of a sporting 
character. His original notion was to bring out a work similar in 
plan to that of " The Heiress," a pictorial novel which he illustrated 
in 1830, and he first proposed the subject to the printseller McLean 
in 1835, and then to Spooner, the well-known publisher. The latter 
highly approved the project, and in discussing it they concluded it 
would be desirable to supplement the pictures with suitable letter- 
press. The undertaking was so far advanced that Seymour etched 
four plates, but, owing to unforeseen delays on the part of Spooner, 
the matter was held in abeyance for about three months, by which 
time Seymour determined to issue the work on his own responsibility, 
and to endeavour to get H. Mayhew or Moncrieff to write for it. 

When, in February 1836, Edward Chapman (of Chapman & Hall) 
Thg called upon him with reference to a drawing which the 

Pickwick firm had commissioned him to undertake, the artist 
Papers, mentioned the scheme of a work to be illustrated by 
1836-37. j^in,^ having, as a central idea, a "Club of Cockney 
Sportsmen." [Chapman thought favourably of the notion, and pro- 
posed that it should be brought out in two half-guinea volumes ; 
but Seymour, desiring the widest circulation, insisted on the plan 
he originally conceived, that ol shilling monthly numbersT] Then 
came the question. Who should prepare the requisite text? Leigh 
Hunt, Theodore Hook, and other prominent writers of the day 
declined to undertake it, and shortly afterwards Seymour, having just 
been reading " Sketches by Boz," the humour and originality of which 



Plate XVI 

"MR. PICKWICK ADDRESSES THE CLUB" 

Facsimile of the Original Drawing for "The Pickwick Papers" by 
R. SEYMOUR 

Lent iy Mr, Ayguslin Daly. 






lit 




" 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 33 

highly delighted him, proposed that Dickens should be asked to 
contribute the letterpress. 

Mr. Mackenzie Bell has given (in the Alkenaum, June 11, 
1887) a slightly different version of this part of the narration, and 
states that Charles Whitehead, an early friend of Dickens, "used 
constantly to affirm that he had been asked to write to Seymour's 
sketches, and that, feeling uncertain of being able to supply the 
copy with sufficient regularity, he [not Seymour] recommended 
Dickens for the task. This appears very likely to have been the 
case," adds Mr, Bell, "as at that time Whitehead, who was eight 
years older than Dickens, was already known as a facile and fecund 
writer, his coarse yet powerful romance of ' Jack Ketch ' having been 
very popular for some time. It is even possible that ' The Pickwick 
• Papers' may have been suggested to Dickens by a passage in the 
preface of 'Jack Ketch,' where a humorous allusion is made to the 
possibility of the author producing his more mature experiences under 
the unambitious title of ' The Ketch Papers,' a work which never 
appeared." It may be mentioned that Dickens had just sent in his 
MS. of "The Tuggses at Ramsgate" for "The Library of Fiction," 
edited by Whitehead, who was already familiar with the budding 
novelist's ability as an author. This carries us to the point whence 
Dickens takes up the thread of the story, as printed in the preface to 
the first cheap edition of " Pickwick " (1847), where he writes : — 

" I was a young man of three-and-twenty when the present 
publishers [Chapman & Hall], attracted by some pieces I was at 
that time writing in the Morning Chronicle newspaper (of which one 
series had lately been collected and published in two volumes, illus- 
trated by my esteemed friend George Cruikshank), waited upon 
me to propose a something that should be published in shilling 
numbers. . . . The idea propounded to me was that the monthly 
something should be a vehicle for certain plates to be executed by 
Mr. Seymour, and there was a notion, either on the part of that 
admirable humorous artist or of my visitor (I forget which), that a 



34 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

'Nimrod Club,' the members of which were to go out shooting, 
fishing, and so forth, and getting themselves into difficulties through 
their want of dexterity, would be the best means of introducing these. 
I objected, on consideration, that although born and partly bred in 
the country, I was no great sportsman, except in regard of all kinds 
of locomotion ; that the idea was not novel, and had been already 
much used ; that it would be infinitely better for the plates to arise 
naturally out of the text ; and that I should like to take my own way, 
with freer range of English scenes and people, and was afraid I should 
ultimately do so in any case, whatever course I might prescribe to 
myself at starting. My views being deferred to, I thought of Mr. 
_Pickwick, and wrote the first number, from the proof-sheets of which 
\Mr^ Seymour made his drawing of the Club, and that happy portrait 
of its founder, by which he is always recognised, and which may be 
said to have made him a reality. I connected Mr. Pickwick with a ' 
club because of the original suggestion, and I put in Mr. Winkle I 
expressly for the use of Mr, Seymour." 

The first monthly part of " The Pickwick Papers " appeared early 
in April 1 836, consisting of twenty-six pages of text and four etchings 
by Seymour. Judging from a letter written by Dickens at the time 
the scheme was first proposed, it seems that the illustrations were 
to have been engraved on wood. The artist was then excessively 
busy, for besides pledging himself to produce four plates for each 
monthly issue of " Pickwick," he had numerous other engagements 
to fulfil, so great was the demand for his designs. Although a rapid 
executant, the commissions he received from publishers accumulated 
to such an extent, that the excessive strain resulting from overwork 
at starvation prices began seriously to affect his health. Not only 
did the monthly supply of the " Pickwick " plates constitute an 
additional demand upon his mental resources, but he was harassed 
by the uncertainty of receiving from the printer the proofs from which 
he deduced his subjects, these sometimes being delayed so that very 
little time was allowed for the preparation of the plates. Unhappily 



♦I 



Plate XVII 

"THE PUGNACIOUS CABMAN" 

Facsimile of the Original Drawing for " The Pickwick Papers" by 
R SEYMOUR 

Lent by Mr. AuguiHn Daly. 



4 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 35 

his brain was unable to bear such pressure ; constant business worries 
and anxieties induced symptoms of insanity, and before he had com- 
pleted the second quartette of etchings for "Pickwick," the unfortunate 
artist committed suicide. This deplorable act took place on April 20, 
1836, in a summer-house in the garden at the back of his residence 
in Liverpool Road, Islington, where, by the aid of a string attached to 
the trigger of a fowling-piece, he deliberately sent the charge through 
his head. 

Seymour, we are assured, had not the slightest pecuniary embar- 
rassment ; he was quite happy, too, in his domestic affairs, extremely 
fond of his family, and naturally of a very cheerful disposition. His 
melancholy fate caused a general feeling of regret among the public, 
with whom he was a great favourite, and to whom he was then 
better known than Dickens himsell. In the second number of 
" Pickwick " appeared the following just tribute to the merits of the 
artist : " Some time must elapse before the void the deceased gentle- 
man has left in his profession can be filled up; the blank his death 
has occasioned in the Society, which his amiable nature won, and 
his talents adorned, we can hardly hope to see supplied. We do 
not allude to this distressing event, in the vain hope of adding, by 
any eulogium of ours, to the respect in which the late Mr. Seymour's 
memory is held by all who ever knew him." 

In the original announcement of "The Pickwick Papers" we 
read : " Seymour has devoted himself, heart and graver, to the task 
of illustrating the beauties of ' Pickwick.' [It was reserved to Gibbon 
to paint, in colours that will never fade, the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire — to Hume to chronicle the strife and turmoil of the 
two proud Houses that divided England against herself — to Napier 
to pen, in burning words, the History of the War in the Penin- 
sula ; — the deeds and actions of the gifted Pickwick yet remain foi; 
' Boz ' and Seymour to hand down to posterity." This projected 
collaboration, alas ! was speedily frustrated by the unexpected tragedy, 
for Seymour had produced but seven plates when he terminated his 



36 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

life, the following being the subjects of his designs in the order 
of their publication : 

First Number. 

" Mr. Pickwick Addresses the Club." 

"The Pugnacious Cabman." 

"The Sagacious Dog." 

"Dr. Slammer's Defiance of Jingle." 

Second Number. 

"The Dying Clown." 

"Mr. Pickwick in Chase of his Hat." 

"Mr. Winkle Soothes the Refractory Steed." 

The Address issued with the Second Part contains an apology 
for the appearance therein of only three plates instead of four, as 
promised. "When we state," says the author, "that they comprise 
Mr. Seymour's last efforts, and that on one of them, in particular, 
(the embellishment to the Stroller's Tale,) he was engaged up to a 
late hour of the night preceding his death, we feel confident that 
the excuse will be deemed a sufficient one." Dickens had seen the 
unhappy man only once, forty-eight hours before his death, on the 
occasion of his visit to Furnival's Inn with the etching just referred 
to, which, altered at Dickens's suggestion, he brought away again for 
the few further touches that occupied him to a late hour of the 
night before he destroyed himself* In an unpublished letter (dated 
April 3, 1866) addressed by the novelist to a correspondent who 
required certain particulars respecting " Pickwick," he thus referred 
to the artist: "Mr. Seymour shot himself before the second number 
of ' The Pickwick Papers "... was published. While he lay dead, 

> The artist's son asserts that the last plate Seymour etched for " Pickwick " (viz., " The Dying 
Clown ") was submitted to Dickens a fortnight (not forty-eight hours, as recorded by Forster) 
before his death. It seems that Seymour's final drawing was for a woodcut, executed for 
John Jackson, the engraver, to whom the artist delivered it on the evening of the fatal day, 
April 20, 1836. 




Plate XVIII 

^DR. SLAMMER'S DEFIANCE OF JINGLE" 

Fatsimile of the Original Drawing for " The Pickwick Papers " by 
A R. SEYMOUR 

^^^H- /^nt if Mr. Augustin Daly. 








I 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 37 

it was necessary that search should be made in his working room 
for the plates to the second number, the day for the publication of 
which was then drawing on. The plates were found unfinished, 
with their faces turned to the wall. It was Mr. Chapman who found 
them and brought them away." 

In 1887 Messrs. Chapman & Hall appropriately celebrated the 
Jubilee of "The Pickwick Papers" by publishing an Edition de luxe, 
with facsimiles of the original drawings made for the work, or, rather, 
of as many of these as were then available. In the editor's preface it 
is stated that four out of the seven drawings etched by Seymour for 
"Pickwick" had disappeared, but it afterwards transpired that two of 
the missing designs remained in the possession of the artist's family, 
until they were sold to a private purchaser, who, in 1889, disposed of 
them by auction. Of these drawings, therefore, only one, viz., " The 
Sagacious Dog," is undiscoverable. The album in which the missing 
designs were found also contained other original drawings for 
" Pickwick," as well as the Dickens letter to Seymour and an ex- 
cellent portrait of the artist; this important collection included the 
three published designs (viz., "Mr. Pickwick Addresses the Club," 
"The Pugnacious Cabman," and "Dr. Slammer's Defiance of Jingle," 
— the latter differing slightly from the etching), together with the 
first sketch for "The Dying Clown," and two unpublished draw- 
ings (evidently alternative subjects, illustrating incidents in the 
fifth chapter), respectively representing " The Runaway Chaise " 
and "The Pickwickians in Mr. Wardle's Kitchen." All these 
drawings, except that of "The Dying Clown," are outlined with 
pen-and-ink, and the eft'ects washed in with a brownish tint. Perhaps 
the most astonishing circumstance in connection with this collection 
is the extravagant sum it realised in the auction-room, for, as might 
be anticipated, many were anxious to secure so valuable a memento. 
The bidding was brisk until J^.ioo was reached, when competition 
was confined to the representative of Mr. Augustin Daly (of New 
York) and another whose name is unrecorded, the result being 



38 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

that the prize fell to Mr. Daly for ;^500 — probably a record figure 
for such an item. No one experienced greater surprise at this 
enormous price than the purchaser himself, who assures me that, 
although he imposed no limit, it was never his intention to offer so 
fabulous an amount ; indeed, the sum he had in his mind was not 
so much as a quarter of that at which this attractive album eventually 
fell to the hammer. Owing to the generosity of Mr. Daly, I am 
enabled to reproduce in facsimile the whole of these extremely 
interesting designs, which he brought to England expressly for 
this purpose. 

LSeymour's method of work was to sketch with pencil or pen the 
outline of his subject, and add the shadow effects by means of 
light washes of a greyish tint. A precision and neatness of touch 
characterise these "Pickwick" drawings, the most interesting of 
which is undoubtedly that representing Mr. Pickwick addressing the 
Club, a scene such as Seymour may have actually witnessed in 
the parlour of almost any respectable public-house in his own neigh- 
bourhood of Islington.^! Here we have the first delineation of the 
immortal founder of "the famous Club, "that happy portrait," as 
Dickens said of it, "by which he is always recognised, and which 
may be said to have made him a reality." Seymour originally 
sketched this figure as a long thin man, the familiar presentment 
of him as a rotund personage having been subsequently inspired 
by Edward Chapman's description of a friend of his at Richmond 
named John Foster, "a fat old beau, who would wear, in spite 
of the ladies' protests, drab tights and black gaiters." It is curious, 
however, that in " The Heiress," illustrated by Seymour six years 
previously, we find in the second plate a character bearing a strik- 
ing resemblance to Mr. Pickwick, and in "Maxims and Hints 
for an Angler" (1833), the artist similarly portrayed an old gentle- 
man marvellously like him, both as regards physique and benignity 
of expression ; indeed, this seems to have been a favourite 
type with Seymour, and thus it would appear that, in making 



Plate XIX 

FIRST STUDY FOR 
"THE DYING CLOWN" 

Faetimilt of the Original Drawing for " The Pickwick Papers " by 
R. SEYMOUR 

tint by Mr. AugusHn Dafy. 



XJX -n /..''! 



" /. 7/ o .i w» i-j /. ; x.i. . 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 39 

Dickens's hero short and comfortable, he only reverted to an earlier 
conception. 

The drawing which ranks second in point of interest is the artist's 
first idea for "The Dying Clown," illustrating "The Stroller's Tale." 
The original sketch is a slight outline study in pen-and-ink of the 
figures only, the facial expressions being cleverly rendered. In the 
Victoria edition of " The Pickwick Papers " a facsimile is given of a 
later and more developed version of the subject ; this differs from 
the published etching, the alterations being the result, doubtless, of the 
criticism bestowed upon the drawing in the following letter addressed 
by Dickens to the artist, — apparently the only written communication 
from him to Seymour which has been preserved : — 

"15 Furnival's Inn, 
" Thursday Evening, April 1836. 

" My dear Sir, — I had intended to write to you to say how 
much gratified I feel by the pains you have bestowed upon our 
mutual friend Mr. Pickwick, and how much the result of your 
labours has surpassed my expectations. I am happy to be able to 
congratulate you, the publishers, and myself on the success of the 
undertaking, which appears to have been most complete. 

" I have now another reason for troubling you. It is this. I 
am extremely anxious about 'The Stroller's Tale,' the more especially 
as many literary friends, on whose judgment I place great reliance, 
think it will create considerable sensation. I have seen your design 
for an etching to accompany it. I think it extremely good, but still 
it is not quite my idea ; and as I feel so very solicitous to have it 
as complete as possible, I shall feel personally obliged if you will 
make another drawing. It will give me great pleasure to see you, 
as well as the drawing, when it is completed. With this view I 
have asked Chapman and Hall to take a glass of g^og with me 
on Sunday evening (the only night I am disengaged), when I hope 
you will be able to look in. 



40 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

"The alteration I want I will endeavour to explain. I think 
the woman should be younger — the dismal man decidedly should, 
and he should be less miserable in appearance. To communicate 
an interest to the plate, his whole appearance should express more 
sympathy and solicitude; and while I represented the sick man as 
emaciated and dying, I would not make him too repulsive. The 
furniture of the room you have depicted admirably. I have ventured 
to make these suggestions, feeling assured that you will consider 
them in the spirit in which I submit them to your judgment. I shall 
be happy to hear from you that I may expect to see you on Sunday 
evening. — Dear Sir, very truly yours, Charles Dickens." 

In compliance with this wish, Seymour etched a new design for 
"The Stroller's Tale," which he conveyed to the author at the ap- 
pointed time, this being the only occasion on which he and Dickens 
ever met. Whether the novelist again manifested dissatisfaction, or 
whether some other cause of irritation arose, is not known, but it is 
said that Seymour returned home after the interview in a very dis- 
contented frame of mind ; he did nothing more for " Pickwick " from 
that time, and destroyed nearly all the correspondence relating to 
the subject It has been stated that he received five pounds for 
each drawing, but it is positively asserted, on apparently trustworthy 
evidence, that the sum paid on account was only thirty-five shillings 
for each subject,* and that the artist never relinquished the entire 
right which he had in the designs. 

As in the case of "The Stroller's Tale," there are noticeable 
differences between the drawing and the etching of the last of 
Seymour's published designs, depicting Mr. Winkle and the Re- 
fractory Steed. In this plate it will be observed that, although the 
general composition is identical with that in the drawing, the 
positions of the horse's forelegs are reversed, and trees have been 
introduced on the left of the picture. 

» R. W. Buss, the successor of Seymour as illustrator of " Pickwick," records that ten 
shillings was the price accorded to the artist for each plate. 



Plate XX 

"THE RUNAWAY CHAISE" 

Facsimitt of an Unused Design for " The Pickwick Papers" bjr 
R. SEYMOUR 

This Drawing iliustrates nn incident in Ibe fifkh chapter. 

Ltnt by Mr. Au^stin Daly. 



w 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 41 

/ An examination of Seymour's etchings for " Pickwick " shows u. 
that, in the application of the dilute nitric acid to corrode the lines 
produced by the etching-point, the artist was greatly troubled, and, 
in order to save his designs and keep faith with the publishers and 
the public, he was probably compelled to apply for help in his need 
to one of the artist-engravers residing in his neighbourhood. It has 
been suggested that certain faults in his plates caused by defective 
" biting " were remedied by means of the engraving tool ; but, so 
far as I have been able to discover, there is no evidence of thisJ 
His plates possess the quality of pure etching; indeed, in that 
respect they are superior to those by " Phiz " in the same work. 
It should, however, be noted that there are extant very few copies 
of " Pickwick " containing impressions from Seymour's own plates ; 
perhaps in not more than one copy out of a hundred will they 
be found, and this scarcity is explained by the fact that when the 
plates suffered deterioration through printing, the artist's death 
prevented him from duplicating them, so that the subjects had 
to be copied and re-etched by " Phiz." Seymour reversed his 
designs upon the stee l plates, so that when printed they appear 
exactly as originally drawn. There is reason to infer, from an 
entry in the artist's memorandum-book, that the first four subjects 
were etched before he showed them to Dickens, and that they 
were afterwards re-etched and modified in some degree to suit the 
author's views. 

Besides these illustrations, Seymour is responsible for the design 
appearing on the green wrapper of the monthly parts, which was 
engraved on wood by John Jackson. A glance at this at once 
convinces us how strongly the "sporting" element was at first' 
intended to predominate, for here are displayed trophies of guns, 
fishing-rods, and other sporting implements ; at the top of the page 
is seen the veritable Winkle aiming at a sparrow, while below, seated 
on a chair in a punt, peacefully reposes Mr. Pickwick with his rod, 
watching for a "bite"; in the background of the picture may be 



42 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

recognised Putney Church, as well as the old wooden bridge which 
once spanned the Thames at this point. 

After the publication of " The Pickwick Papers " many veracious 
reports as to its origin were circulated. In some of these statements 
Dickens was entirely deprived of the credit of its inception, and partly 
to assert his claim, but principally because he believed his readers 
would be interested in the truth of the matter, he related the facts 
in the already-quoted Preface to the first cheap edition. About two 
years later he was considerably annoyed by the appearance of a 
pamphlet purporting to give "An Account of the Origin of the 
Pickwick Papers," the author of which was the "widow of the dis- 
tinguished artist who originated the work." Mrs. Seymour printed 
in her brochure a distorted version of Dickens's Preface, and at- 
tempted a reply thereto, by which she endeavoured to show the 
fallacy of his statements. The following extract from this privately- 
printed pamphlet sufficiently indicates the tenor of Mrs. Seymour's 
attempt to prove that the honour belonged exclusively to the artist : 
"Mr. Dickens edited a work called 'The Pickwick Papers,' which 
was originated solely by my husband in the summer of 1835, and 
but for a cold (which brought on a severe illness) which he caught 
on Lord Mayor's Day, on taking his children to view the procession 
from the Star Chamber, would have been written, as well as embel- 
lished, by himself; this cause alone prevented him from doing so, 
as the numerous periodicals he was constantly engaged upon had 
greatly accumulated during his illness."' Although such a claim, 
so seriously maintained, necessitated immediate refutation, Dickens 
allowed a considerable time to elapse before making a formal denial 
thereof With a view to future action, however, he wrote to Edward 
Chapman for his recollections of the primary events in the history 
of the work, and accordingly received from him the following reply, 

1 In 1889 Mrs. Seymour's own copy of this exceedingly scarce pamphlet (of which only 
three copies are known to exist) was purchased by Mr. Daly for ;£74 at Sotheby's. It contains 
a few slight corrections by Mrs. Seymour. 



Plate XXI 

THE PICKWICKIANS IN MR. WARDLE'S KITCHEN" 

Fttcsimilt of an Unused Design for " The Pickwick Papers " by 
R. SEYMOUR 

This Drawing illustrates an incident in the fifth chapter. 

Lent by Mr. Auguitin Daly. 






IZX aTXi4 



'A U O IL '/ i: e: M 







^'fT''yi)(^ 



4 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 43 

dated July 7, 1849: "In November [1835] we published a little 
book called * The Squib Annual," with plates by Seymour, and it was 
during my visit to him to see after them that he said he should like 
to do a series of Cockney sporting plates of a superior sort to those 
he had already published. I said I thought it might do if accom- 
panied by letterpress and published in monthly parts ; and this being 
agreed to, we wrote to the author of ' Three Courses and a Dessert ' 
(a Mr. Clarke). I proposed it ; but receiving no answer, the scheme 
dropped for some months, till Seymour said he wished us to decide, 
as another job had offered which would fully occupy his time. And 
it was on this we decided to ask you to do it. ... I am quite sure 
that from the beginning to the end nobody but yourself had anything 
whatsoever to do with it." 

Further publicity was bestowed upon the subject in a letter con- 
tributed to the Atkeneeum of March 24, 1866, by Seymour's son, 
who not only repeated the principal arguments adduced by the 
pamphlet, but promised further particulars in a subsequent communi- 
cation. Whereupon Dickens, rightly considering that the oppor- 
tunity had now arrived for emphatically repudiating the whole story, 
forwarded the following letter for publication in the ensuing number 
of the Atherueum : — 

"As the author of 'The Pickwick Papers' (and of one or two 
other books), I "send you a few facts, and no comments, having 
reference to a letter signed 'R. Seymour,' which in your editorial 
discretion you published last week. 

" Mr. Seymour the artist never originated, suggested, or in any 
way had to do with, save as illustrator of what I devised, an incident, 
a character (except the sporting tastes of Mr. Winkle), a name, a 
phrase, or a word, to be found in ' The Pickwick Papers.' 

" I never saw Mr. Seymour's handwriting, I believe, in my life. 

" I never even saw Mr. Seymour but once in my life, and that 
was within eight-and-forty hours of his untimely death. Two persons, 
both still living, were present on that short occasion. 



44 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

" Mr. Seymour died when only twenty-four [twenty-six] printed 
pages of ' The Pickwick Papers ' were published ; I think before the 
next three or four [afterwards corrected to "twenty-four"] were com- 
pletely written ; I am sure before one subsequent line of the book 
was invented." ' 

[Here follows the account of Mr. Hall's interview with the novelist, 
as given in the Preface of the 1 847 edition, and the letter thus con- 
tinues :] 

" In July 1849, some incoherent assertions made by the widow 
of Mr. Seymour, in the course of certain endeavours of hers to raise 
money, induced me to address a letter to Mr. Edward Chapman, 
then the only surviving business-partner in the original firm of 
Chapman & Hall, who first published ' The Pickwick Papers,' 
requesting him to inform me in writing whether the foregoing state- 
ment was correct." 

A few days later Dickens wrote to his eldest son a letter in 
which he says : — 

"There has been going on for years an attempt on the part of 
Seymour's widow to extort money from me by representing that he 
had some inexplicable and ill-used part in the invention of Pickwick ! ! ! 
I have disregarded it until now, except that I took the precaution 
some years ago to leave among my few papers Edward Chapman's 
testimony to the gross falsehood and absurdity of the idea. 

"But, last week, I wrote a letter to the Athetueum about it, in 
consequence of Seymour's son reviving the monstrosity. I stated in 
that letter that I had never so much as seen Seymour but once in 
my life, and that was some eight-and-forty hours before his death. 

" I stated also that two persons still living were present at the 
short interview. Those were your Uncle Frederick and your mother. 
I wish you would ask your mother to write to you, for my preserva- 

' The unpublished sketch by Seymour in Mr. Daly's collection, depicting the Pickwickians 
in Mr. Wardle's kitchen, illustrates a scene described on page 50, so that Dickens's memory 
was slightly at fault. 



ROBERT SEYMOUR 45 

tion among the aforesaid few papers, a note giving you her remem- 
brance of that evening— of Frederick's afterwards knocking at our 
door before we were up, to tell us that it was in the papers that 
Seymour had shot himself, and of his perfect knowledge that the 
poor little man and I looked upon each other for the first and last 
time that night in Furnival's Inn. 

" It seems a superfluous precaution, but I take it for the sake of 
our descendants long after you." * 

The " few papers " here alluded to were destroyed before the 
novelist's death, with the exception of Edward Chapman's confirma- 
tory letter. Needless to say, both Mrs. Charles Dickens and Frederick 
Dickens entirely corroborated the novelist's assertions respecting his 
own share and that of Seymour in the origin of " Pickwick." 

In concluding this account of a most unpleasant controversy, we 
may reasonably surmise that had not Seymour communicated his 
idea to Chapman, " Pickwick " would never have been written. The 
proposal for a book similar in character certainly emanated from 
the artist, and in this sense he was, of course, the originator of that 
work, while to him also belongs the honour of inventing, pictori- 
ally, the portraits of the Pickwickians. But it was '* Boz, glorious Boz," 
who vitalised the happy conception, by imparting thereto such prodi- 
gality of fun and so much individuality that " The Pickwick Papers " at 
once leaped into fame, and, as all the world knows, was received 
with acclamation by every section of the public. 

Coincident with the publication of the first monthly number of 
Yhc "The Pickwick Papers," there appeared the initial part 

Library of of ^ "^w serial called "The Library of Fiction," which, 
Fiction, under the editorship of Charles Whitehead, was launched 

1830. by the same publishers. Whitehead, whose name has 

already been mentioned in connection with " Pickwick," became 
acquainted with Dickens at the time the latter was writing 

* This letter was first published in the Introduction, by the late Mr. Charles Dickens the 
Younger, to Macmillan & Co.'s edition of "The Pickwick Papers," 1892. 



46 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

"Sketches by Boz," which he so much admired that he endea- 
voured to persuade the young author to contribute something 
of a similarly striking character to the projected " Library of 
Fiction." Dickens consented, and we find that his amusing 
little story, entitled "The Tuggses at Ramsgate," constitutes the 
opening paper. Several of the articles and tales in " The Library 
of Fiction " were illustrated, and it is interesting to note that 
Dickens's contribution to the first part was embellished with two 
designs by Robert Seymour, engraved on wood by Landells. It is 
generally considered that Seymour's woodcut illustrations are by far 
the best specimens of his talent, and the engravers of that day were 
exceedingly happy in reproducing the delicacy of touch and brilliancy 
of effect which distinguished the drawings made by him direct upon 
the blocks. 

Seymour's first design represents the Tuggs family and their friends, 
Mr. and Mrs. Captain Waters, on the sands by the seaside, and it is 
interesting to learn that the fat man seated on a chair in front is said 
to be a portrait of the artist, as he appeared during the latter part of 
his life. The second illustration, depicting the incident of the irate 
Captain Waters discovering Mr. Cymon Tuggs behind the curtain, 
also formed the subject of Geprge Cruikshank's etching for the little 
story when it was reprinted in the first edition of " Sketches by Boz," 
published about some three years later, and, in comparing the separate 
designs, we find that they are almost identical, except that the two 
prominent figures in the etching are in reverse of those in the woodcutj 




Plate XXII 

ROBERT W. BUSS 
From the Painting by Himself. 



Cina 1837. 



ROBERT W. BUSS 

Alteration in the Plan of Publishing " Pickwick "—The Difficulty Respecting a New Illustrator 
— Buss Elected to Succeed Seymour — Studies Art under G. Clint, A.R.A. — His Painting 
of "Christmas in the Olden Time"— His Ignorance of the Etcher's Art— Practises 
Drawing in Pen-and-ink— "The Pickwick Papers "—Buss's First Plate Approved by 
the Publishers — Failure of Subsequent Attempts— Expert Assistance Obtained— Plates 
Cancelled — Buss Dismissed — Substituted Designs by " Phiz" — "Pickwick" Drawings by 
Buss — His Unused Designs for "Pickwick" — His Illustrations for Marryat, Ainsworth, 
&c— Accurate Draughtsmanship — "The Library of Fiction" — Buss's Illustrations 
for "A Little Talk about Spring and the Sweeps" — His Paintings, Humorous and 
Historical— Some Dickens Pictures — Drawings of Scenes in "Dombey and Son"— An 
Unfinished Portrait of Dickens — Drawings on Wood for Charles Knight — Exclusion of 
the Artist Buss's Pictures from the Royal Academy — Endeavours to Obtain Pupils — 
Lectures on Art — His Wife and Daughter Establish a School for Girls — A Professor of 
Drawing and a Teacher of Science — Praiseworthy Industry — Death of the Artist. 

CHARLES DICKENS'S brother-in-law, the late Mr. Henry 
Burnett, was a frequent visitor at the home of the novelist 
during the " Pickwick " period, and years afterwards he 
vividly recalled the consternation, disappointment, and anxiety of 
the young writer on receipt of the melancholy news concerning the 
distressing fate of Robert Seymour, the first illustrator of " The 
Pickwick Papers." Dickens greatly admired the productions of that 
unfortunate artist, and, realising how successfully he had so far por- 
trayed the characters in the work, apprehended there would be 
much difficulty in discovering a draughtsman who could interpret 
him with equal felicity. Indeed, there was quite a dearth of suitable 
talent, the only artist then living capable of etching his own designs 
being George Cruikshank. Unfortunately, there was not much time 
for consideration, as the third number of " Pickwick " had to be 
provided for without delay. 

The crisis brought about by the unexpected death of Seymour 
compelled Chapman & Hall to promptly carry into effect a resolution 



48 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

they had formed of issuing future numbers of " The Pickwick Papers " 
on an improved plan, with a view to enhancing the attractiveness and 
popularity of the work. They determined that each succeeding number 
should consist of thirty-two pages of letterpress instead of twenty-four, 
and that there should be two illustrations in lieu of four — an arrange- 
ment which held good to the end. The difficulty respecting an illus- 
trator to succeed Seymour had now to be grappled with, whereupon 
the publishers called to their assistance the eminent wood-engraver, 
John Jackson, who advised them to approach Robert William Buss, 
as being the only artist of his acquaintance likely to prove the most 
suitable for the purpose. Chapman & Hall acted upon this sugges- 
tion, and Buss, after much persuasion and at great personal incon- 
venience, agreed to temporarily relinquish very important engagements 
in order to assist them in their dilemma. 

Robert William Buss is referred to in an address issued with the 
third part of " Pickwick" as "a gentleman already well known to the 
public as a very humorous and talented artist." He was born on 
August 29, 1804, in Bull-and- Mouth Street, St. Martin's-le-Grand, 
and in due coursqapprenticed to his father, an enameller and engraver 
on gold and silv er. \ Like Seymour, he was inoculated with the pre- 
vailing mania for " High Art," and this inclination becoming too strong 
to be thwarted, his indulgent father not only permitted the cancelling 
of his indentures, but even defrayed the cost of gear's study in Artj) 
placing him under his old friend George Clint, A.R.A. (a landscape 
painter, and subsequently the President of the Society of British 
Artists), whose son Alfred married the younger Buss's only sister. 
Having thus, at the age of twenty-one, gained some practical experi- 
ence in his adopted profession, Robert Buss thought himself competent 
to start life on his own account by painting portraits and subject- 
pictures. In this direction he met with fair success, but it was as a 
painter of humorous incidents that he first made his reputation, these 
finding eager purchasers among well-known collectors and connois- 
seurs. Among his earliest achievements was a painting representing 



Plate XXI II 

DESIGN FOR THE 

TITLE-PAGE 

OF "THE PICKWICK PAPERS' 

Facsimile of an Unpublished Drawing by 
R. W. BUSS 



-^Vt 



^0'^>.Ha>fo,j 



*nt 






X Mi 




(fiekHTC 



fry 



^ (. fi I - >- 



'..^' • . 



ROBERT W. BUSS 49 

" Christmas in the Olden Time," which he exhibited in the gallery of 
the Society of British Artists in 1838. This work, however, although 
warmly praised by the critics, proved a most unhappy venture, as the 
price realised by the artist for what represented the result of a year's 
labour hardly recouped him for the expenses incurred by its production.' 

It was doubtless this painting with which Buss was occupied when 
The ^^- ^^^^ i^^ Chapman & Hall) called upon him respect- 

Pickwick ing the illustrations for " Pickwick." " Taken quite by 
Papers, surprise," relates the artist, when recalling his association 

1836-37. ^ijh Dickens's famous work, ^I told him [Mr. Hall] I 
had never in the whole course of my life had an etching-needle in my 
hand, and that I was entirely ignorant of the process of etching, as 
far as practice was concerned. He assured me it was very easy to do, 
and that with my talent I was sure to succeed." After some hesitation, 
overcome by Mr. Hall's promise that consideration would be shown 
towards his want of experience. Buss yielded to the pressure thus put 
upon him, and consented to put aside his picture (although most 
anxious to complete it for exhibition at the jRoyal Academy), with a 
view to embarking upon his new undertaking., 

^n^reparing studies for his pictures, Buss had accustomed himself 
to the use of bold effects, obtained by means of chalk or black-lead 
pencils of various degrees of hardness, blackness, and breadth of pomtn 
He therefore deemed it necessary to undergo a course of training 
which would enable him to impart to his work that delicacy of touch 
so essential in the art of etching upon copper or steel, and devoted 
himself almost day and night (as there was really no time to lose) to 
(practice in drawing with pen-and-ink, — a fact (he observes) "of which 
Mr. Hall was utterly and entirely ignorant^^^^^^^''^ ^^ still extant 
a few of these experimental efforts (chiefly figures and faces copied 

' The picture afterwards changed hands for six or seven times the amount originally 
received by the painter. It eventually became the property of his daughter, the late Miss 
Frances Mary Buss, for many years the Head-mistress of the North London Collegiate School 
for Girls, in the Drawing-School of which institution this interesting canvas now hangs. 

D 



50 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

from line engravings), including a sheet containing a dozen sketches 
of heads — studies of characters in "Pickwick," apparently based upon 
Seymour's etchings — which testify not only to his energy, but also to 
his rapidly-acquired skill in the adoption of what was to him a novel 
medium. In these drawings, by the way, he used ordinary ink for 
the general design, diluting it for the delicate shades and distant 
objects, thus assimilating the effect of his pen-and-ink work with the 
variations resulting from the "biting-in" and "re-biting" of etchings. 

After labouring incessantly for a period of three weeks, the artist 
felt prepared to make his first attempt in etching, taking for his 
subject " Mr. Pickwick at the Review." Referring to this plate, he 
says : " Of course it was full of faults, inevitable to any one in the 
early stage of practice in etching. But it was shown to Messrs. 
Chapman & Hall, and approved by them, though not as one of 
the illustrations to be published.* All this occupied much time, which 
was every hour becoming more and more valuable, as the date of 
publication was close at hand. I had barely time to prepare my two 
subjects for the next number of ' Pickwick ' in pencil and submit them 
for approval to the publishers, who returned them, being much pleased 
with my efforts. pThe subjects I selected were the Fat Boy watching 
Mr. Tupman and Miss Wardle in the arbour, and the Cricket-Match." 
Buss now essayed to reproduce his designs upon the plates ; but 
the result proved disastrous, the too violent action of the improperly 
diluted acid tearing up the etching-ground, which also broke up 
under the needle, creating sad hav6aJ^_Dreading the possible conse- 
quences of delay, he placed his original drawings in the hands of anj 
expert engraver, to be copied on the plate and " bitten-in." "This 
work," remarks the artist, "he did very well indeed, but, as migh^ 
have been expected, had I had time for thought, the free touch 
an original was entirely wanting. The etching itself failed, but the 
* biting-in ' was admirably done. Time was up. The plates must be 

' This design has been reproduced by photo-lithography, impressions of which may occa- 
sionally be found in copies of " Pickwick." 



Plate XXIV 

"THE BREAK-DOWN" 

FatsimH* of an Unpublished Dniwing by 
R. W. BUSS 

lUustreting tui incident in the ninth chapter of " The Pickwick Papers." 






- ■*■ 






•>i>^..j 

f ^ 



,*ps 




i 



ROBERT W. BUSS 51 

placed at once in the printer's hands, and so (there being no help for 
it) the plates were printed, the numbers stitched and duly published. 
Thus my name appeared to designs of which not one touch of mine 
was on the plates." Had opportunities been given. Buss would have 
cancelled these plates, and prepared fresh ones of his own etching. 
The immediate effect of this fiasco was the termination of his con- 
nection with " The Pickwick Papers," the artist being actually engaged 
in preparing designs for the succeeding number when he received a 
note informing him that the work had been placed in other hands. 
Under the circumstances, it is not surprising that Buss felt this curt 
dismissal very keenly, for it must be remembered that he ventured 
upon the undertaking mainly to oblige the publishers, who, it appears, 
had promised him every consideration on account of his inexperience 
with the etching-needle. 

Forster disposes of the subject of Buss's association with " Pick- 
wick " in a very few words, merely observing that " there was at first 
a little difficulty in replacing Seymour, and for a single number 
Mr. Buss was interposed," thus intimating that the engagement was 
a temporary one. In commenting upon this, the artist's son, the 
Rev. Alfred J. Buss, expresses a belief that his father could not 
certainly have regarded it in this light. "Is it reasonable to suppose," 
he asks, in Notes and Queries, April 24, 1875, "that he would have 
consented to devote three weeks of his time, at the most valuable 
season to an artist, to the practice of an entirely new department 
of art, if it had been clearly stated that his engagement was of the 
transitory nature Mr. Forster would imply, and the more especially 
when we bear in mind that the price to be paid for the etchings was 
only fifteen shillings each?" It was Forster's scanty and misleading 
reference to Buss's engagement as illustrator of " Pickwick " which 
induced the artist to draw up for his children a concise and clear 
account of everything that transpired. 

It is not recorded whether Buss and Dickens became personally 
acquainted, nor, indeed, that they ever met We may therefore 



52 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

surmise that all business transactions were carried on through the 
publishers, who probably forwarded to the artist proofs of the letter- 
press in order that he might select therefrom the subjects for illustration. 
The third number of "Pickwick" contains the only two published 
etchings by Buss for that work, viz., "The Cricket- Match" and "The 
Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion only." These plates, the effect of 
which was poor and thin, contrasted unfavourably with the Seymour 
etchings immediately preceding them, and were therefore suppressed 
as speedily as possible, others by " Phiz " (Habldt K. Browne) being 
substituted before many copies had been issued.^ In one of the latter 
an entirely different design is given, — that is to say, instead of " The 
Cricket-Match," we have " Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the 
Influence of 'the Salmon,'" depicting an incident described in the 
succeeding chapter. 

The drawings by Buss for "Pickwick" have fortunately been 
preserved. Besides the original designs for the published etchings, 
there are still in existence several tentative sketches prepared by 
the artist in anticipation of future numbers, — those, indeed, upon 
which he was at work when he received his congi. Some of these 
sketches are vigorously limned with pen-and-ink outlines and the 
effects laid in with a brush, while others are rendered in pencil 
supplemented by washes of indian-ink. The following is a complete 
list of Buss's original drawings for " Pickwick " : — 

Mr. Pickwick at the Review.* — Unused design. — This subject was 
etched by the artist as a specimen of his work to be submitted 
to Chapman & Hall. Only two impressions are known to 
exist, while the plate itself was irretrievably injured through the 
surface being scratched with a piece of coarse emery paper. 

The Cricket-Match.* — Published design. 

' The two cancelled etchings by Buss have been copied on steel, but, being printed on 
India paper, are not likely to be mistaken for the original plates. Impressions of the Buss 
etchings are exceedingly scarce, only about seven hundred copies of the number containing them 
having been circulated. 

* Reproduced \r\ facsimile in the Victoria edition of " Pickwick," 1887. 



Plate XXV 

"A SOUVENIR OF DICKENS" 

From an Unfinished Painting by 
R. W. BUSS 



Si$e of Original Picluri, Lent by Iht Kcv. /•'. Fleetwood Buss. 

36 in. by ay i». 




ROBERT W. BUSS 53 

The Ckickzt-Match.— First sieicA, varying entirely from the etching. 
The wicket-keeper is seen behind the fat man, receiving the ball 
full in his face. 

The Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion only.' — Published design. 

The Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion only. — First sketch, varying 
from the etching. Tupman is represented on his knees by the 
side of Miss Wardle, who is holding a watering-pot, while the 
Fat Boy is seen behind, facing the spectator. 

The Fat Boy Awake on this Occasion only. — Second sketch, varying 
from the etching. Here Tupman is standing, with his left arm 
around Miss Wardle's waist, and the Fat Boy is in front, in 
much the same attitude as represented in the published design ; 
indeed, there are very slight differences between this sketch and 
the accepted drawing. 

Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the Influence of "the 
Salmon." ' — Unused design. 

The Break-down. — Unused design. Pickwick, in an attitude of 
despair, stands facing the spectator ; behind him Wardle is 
seen in the act of shaking his fist at the eloping party in the 
retreating chaise ; while a postboy on the left holds the head of 
one of the horses belonging to the vehicle which has come to grief. 

Mr. Winkle's First Shot. — Unused design. The central figure is 
Winkle, holding his gun ; close by stands Snodgrass in an atti- 
tude of fear, while Pickwick and Wardle are sheltering behind 
a tree. 

Study for the Title- Page. — Unused design. In this rough sketch 
Pickwick is the prominent personage, as he stands facing the 
spectator, with his right hand in the pocket of his smalls, and 
his left arm resting on what appears to be a mound of earth. 
Separately displayed upon the face of this mound are medal- 
lion portraits, in emblematical frames, of Pickwick, Snodgrass, 
Winkle, and Tupman, while above all is suspended a female 

* Reproduced m facsimile in the Victoria edition of " Pickwick," 1887. 



54 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

figure typical of Fame, blowing a miniature trumpet and holding 
a laurel wreath over the head of Pickwick. The letters forming 
the words "Pickwick Club" are made up of various articles 
suggestive of conviviality and sport — such as corkscrews, bottles, 
wine-glasses, pistol, stirrup, &c. 

These drawings sufficiently indicate that the artist possessed a 
decided power with the pencil, which he turned to good account 
shortly after the abrupt termination of his connection with " The 
Pickwick Papers." For example, in 1839 he successfully illustrated, 
by means of etching, Mrs. Trollope's diverting story, " The Widow 
Married," then appearing as a serial in the New Monthly Magazine, 
and among the more remarkable of his later efforts with the etching- 
needle are his designs for novels by Marryat, Ainsworth, and other 
well-known writers of the day, many of the plates being equal, in the 
matter of technique, to those by " Phiz," thus denoting that, had an 
opportunity been afforded him, he might have made his mark with 
" Pickwick." It may be said of Buss (as is asserted concerning 
Cruikshank) that his works, whether in colour or black-and-white, 
are regarded as affording authentic information respecting costumes 
and other accessories ; for he was exceedingly conscientious in matters 
of detail, preferring to incur infinite trouble to secure accuracy rather 
than rely upon his imagination. 

Like Seymour, Buss was associated with Dickens in connection 

The '^\'Ca. that ephemeral work, " The Library of Fiction." 

Library of Besides "The Tuggses at Ramsgate," the novelist 

Fiction, wrote for its pages a paper called " A Little Talk about 

1836. Spring and the Sweeps," containing an illustration 

drawn by Buss and engraved on wood by John Jackson, who, it will 

be remembered, introduced the artist to Chapman & Hall. This 

short tale was reprinted in the first complete edition of " Sketches by 

Boz," 1839, under the title of "The First of May," with an etching 



II 



Plate XXVI 

DOLLY VARDEN 

From an Original Water-colour Drawing by 
R. W. BUSS 

Lent by the Rev. A. J. Buss. 



II 




*•■ 



ROBERT W. BUSS 55 

by Cruikshank depicting an incident differing entirely from that which 
forms the subject of Buss's woodcut. , 

As a painter of humorous scenes and historical events, Buss gained 
considerable popularity. From 1826 to 1859 he contributed nearly 
every year subject-pictures and portraits to the Exhibitions of the 
Royal Academy, Suffolk Street Gallery, and British Institution, and 
among his numerous canvases (many of which have been engraved) 
may be mentioned: — Humorous — "The Biter Bit," "The March of 
Intellect," "The Monopolist," "An Unexpected Reception," "Solicit- 
ing a Vote," "Chairing the Member," "Mob Tyranny," "The Mock 
Mayor of Newcastle-under-Lyme." Historical — "The Introduction 
of Tobacco by Sir Walter Raleigh," "James Watt's First Experience 
with Steam," " Hogarth at School," " Chantrey's First Essay in 
Modelling," "Nelson's First Victory over the French Fleet" The 
artist was also occasionally inspired by Shakespeare and Dickens, 
and it is specially interesting to note that he painted at least three 
pictures of scenes in the novelist's works, viz., " Joe Willet Taking 
Leave of Dolly Varden" (from " Barnaby Rudge"), exhibited at 
the Royal Academy in 1844, and now in a South Australian public 
picture-gallery; "The Cricket's Chirp" (Peerybingle, Dot, and Tilly 
Slowboy, from "The Cricket on the Hearth," Chirp the First), ex- 
hibited at Suffolk Street, 1846; and a representation of Trotty Veck 
peeping into the basket containing his dinner of tripe which his 
daughter brings him. In an album of studies and notes for his 
pictures (arranged by the artist for preservation as an heirloom) may 
be found several sketches for the first-named subject, and in addition 
to these are two small water-colour drawings, oval in form, of scenes 
in " Dombey and Son," representing " Mr. Dombey more Magnificent 
than Usual," and "Captain Cuttle visited by Florence Dombey," the 
latter being especially well rendered. Whether these have ever been 
engraved I am unable to say, but the probability is they have not. 
Curiously enough, the last picture on Buss's easel purported to repre- 



56 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

sent "A Dream of Dickens." This unfinished canvas (still in the 
possession of a member of the artist's family) contains a portrait 
of the novelist seated in his study, with visions of scenes from his 
various works around him. The portrait is adapted from the well- 
known photograph by Watkins, while the incidents depicted are taken 
from the original illustrations. 

Although Buss's large picture of " Christmas in the Olden Time " 
proved, for the artist, a financial failure, it benefited him in being the 
means of introducing him to Charles Knight (perhaps the most enter- 
prising publisher of that day), who, recognising in the young painter 
a diligent student of manners and customs, engaged his services on 
the Pictorial Edition of Shakespeare's Works, "Old England," the 
Penny Magazine, and Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," all of which 
were issued under Knight's auspices. The Rev. A. J. Buss well 
remembers his father making these drawings on wood blocks, 
which were engraved by Jackson, Sly, and others, and recalls that, 
some years after, he obtained a commission from Mr. Hogarth, a 
printseller, to execute some Christmas subjects for reproduction by 
line-engraving. 

After 1854 Buss's pictures were for some reason excluded from 
the Royal Academy Exhibitions, and this so seriously affected the 
sale of his work that he was ^compelled to have recourse to teaching 
drawing as a means of supplementing a precarious income. As early 
as 1843 he had issued circulars announcing a course of lessons in 
drawing on Dupin's method, having previously purchased many expen- 
sive models, and rented a room in Duke Street, Grosvenor Square ; 
but all in vain, for not a single pupil was forthcoming ! He then 
prepared a series of lectures on English Comic and Satiric Art, which 
he delivered in London and the chief provincial towns in England, 
these being illustrated by large diagrams. 

During the period of struggle for a livelihood, the artist's wife and 
daughter came nobly to his assistance by establishing, in 1850, the 
North London Collegiate School for Ladies (as it was then desig- 



Plate XXVI 1 

FLORENCE DOMBEY AND CAPTAIN CUTTLE 

From an Original Water-colour Drawing by 
R. W. BUSS 

Lent hy the Rev. A. J. Buss. 



P! 




ROBERT W. BUSS 57 

nated), which developed into the leading school in the cause of Female 
Education. In order to g^ve it a higher grade than other similar 
seminaries had then attained, Buss not only became its professor 
of drawing, but teacher of science too, first devoting himself to 
the study of Chemistry, Botany, Human Physiology, Mechanics, 
Hydraulics, &c., and he soon became qualified for his self-imposed 
responsibilities. His artistic capabilities here stood him in good 
stead, for they enabled him to prepare large diagrams with which to 
illustrate his lectures ; in addition to this, he made his own models for 
demonstrating the science of Mechanics — thus proving the power he 
possessed of adapting himself to circumstances, in the earnest desire 
to obtain a living and in his love for wife and children. " I do not 
think," observes the Rev. A. J. Buss, when corresponding with me on 
this subject, '* I ever knew a man so industrious as my father. I have 
a clear remembrance almost from my childhood of his industry, — 
early morning in his painting-room — up to late hours drawing on wood 
and etching. He deserved better fortune than he secured ; and I have 
only learnt to admire him the more, the more I think of his career." 

At the death of his wife, the artist led a very retired life, in a 
studio most picturesquely fitted up with ancient furniture, and here 
it was that he devoted the latter years of his life in preparing for 
publication his lectures on Art, being aided and encouraged in his 
congenial task by his affectionate daughter, the late Frances Mary 
Buss, who subsequently gained high distinction in connection with 
Education. This profusely-illustrated volume, printed for private 
circulation, was issued in 1874, and bore the following title: "English 
Graphic Satire, and its relation to Different Styles of Painting, 
Sculpture, and Engraving. A Contribution to the History of the 
English School of Art" 

Robert William Buss died at his residence in Camden Street, 
Camden Town, on February 26, 1875, •" his seventy-first year. 
The end came very quietly and painlessly to him who had fought the 
battle of life so honestly and so fearlessly. 



HABLOT K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

I 

An Illustrator required for " Pickwick " — Leech and Thackeray offer their Services — Thackeray's 
First Meeting with Dickens — "Mr. Pickwick's Lucky Escape" — Leech's Specimen Draw- 
ing— Hablot K. Browne ("Phii") Elected to Succeed Buss— His Etching of "John 
Gilpin's Ride" Awarded a Silver Medal— His Designs for "Sunday under Three 
Heads" and "The Library of Fiction"— Mr. J. G. Fennell's Reminiscences of the 
Artist — Thackeray's Congratulations to "Phiz" — A Modest Banquet — "Phiz" as an 
Etcher— Assisted by Robert Young— Their First Plate for " Pickwick "—An AU-Night 
Sitting — Particulars Concerning a "First Edition" of "Pickwick" — The Success of the 
Work Assured— The Sobriquet of "Phiz"— The Artist's Signatures— Method of Pre- 
paring the " Pickwick " Illustrations — Variations in Duplicated Plates — George Augustus 
Sala's Opinion of the "Pickwick" Plates— The Etchings Criticised— " Phiz's " Original 
Drawings for "Pickwick" — His Tentative Designs — Differences between the Drawings 
and the Etchings— Dickens's Hints to the Artist— " Phiz's " Sketch of Mr. Pickwick— A 
Series of New Designs — Vignettes for the Library Edition — Woodcuts for the Household 
Edition— Frontispiece for "The Strange Gentleman"— Illustrations for "Sketches 
OF Young Gentlemen" and "Sketches of Young Couples"— Sale of the Original 
Drawings— "Nicholas Nickleby"— Dickens and "Phiz" in Yorkshire— The Prototype 
of Squeers — A Significant Memorandum — Mr. Lloyd's Recollections of William Shaw, 
a Yorkshire Pedagogue — The " Nickleby " Etchings Criticised— Particulars Concerning 
the Plates — The Original Drawings — A Missing Design — Dickens's Instructions to 
"Phiz"- Variations in the Illustrations— Pictorial Wrapper — Vignettes for the Library 
Edition. 

IT is certainly extraordinary that within the space of a few weeks 
two vacancies for the post of illustrator of "Pickwick" should 
have occurred. It was about the beginning of June 1836 (the 
date of the publication of the third part, containing his two etchings) 
when Buss unexpectedly received the intimation that his services 
would be no longer required, and no sooner had this fact become 
known than there was quite a rush of aspiring artists eager to offer 
their professionsil aid, among them being several who had already 
made a reputation as draughtsmen — such as " Crowquill " (Alfred 

S8 



Platk XXVI II 

HABL6t K. BROWNE crHIZ") 

From an Unpublished Photograph 

Lent by Mr. Gordon Browiu, R.I. 

ROBERT YOUNG 

From a Photograph by 
W. GREEN 

Lent by Mr. R. Young. 






yt^. $w**^ - 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 59 

Forrester), Lee, and others. It is of special interest to learn that 
John Leech and William Makepeace Thackeray were also desirous 
of obtaining the appointment, but the honour was destined for another. 
Thackeray had practised etching for some years, having, while an 
undergraduate at Cambridge, taken lessons of an engraver and print- 
seller named Roe, who carried on his profession in the University 
town, and under that gentleman's superintendence he etched a series 
of plates illustrative of college life, which were first published in 
1878. Possessing a natural gift for drawing, the famous satirist (in 
his early days) earnestly desired to follow Art as a profession, and 
so far encouraged his bent by copying pictures in the Louvre ; but 
his studies seem to have been of a desultory character, and of little 
value in making him a sound draughtsman. When, on returning 
to London, he heard that a designer was required for the " Pickwick " 
illustrations, he immediately sought an interview with Dickens at 
his rooms in Furnival's Inn, taking with him some specimens of 
his work, and more than twenty years afterwards, in responding to 
the toast of " Literature " at the Royal Academy banquet, he thus 
referred to the memorable incident : "I can remember when Mr, 
Dickens was a very young man, and had commenced delighting 
the world with some charming humorous works, of which I cannot 
mention the name, but which were coloured light green and came 
out once a month, that this young man wanted an artist to illustrate 
his writings, and I recollect walking up to his chambers with two 
or three drawings in my hand, which, strange to say, he did not 
find suitable. But for that unfortunate blight which came over my 
artistical existence, it would have been my pride and my pleasure 
to have endeavoured one day to find a place on these walls for one 
of my performances." Although at the time he was doubtless sur- 
prised at, and sorely disappointed by, "Boz's" want of appreciation, 
he afterwards acknowledged there was some justification for it, and 
good-humouredly alluded to the rejection of his services as " Mr. 
Pickwick's lucky escape." Who can say whether " Vanity Fair " 



6o DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

and "Esmond" would ever have been written had this mighty pen- 
man been elected to succeed Buss ? * 

Thackeray's schoolfellow and life-long friend, John Leech, also sub- 
mitted a design to Chapman & Hall, in the hope of being successful 
where others had failed, but the little drawing, slightly tinted in colours, 
depicting the amusing scene in the Bagman's story of Tom Smart and 
the high-backed chair, did not indicate the possession by the artist of 
the necessary qualifications. He was accordingly dismissed ; but it 
was reserved for this amiable man and accomplished draughtsman not 
only to adorn with his pencil the pages of the "Carol" and other 
Christmas books of Charles Dickens, but to be afterwards honoured 
by the friendship and esteem of England's great novelist. 

As all the world knows, the privilege of illustrating Dickens's most 
popular work was secured by Habldt Knight Browne ("Phiz"), this 
clever designer being rightly regarded cis artistic exponent-in-chief of 
Dickens's creations. At this time he had barely attained his majority, 
and, unlike Cruikshank, who came to the pictorial embellishment of 
"Sketches by Boz " and "Oliver Twist" with a distinct reputation, 
was an almost untried artist. About his eighteenth year, while 
serving his' apprenticeship with the Findens, the well-known line- 
engravers, Browne was awarded a silver medal offered for com- 
petition by the Society of Arts for " the best representation of an 
historical subject " — a large etching^^portraying John Gilpin's famous 
ride through Edmonton, Apropos of this etching Mr. Mason 
Jackson writes in the Atlutueum, June ii, 1887: "Mr. Chapman 
(of Chapman & Hall) was delighted with 'John Gilpin's Ride,' and 
forthwith applied to Browne, who thus succeeded Seymour and Buss 
as the illustrator of ' Pickwick.' " After a careful comparison ot 

> According to the following anecdote, Thackeray did not over-estimate his own powers 
as a draughtsman. Mr. M. H. Spielmann tells us that after Edmund Yates had started an 
illustrated magazine, which had but a brief existence, Thackeray wrote to him : " You have 
a new artist on The Train, I see, my dear Yates. I have been looking at his work, and I 
have solved a problem. I find there is a man alive who draws worse than myself I " 



II 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 6i 

dates, I venture to point out the probability that it was not with 
a view to the illustration of " Pickwick " that Edward Chapman 
paid his first visit to Browne, as generally supposed, but for the 
purpose of engaging his services as designer of some woodcuts for 
a pamphlet which the firm was about to publish, entitled " Sunday 
under Three Heads — As it is ; As Sabbath Bells would make it ; 
As it might be made" This brochure, written by Dickens under 

the pseudonym of "Timothy Sparks," is prefaced by 

Sunday under ^ Dedication dated June 1836, and was therefore 

Q^ in progress prior to the publication of the fourth 

number of " Pickwick," containing " Phiz's " first 
designs, which appeared during the following month. When, in 
after years, Mr. Morton Brune enquired of the artist concerning his 
share in this little production, he replied : " The work of Dickens 
mentioned by you was illustrated by me when quite a youngster, and 
I am sorry to say I can give no information about it^recollecting 
nothing whatever." * Besides a trio of heads (printed on both wrapper 
and title-page), there are three full-page illustrations, engraved by 
C. Gray and Orrin Smith. This excessively scarce pamphlet was 
issued as a protest against the extreme views of Sir Andrew Agnew 
and the Sabbatarian party, and had immediate reference to a Bill 
"for the better observance of the Sabbath," then recently rejected 
in the House of Commons by a small majority. " Sunday under 
Three Heads " was originally published at two shillings, and now 
realises as much as ;^io in the auction-room. There are two or 
three facsimile reprints in existence, but the reproductions of the 
woodcuts are comparatively poor. 

It should be mentioned that "Phiz" (together with Seymour and 
Buss) assisted in the illustration of "The Library of Fiction," pub- 
lished by Chapman & Hall in 1836-37, so that his artistic efforts 

* As early as 1837 Browne designed (as an advertisement for Bentley) a little woodcut 
(now very rare) in which he depicted Charles Dickens leading by the lappel of his waistcoat 
a burly and perspiring porter, who is seen carrying a huge bale of copies of BttUleys 
Miscellany, of which magazine the novelist was then the editor. 



62 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

were by no means unfamiliar to the firm at this time. In his design 
facing page 293 of the first volume of that work there may be dis- 
covered the figure of an obese individual who is the very counterpart 
of Tony Weller, 

An intimate friend of Habl6t K. Browne, Mr. John Greville 
Yhc Fennell (formerly of the Field journal), confirms my 

Pickwick opinion that the artist's earliest association with the 
Papers, writings of Dickens was his connection with " Sunday 

l°30~37« under Three Heads"; but, as the engravings in that 
pamphlet only bore the designer's initials, it is more than probable 
that Browne himself was then an absolute stranger to the future 
novelist. Within a very brief period, however, certain events 
conspired to bring about the beginning of an acquaintance which 
ripened into a friendship that never ceased during Dickens's life- 
time. Mr. Fennell writes : " It was I who, while superintending 
E. & W. Finden's establishment, sold his first drawing to Adolphus 
Ackermann, and induced him (H. K. B.) to reproduce Buss's two 
illustrations (viz.. The Cricket-Match' and The Fat Boy Awake on 
this Occasion only), which I sent down to Chapman & Hall." It 
was apparently through Mr. Fennell's intervention that the publishers 
were enabled to recognise Browne's ability as an etcher, and to dis- 
cover in the specimens submitted to them that he was the very man 
to occupy the position then recently vacated by Buss. He first heard 
of his appointment from his generous rival, Thackeray, who at once 
made his way to the artist's abode in Newman Street for the purpose 
of congratulating him, and it is said that they immediately repaired 
to a neighbouring public-house, where a banquet consisting of 
sausages and bottled stout was held in honour of the occasion. 

At this juncture, Browne (who considered line-engraving too 
tedious a process) suspended operations at Finden's establishment, 
and, through the friendly auspices of Mr. Fennell, his indentures were 

> So far as I am aware, no illustration by " Phiz" of this subject is extant 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 63 

cancelled two years before they had expired. In conjunction with 
a kindred spirit, he hired a modest room as a studio, and employed 
his time in the more congenial pursuit of water-colour drawing. 
As the result of a solemn compact between them to produce three 
drawings daily, Browne, who worked very rapidly, was enabled to 
pay his share of the rent by the proceeds of his labours. In order 
to familiarise himself with the human form, he attended the evening 
class at the " Life " School in St. Martin's Lane, having as a fellow- 
pupil that famous painter of the " nude," William Etty, who after- 
wards joined the ranks of the Royal Academicians. 

In 1836 (when in his twenty-first year) Browne had acquired 
considerable facility with his pencil, and soon proved that his selection 
as the illustrator of " Pickwick " was thoroughly justified. By means 
of the training he had undergone at the Findens, he had obtained 
a mastery over the difficulties and mysteries of etching, which now 
proved eminently serviceable. Buss declared that " Phiz " was by 
no means an expert when he commenced working for " Pickwick," 
being tcomp^lled to obtain help from an experienced engraver 
named Sands, who "touched up the drawings with his own needle, 
adding shade where required, and then applied the acid and did 
all the necessary 'biting-in' and 'stopping-out.'". The facts, how- 
ever, are rather over-stated, as witness that early effort (perhaps 
unknown to Buss), viz., the etching of John Gilpin, which was 
undoubtedly unaided work, testifying that the artist was then quite 
capable of running alone. It is acknowledged, however, that, so far 
as the " biting-in " was concerned, he invariably secured co-operation, 
not on account of his own incapacity, but merely to save time, and 
for this purpose he generally sought and obtained the requisite help 
of his quondam fellow-apprentice, Robert Young. 

Browne speedily communicated to Mr. Young the welcome intelli- 
gence respecting the " Pickwick " appointment ; indeed, we are told 
that he went at once to his friend's chambers, and on entering said, 
" Look here, old fellow : will you come to my rooms to assist me 



64 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

with a plate I have to etch ? " Mr. Young, who was still in the employ 
of Finden, had acquired such a thorough knowledge of the art 
of biting-in designs upon steel plates, that Browne realised the im- 
portance of securing his co-operation without delay, and, happily for 
him, his friend readily acceded to his wish ; whereupon " Phiz " 
suggested that he should take his key with him, as they might be 
late. The design having already been drawn upon the plate, the 
two conspirators devoted the entire night to the operation of 
biting-in, the outcome of which was the production of the plate depict- 
ing the eventful meeting of Mr. Pickwick and Sam Weller at the old 
"^ White Hart Inn, perhaps the most notable illustration in the book. 
Mf. Young's share of the undertaking consisted in the application 
and manipulation of acid, which corroded the plate where exposed 
by the needle — a troublesome and delicate operation, requiring con- 
siderable experience, as, by too lengthy or too brief a subjection of 
the metal to the action of the acid, the plate would be ruined, and 
the labour of the artist rendered of no avail. 

Mr. Young writes in reply to my enquiry respecting this and subse- 
quent collaboration : " I did not bite-in the whole of 'Phiz's ' etchings. 
I was some years abroad, during which he had assistance from two en- 
gravers. Sands and Weatherhead. ' Phiz ' was quite capable of doing 
this part of the work himself, for he had two or three years' practice 
during his apprenticeship at Finden's ; but he had no time for such 
work, being always fully occupied in etching or drawing on wood." 

The title-page of " Pickwick " intimates that the volume contains 
"Forty-three illustrations by R. Seymour and Phiz," thus ignoring 
Buss's contributions. The fact is (as stated in the preceding chapter) 
that only a few copies of Part III., containing the two plates by Buss, 
were issued, these being quickly superseded by a couple of new designs 
by Browne ; therefore, a copy of an absolutely first edition of the book 
should include seven etchings by Seymour, two by Buss, and thirty- 
four by "Phiz." Two plates, viz., "The Fat Boy Awake on this 
Occasion only " and " Mr. Wardle and his Friends under the Influence 



I 



Plate XXIX 

"A SUDDEN RECOGNITION, UNEXPECTED ON 
BOTH SIDES" 

Faesimik of the Original Drawing for " Nicholas Nickleby " by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

Above the Sketch is written the following, in the autograph of Dickens : — 
" I don't think that Smike is frightened enough [or that Squeers is] earnest 
enough, for my purpose." 

Lent by Mr. M. H. Spielmann. 



/.c 



"c 



I 



I 








HABL6T K. BROWNE 65 

of 'the Salmon'" were etched for Part III. (after those in Part LV.), 
to take the place of Buss's cancelled designs. In early copies of the 
first edition all the plates were printed without titles, and throughout 
the first twelve numbers each plate bore only a reference in figures 
to the page which it was intended to illustrate. In the remaining 
numbers (Parts XIII. to XX.) the reference figures were withheld, the 
plates showing in the first published copies neither figures, titles, nor 
publishers' imprint. 

\JFor the first three parts of " The Pickwick Papers " there was so 
limited a demand that the publishers seriously contemplated a discon- 
tinuance of the work, a fate which, from the same cause, threatened 
Thackeray's famous novel, " Vanity Fair," in the early stages of its 
career. Happily, such a disaster was averted by the appearance in 
the fourth part of Sam Weller, who at once achieved such enormous 
popularity that the sale went up by leaps and bounds, the number of 
copies disposed of increasing from a few hundreds to several thousands. 1 
This was an extremely happy augury, not only for author and pub- 
lishers, but for the young artist whose connection with the book began 
at this critical time, and the extraordinary circulation so suddenly im- 
parted to the work was doubtless principally instrumental in obtaining 
for him other commissions, with which he was soon overflowing. 
Browne's earliest printed plates are signed " Nemo," and referring 
to this he says : " I think I signed myself as ' Nemo ' to my first 
etchings (those of No. 4) before adopting ' Phiz ' as my sobriquet, to 
harmonise — I suppose — better with Dickens's ' Boz.' " The third and 
succeeding plates bear the signature of " Phiz," a sign-manual which 
presently became well known to all readers of the novels of Dickens, 
Ainsworth, and Lever. Although he seldom appended his surname to 
his designs, we not unfrequently find (in his woodcuts especially) the 
initials " H.K.B.," in lieu of the more familiar pseudonym. It seems 
the public could never quite realise that the different signatures were 
those of the same artist, and were wont to remark that " Browne's 
work was better than Phiz's." 




66 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

The " Pickwick " illustrations were produced in couples, that is, two 
subjects were etched on one plate, this being^ printed at a single opera- 
tion and the sheets afterwards divided. " Phiz " was exceedingly rapid 
in his work when time was limited, and could design and etch a plate 
in the course of a day, and have it bitten-in and ready for the printer 
by the next morning. Unlike Seymour, he almost invariably drew 
his subjects on the steel without reversing them, so that they appeared 
reversed in the printing; it is evident, however, that he sometimes 
failed to remember this when preparing his designs, so that occasion- 
ally we find that his figures are left-handed, and other similar incon- 
gruities. Doubtless, the artist's motive in thus copying his drawings 
directly upon the plate was to facilitate operations, for in this way he 
could dispense with the aid of a mirror. , 

— A noteworthy consequence of the increased sale of the " Pick- 
wick " numbers was the serious deterioration of the plates caused by 
friction in printing, as for every impression the plate must be inked 
and the superfluous ink removed by wiping with the hand. In those 
days the process called "steel- facing," by means of which the etched 
or engraved surface is hardened, was unknown, so that, comparatively, 
only a few impressions could be struck off before the plate indicated 
any appreciable sign of wear-and-tear. The designs were therefore 
etched in duplicate, and this appears to have commenced at the date 
I of the publication of the tenth part of "Pickwick." The system of 
I duplicating the plates readily accounts for the interesting varia- 
tions observable in different copies of the first issue ; as, for example, 
the faces in the illustration delineating Mr. Pickwick's first meeting 
with Sam Weller are much improved in the replica, while other details 
are greatly altered ; in the original plate portraying Mr. Pickwick in 
the pound, there are two donkeys and four pigs, while the later im- 
pression has but one donkey and two pigs ; in the etching where 
Master Bardell is seen kicking Mr. Pickwick, the boy was first drawn 
with his head down, but was subsequently represented with it raised, 
the attitudes of Snodgrass and Winkle being also slightly changed ; 



HABL6T K. BROWNE 67 

the second version of the plate entitled " The Break-down " (which, by 
the way, bears a remarkable resemblance to Buss's unused drawing 
of the same subject) differs considerably from the first, and this remark 
applies to many of the other designs ; but it is chiefly in the earlier 
plates that these variations are particularly noticeable. 1 It is by no 
means surprising that such unimportant alterations exist, for an artist 
like " Phiz " would find it infinitely tiresome to slavishly copy, line 
for line, the original designs, especally if he saw an opportunity for 
improving the m.~| . 

The late George Augustus Sala held the opinion that Habl6t' 
Browne's earlier illustrations to " Pickwick " are " exceedingly humor- 
ous, but exceedingly ill-drawn," and believed that it was the amazing 
success of the author which spurred the artist to sedulous study, 
thus conducing in a remarkable degree towards the development 
of his faculties. Remembering, however, that " Phiz " had only just 
attained his majority, we cannot but admire the deftness and skill he 
then displayed in so difficult an ^ as etching, for, although some 
of the illustrations are marked by a certain grotesqueness, these plates 
are marvels of technique, j 

In the preface tcTTlTe first edition of "The Pickwick Papers" we 
read : "It is due to the gentleman, whose designs accompany the 
letterpress, to state that the interval has been so short between the 
production of each number in manuscript and its appearance in print, 
that the greater portion of the illustrations have been executed by the 
artist from the author's mere verbal description of what he intended 
to write." It was customary at this time for Dickens to call upon 
Browne, and hastily explain his intentions respecting the chapters to 
be illustrated, and from notes then made by the artist the requisite 
designs were evolved. [This satisfactorily accounts for certain in- 
accuracies in the plates, for which, however, " Phiz " cannot justly be 
censured ; for example, in the etching representing Mr. Pickwick 
hiding behind the door of the young ladies' seminary, the cook 
should have been the only person shown beyond the threshold ; and 




68 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 






v 

^ 




in the plate depicting the discovery of Jingle in the Fleet, we see 
Job Trotter standing behind Mr. Pickwick, whereas, according to the 
text, he had not entered the room at that precise moment. On the 
other hand, we may detect some defects for which " Phiz " must be 
held responsible ; as, for instance, fthe^ inaccurate perspective of the 
mantelshelf in the plate entided " The Red-nosed Man Discourseth," 
and the absence of proportion in the size of the figures of Mr. Pick- 
wick and the old lady in the etching portraying Christmas Eve at 
Mr. Wardle's, a similar anomaly appearing in |he etching of Mr. 
Pickwick's encounter with Mrs. Bardell in the Fleet! Again, there 
surely never existed so enormous a sedan-chair as 'That from the roof 
of which Mr. Pickwick expostulates with Sam Weller when he 
attacks the executive of Ipswich, or that into which Mr. Winkle 
bolts in his robe de nuit. /in the skating scene, curiously enough, 
there is no indication of skates being worn by any member of 
the company. " Phiz " sometimes posed his figures in attitudes 
I which, if not physically impossible, are unnatural and unpicturesquejj 
it must be admitted, however, that he usually succeeded where George 
Cruikshank invariably failed, that is, in delineating pretty women, of 
y,^ whom his skilled pencil has given us quite an extensive gallery. 

A set of proofs of " Phiz's " plates sold for twenty guineas at 
Sotheby's in 1889. A reprint of " Pickwick," published at Launces- 
ton, Van Diemen's Land, in 1838-39, was illustrated by means of 
lithographic copies (signed " Tiz ") of some of the original etchings. 
At the same time there appeared an American edition, issued in parts 
by Turney, New York, With facsimiles of the plates engraved on steel. 

It fortunately happens that, with two exceptions, the original 
drawings by "Phiz" for "The Pickwick Papers" have been pre- 
served; the missing designs are "Mr. Wardle and his Friends 
under the Influence of 'the Salmon'" and the vignette for the 
title-page, where Tony Weller is seen ducking Stiggins in the horse- 
trough. Photogravure reproductions of all the existing designs 
(some having Dickens's autograph) were published in the Victoria 






a 



Plate XXX 

STUDIES FOR 
THE CHEERYBLE BROTHERS 

FacsimiU of Original Drawings by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

L€Ht iy Mr. J. F. DexUr. 



1 ^ 




HABLOt K. BROWNE 69 

edition by Chapman & Hall in 1887. The majority of the drawings 
were executed in pencil or pen-and-ink, the effects washed in with a 
brush, the remainder being entirely brushwork. The following is a 
list of " Pickwick " designs by " Phiz " such as were merely tentative, 
and therefore never etched : — 

Mr. Winkle's First Shot. — Trial sketch, illustrating an incident in the 
seventh chapter. A sketch of the same subject was made by Buss. 

Christmas Eve at Mr. Wardle's. — Trial sketch, varying but slightly 
from the approved design. 

The Goblin and the Sexton. — First sketch, in pencil, varying 
considerably from the etching. An attenuated sprite, with 
sugar-loaf hat and arms akimbo, is seated on the top of a flat 
gravestone beside Gabriel Grub, who, pausing in the act of 
raising a bottle to his lips, gazes with astonishment at his un- 
canny visitor. Behind is seen a church porch. 

The Goblin and the Sexton. — Second sketch, similar in char- 
acter, but more complete. Positions of figures reversed, 
and the goblin more robust. In the published etching the 
artist has introduced as a background a view of an ecclesi- 
astical building, which bears some resemblance to St. Alban's 
Abbey. 

The Warden's Room. — Trial sketch, varying considerably from 
the approved design. The attitudes of dancer and seated 
figure are different, the man in the bed adjoining Mr. Pick- 
wick's throws up both arms and one leg, while in either hand 
he holds a nightcap and beer-jug. Other figures are introduced 
on the right. 

In comparing the drawings with the plates, important variations 
are sometimes apparent. In the remarkable etching, " The Election 
at Eatanswill," the artist has introduced fresh figures, while others 
are altered ; in " Mr. Pickwick in the Pound," we see in the 
first state of the etching two donkeys and four pigs, instead of one 



70 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

donkey and three pigs, as in the drawing ; in " Job Trotter encoun- 
tering Sam in Mr. Muzzle's Kitchen," the pretty housemaid was 
originally represented sitting on Sam Weller's knee ; in " The Valen- 
tine," the artist's first intention was to portray Tony Weller without 
hat and cape; and in "Conviviality at Bob Sawyer's," a human 
skeleton is visible behind Mr. Ben Allen, which was omitted in 
the etching. 

The interest of a few of these drawings is considerably enhanced 
by the fact that they contain instructions and suggestions in the 
autograph of Dickens. The first so treated is "Mrs. Leo Hunter's 
Fancy-dress Ddijeund," the drawing differing in many respects from 
the etching, chiefly in the attitudes and arrangement of the figures ; 
under it the author has written : "I think it would be better if 
Pickwick had hold of the Bandit's arm. If Minerva tried to look 
a little younger (more like Mrs. Pott, who is perfect), I think it 
would be an additional improvement." The design was altered in 
accordance with the spirit of the criticism, and we find Minerva, 
instead of a plump and matronly personage, the very opposite in the 
matter of physique. It is worthy of note that in the first state of the 
etching the face of the Russian officer in the rear bore too close a 
caricature resemblance to that of Lord Brougham, the subsequent 
change in his appearance being due to some remonstrance against 
the artist's freedom. The drawing depicting Mr. Pickwick's first 
interview with Serjeant Snubbin contains the following hint from 
the author : " I think the Serjeant should look younger, and a great 
deal more sly and knowing; he should be looking at Pickwick too, 
smiling compassionately at his innocence. The other fellows are 
noble. — C. D." As a matter of fact, the drawing is more successful 
than the etching, the Serjeant's face in the former indicating that 
it had been obliterated and altered to suit Dickens's idea. In the 
original design for the etching representing "Mr. Winkle's Situa- 
tion when the Door 'Blew to,'" the artist portrayed Mr. Winkle 
holding the candlestick in front of him ; but Dickens objected to this, 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 71 

and wrote at the top of the drawing : " Winkle should be holding 
the candlestick above his head, I think. It looks more comical, the 
light having gone out." The change was made, but the curious thing 
is, neither author nor artist remembered the fact that at the moment 
depicted Mr. Winkle had actually discarded the useless candlestick. 
Under the same drawing Dickens penned the following comment : " A 
fat Chairman so short as our friend here, never drew breath in Bath ; " 
" Phiz" has also written in the margin : " Shall I leave Pickwick where 
he is or put him under the bed-clothes ? I can't carry him so high as 
the second floor. — H. K. B." (Mr. Pickwick's rooms are described 
as being in the " upper portion " of the house, but it would seem 
that Dickens had originally placed him on the "second floor," which 
suggests that the text was altered to suit the illustration.) In repljr^ 
to this query the author wrote : "I would leave him Where he is 
decidedly. Is the lady full dressed ? She ought to be. — C. D." Mr. 
Pickwick was left accordingly ; likewise the fat chairman, whose 
abnormal obesity was reproduced in the etching as it appears in the 
drawing. In the sketch of " Mr. Winkle Returns under Extra- 
ordinary Circumstances," the artist had not made Sam Weller and the 
housemaid quite as Dickens desired, whereupon the novelist appended 
the following queries : " Are Sam and the housemaid clearly made 
out ; and [would it not be be]tter if he was looking on with his arm 
roun[d Mary ?] I rayther question the accuracy of the housemaid." * 
As the sketch, in its present state, realises Dickens's idejis, we may 
assume that it was altered by the artist before he transferred his 
design to the plate ; indeed, there seems to be evidence of this in 
the blurred appearance of the young couple in the drawing, in the 
margin of which "Phiz" has written the following instructions about 
the biting-in : " The outlines of the figfures I have etched with a 
broad point unintentionally ; bite them slightly, that they may not 
be too hard, especially Pickwick." The last of the drawings con- 
taining the novelist's handwriting is that illustrating "The Ghostly 

' The words in brackets are unfortunately cut off the sketch. 



72 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

passengers in the Ghost of a Mail," this bearing the unusual signa- 

his 

ture, " Charles + Dickens," by which the novelist evidently meant 

mark 

to express his satisfaction with the artist's treatment of the subject. 
In the " English Humorists " Exhibition held in London a few years 
since, there was a capital study by " Phiz " of Mr. Pickwick, apparently 
an enlarged replica of the familiar figure and pose as seen in Sey- 
mour's illustration of him as he appeared when addressing the Club ; 
it is a water-colour drawing on buff paper, supplemented by marginal 
sketches of the head and bust of Pickwick with his hat on, to- 
gether with two studies of hats ; upon the side of the drawing 
is inscribed the following memorandum : " Nankeen tights, black 
cloth gaiters, white waistcoat, blue coat, brass buttons, square cut in 
the tails." 

In 1847 "Phiz" prepared six new designs for "The Pickwick 
Papers," which were delicately engraved on wood ; the series was issued 
independently, and simultaneously with the first cheap edition of the 
book. These drawings are undoubtedly superior to the etchings, being 
the more matured work of the artist. The following were the subjects 
chosen: "Mr. Winkle's First Shot," "The Effects of Cold Punch," 
"Mr. Pickwick at Dodson and Fogg's," "The Kiss under the 
Misdetoe," "Old Weller at the Temperance Meeting," "The Leg 
of Mutton ' Swarry.' " " Phiz " also contributed to each of the two 
volumes of the Library Edition (1858-59)* a vignette illustration for 
the title-page, the subjects being Mr. Pickwick and the Wellers, and 
Sam Weller with the Pretty Housemaid ; they were engraved on 
steel from the original drawings in water-colours. In 1867 the artist 
was seized with a form of paralysis, the use of the right hand being 
so greatly impaired that he was unable to make the forefinger and 
thumb meet; this compelled him to hold the pencil or brush in a 

' The early voliames in the Library Edition, issued during 1858-59, have only vignettes on 
the title-pages. The later issues of this edition (1862-68) contain several illustrations, some of 
these being reprints of the plates in the first edition, while others were specially designed. 



Plate XXXI 

MASTER HUMPHREY AND THE DEAF GENTLEMAN 

Facsimilt of Ihe Original Drawing for " Master Humphrey's Clock " by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

Beneath the Sketch is written the following, in the autograph of Dickens :— 
"Master Humphrey Admirable. Could his stick (with a crooked top) be 
near his chair? I misdoubt the deaf gentleman's pipe, and wish he couk) 
have a belter one." 

LtHt by Mr. /. F. Dexter. 



I 



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Ki^ O A/ 



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HABL6t K. BROWNE 73 

clumsy fashion, and to draw with a sort of sweeping movement of 
the whole arm. It was under such distressing conditions than in 
1873-74 he executed a commission to illustrate Chapman & Hall's 
Household Edition of "The Pickwick Papers." These fifty-seven 
designs are necessarily extremely poor in treatment, and painfully 
indicate the effect of the injury his hand had sustained ; indeed, the 
wonder is that he could draw at all. It must be admitted, however, 
that much of the feebleness of the woodcuts is due to the engraver, 
as the original outline sketches (which were transferred to the box- 
wood blocks and there developed) exhibit in a wonderful degree both 
freedom and precision of touch. A small collection of these drawings 
was sold at Sotheby's in December 1887, each drawing realising the 
average price of seven pounds. Sets of the " Pickwick " designs in 
the Household Edition, coloured by F. W. Pailthorpe, have been 
issued as "extra" illustrations. 

In 1836, as soon as Dickens terminated his connection with the 
The Reporters' Gallery in the House of Commons, he was 

Strange induced to take a considerable interest in the then 

Gentleman, newly-erected St James's Theatre, and even essayed 
l837« to write for his friend J. P. Harley ("as a practical 

joke," he afterwards explained) a comic burletta called " The Strange 
Gentleman," which was adapted from "The Great Winglebury Duel" 
in "Sketches by Boz." The little farce was published by Chap- 
man & Hall during the following year with a frontispiece by " Phiz," 
the subject of the plate being suggested by the concluding scene, 
where the Strange Gentleman proposes marriage to Julia Dobbs ; 
the two seated figures are vigorously drawn, and on a larger scale 
than those in the " Pickwick " designs. " The Strange Gentleman " 
is perhaps the rarest of Dickens's writings, and the extraordinary 
sum of ;^45 was realised at Sotheby's in August 1892 for an 
exceptionally fine copy. It has since been beautifully reprinted in 
facsimile, with a new frontispiece etched by F. W. Pailthorpe. 



74 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

In the same year Chapman & Hall published a booklet (anony- 
Sketchcs mously written by E. Caswell) entitled " Sketches of 
of Young Young Ladies," by " Quiz," with six etchings by 
Gentk' " Phiz," the author of which was erroneously be- 

men, 1838. Heved to be Charles Dickens, whose literary style 
it somewhat resembled. The " Young Ladies " being referred to 
here in a rather ungallant fashion, Dickens essayed (as a kind of 
protest) a similar work, in which he pokes fun at the idiosyncrasies 
of youths of the sterner sex. Like its predecessor, the "Sketches 
of Young Gentlemen " were written anonymously, and similarly con- 
tained six etched illustrations by " Phiz." 

In 1840 there appeared a third booklet, entitled "Sketches of 
Sketches Young Couples ; " of this Dickens was also the un- 
of Young avowed author, while " Phiz " contributed the usual six 
Couples, etchings. In the third of these designs (only two 
1840. of which are signed) we are reminded of his pre- 

sentment of the Kenwigses in " Nicholas Nickleby," the illustrations 
for which story were then occupying the artist's attention. These 
little productions were issued in green paper covers, decorated with 
designs by " Phiz." 

The sets of six original drawings for " Sketches of Young Ladies " 
and " Sketches of Young Gentlemen " realised _;^40 and /^^g re- 
spectively at Sotheby's in 1897. 

In the advertisement announcing the publication of " Nicholas 
Nicholas Nickleby," it was stated that each monthly part would 
Nickleby, be " embellished with two illustrations by ' Phiz '." 
i838-39» This is not strictly accurate, for to the twenty parts 
the artist contributed but thirty-nine plates, the full complement, 
however, being made up with a portrait of the author (as the frontis- 
piece), engraved by Finden from the painting by D. Maclise, A.R.A. 
The most interesting of the "Nickleby" plates are undoubtedly 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 75 

those depicting scenes at Dotheboys Hall, that representing Squeers 
at the Saracen's Head containing the most familiar presentment 
of its amiable proprietor. Thus, as he stood mending his f)en, the 
novelist and artist saw the living prototype, and had taken mental 
notes of the odd figure, who, as will presently be related, was among 
the several schoolmasters they interviewed.* 

It was the novelist's intention to expose in this story the terrible 
abuses practised in the cheap boarding-schools of Yorkshire, and, in 
order that he might realise their true character, he determined 
to investigfate for himself the real facts as to the condition of those 
notorious seminaries. Accordingly, at the end of January 1838, he 
and "Phil" started on this memorable journey, in bitterly cold 
weather, and, visiting several schools in the locality, they came into 
direct contact with the proprietors. One of these was William Shaw, 
the identical schoolmaster who, some years previously, had been 
heavily fined for what was represented at the trial as gross maltreat- 
ment of his pupils. According to the following entry in the novelist's 
private diary (under date February 2, 1838), there can be no doubt 
that he had this individual principally in his mind when delineating the 
infamous Squeers : — " Mem. — Shaw, the schoolmaster we saw to-day, 
is the man in whose school several boys went blind some time since 
from gross neglect. The case was tried, and the verdict went against 
him. • It must have been between 1823 and 1826. Look this out in 
the newspapers." Mr. Lloyd, a well-known Glasgow comedian, who 
spent twelve months in Shaw's school at Bowes, Yorkshire, afterwards 
testified to the truth of the outiuard appearance of the man as 
described by Dickens and portrayed by the artist in the pages of the 
novel, "allowing, of course, for both being greatly exaggerated. A 
sharp, thin, upright little man, with a slight scale covering the pupil of 
one of his eyes. Yes, there he stands, with his Wellington boots and 

' Among the few drawings executed by " Phiz " for Punch, there is a representation of an 
orthodox pettifogging attorney perched upon a stool, whose portrait is that of the very 
Squeers. It constitutes one of a series of " i'uncks Valentines," and was published in the 
second volume, 1842. 



76 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

short black trousers, not originally cut too short, but from a habit 
he had of sitting with one knee over the other, and the trousers 
being tight, they would get ' rucked ' half-way up the boots. Then, 
the clean white vest, swallow-tailed black coat, white necktie, silver- 
mounted spectacles, close-cut iron-grey hair, high-crowned hat worn 
slightly at the back of his head— and there you have the man." It 
certainly seems remarkable that Mr. Lloyd and others who knew Shaw 
recollect him as a most worthy and kind-hearted gentleman, but this 
perhaps is explained by certain facts concerning him and his school 
that were published in the Athenceum, February 1894, together with a 
commentary upon a reprint of the trial in which he was the defendant. 

It is a curious fact that several Yorkshire schoolmasters actually 
claimed to be the prototype of Squeers ; indeed, a member of the 
fraternity (probably Shaw himself) declared that he remembered being 
waited on by two gentlemen, one of whom held him in conversation 
while the other took his likeness ; " and although " (says the author in 
his preface to the story) "Mr. Squeers has but one eye, and he has 
two, and the published sketch does not resemble him (whoever he may 
be) in any other respect, still he and all his friends know at once for 
whom it is meant, because the character is so like him." I think 
there can be no doubt that both Dickens and " Phiz," when delineating 
Squeers, reproduced too closely the idiosyncrasies of one individual, 
and that the author's description, as well as the artist's presentment, 
bore so obvious a likeness to Shaw, that he became the scapegoat for 
others worse than himself, and suffered accordingly. 

In some of the etchings may be discovered slight incongruities (as, 
for example, in the first plate, where Ralph Nickleby's hat is too small 
for his head), while in others there is a palpable touch of exaggeration. 
In the illustration, " The Country Manager Rehearses a Combat," the 
artist has omitted to introduce the figure of the landlord who ushered 
into the managerial presence Nicholas and Smike, and the broad- 
swords should have been basket-hilted weapons. In the etching, 
where Nicholas instructs Smike in the art of acting, Nicholas wears 



»i 



Plate XXXI 1 

"THE DOMBEY FAMILY" 

FatsimiU of the First Study for the Etching by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 



The "Query" written l^nrath the Drawing is in the autograph of the 
Artist. It was addressed to Dickens, and reads as follows : — " Qy. Whether 
'twere belter to hn\'e him standing thus, stiff as a poker, with a kind of side 
glance at his daughter,— or sitting, as in the other? " The Etching differs 
considerably from the Drawing. 

I^enl ty Mr. J. F. Dexler. 



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HABL6t K. BROWNE 77 

the rapier on the wrong side, this oversight doubtless resulting from 
the non-reversal of the design upon the plate. The "Nickieby" 
illustrations are, as a whole, very successful ; in many instances the 
expressions are capitally rendered, although it is to be regretted that 
the artist did but scant justice to the physical attractions of Kate 
Nickieby and Madeline Bray. 

There were sixty-three quarto plates etched for the thirty-nine 
illustrations in the story, each plate carrying two designs ; some of 
these were etched three times, while in seven instances the quarto 
plate was reproduced no less than four times. In none of these 
duplicated plates will be found such marked variations in detail as 
may be noted in the replicas of the "Pickwick" designs, so that 
the collector need only seek for well-printed impressions.* 

All the original drawings for " Nickieby," with one exception, 
are still in existence; they were disposed of on July 16, 1880, in 
Robinson & Fisher's auction-rooms, when they realised in the 
aggregate rather more than a hundred pounds. The missing design 
is that depicting Nicholas in his capacity as tutor in the Ken wigs 
family. These drawings are executed in pencil and wash, some 
being especially valuable by reason of marginal notes in the auto- 
graph of the novelist. At the top of the original sketch for "A 
Sudden Recognition, Unexpected on Both Sides" (kindly lent by 
Mr. M. H. Spielmann for reproduction), Dickens has pencilled a 
note to the artist, a portion of which (that within the brackets) has 
been cut away : " I don't think that Smike is frightened enough [or 
that Squeers is] earnest enough, for my purpose," — a criticism which 
was apparently not productive of much alteration in the direction 
indicated, unless effected in the sketch before the subject was etched. 

The late Mr. F. W. Cosens, who possessed several preliminary 
studies of the Kenwigs children, had in his collection a note from 
Dickens giving minute instructions to " Phiz " respecting the design 

I The " Nickieby " plates were copied by J. Yeager for the first American edition of the 
story. 



78 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

for the plate entitled "Great Excitement of Miss Kenwigs at the 
Hairdresser's Shop." The novelist desired his illustrator to depict 
"a hairdresser's shop at night — not a dashing one, but a barber's. 
Morleena Kenwigs on a tall chair, having her hair dressed by an under- 
bred attendant, with her hair parted down the middle and frizzed up 
into curls at the sides. Another customer, who is being shaved, 
has just turned his head in the direction of Miss Kenwigs, and she 
and Newman Noggs (who has brought her there, and has been 
whiling away the time with an old newspaper) recognise, with 
manifestations of surprise, and Morleena with emotion, Mr. Lillivick, 
the collector. Mr. Lillivick's bristly beard expresses great neglect of 
his person, and he looks very grim and in the utmost despondency." 

The original drawing for " Nicholas Starts for Yorkshire" presents 
several important variations from the published plate, the positions 
of the figures being considerably altered, the most remarkable differ- 
ences being that Ralph Nickleby and Squeers in the sketch are 
placed on the side opposite the coach and more in the background, 
the coachman reading the way-bill is transferred to the spot where 
Squeers now stands, while there is another coachman looking over 
his shoulder, who is omitted in the etching ; the coachman with the 
whip (as seen in the plate) was not introduced in the sketch. For 
the monthly parts " Phiz " designed a pictorial wrapper ; on either 
side of this wood-engraving is a corpulent figure mounted on tall 
stilts, surmounted by an allegorical scene typifying Justice, with 
cornucopia, &c., and below is seen the culprit Squeers wading 
through a river, guided by imps carrying lanterns. 

For the two volumes of the Library Edition of "Nicholas Nickleby" 
(1858-59) "Phiz" prepared small designs, delicately tinted in water- 
colours, which were engraved on steel as vignettes for the title-pages ; 
the subjects represented are "The Nickleby Family" and "The Mad 
Gentleman and Mrs. Nickleby," the original drawings realising /14 
each at Sotheby's in 1889. 



HABLOT K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

II 

"Mastkr Humphrey's Clcx:k"— A Quaint Advertisement— Woodcuts instead of Etchings— 
"Phil's" Contributions— Instances of his Exaggerated Grotesqueness — Mr. Frederic 
Harrison's Comment — A Powerful Design — Illustrations in "The Old Curiosity Shop" 
Criticised— Ruskin's Attack upon the Designs in "Bamaby Rudge"— His Admiration of the 
Woodcut of "Bamaby and Grip"— " Phil's" Frontispieces— His Letter to Dickens— An 
Amusing Epistle from Dickens to his Publisher — A "Clock Dinner" — Original Drawing 
of Master Humphrey and the Deaf Gentleman— Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition 
of " Bamaby Rudge " — Vignettes for the Library Edition — New Designs for " Master 
Humphrey's Clock " — Portraits of Dolly Varden, Little Nell, and Barbara— Sale of Water- 
Colour Drawings— " Martin Chuzzlewit"— The Illustrations Characterised— How they 
were Prepared — Slight Errors by "Phiz" — The Original Drawings — Minute Instractions 
from Dickens to the Artist — A Humorous Rejoinder — Sale of the " Chuzzlewit " Designs — 
Vignettes for the Library Edition—" Dombey and Son "—The Plates Etched in Duplicate 
— Introduction of the Oblong Form of Illustration — Method of Obtaining Chiaroscuro — 
Some Anomalies in the Etchings — Working under Difficulties — Dickens's Anxiety Respect- 
ing the Designs— Studies for Mr. Dombey— A Letter of Instructions— Hints to the Artist 
—Dickens Disappointed— The Etching of " Mrs. Pipchin and Paul "—" Doctor Blimber's 
Young Gentlemen" — A Remarkable Oversight — Explicit Directions from Dickens to 
" Phiz"— Original Drawings for " Dombey and Son "—Slight Variations from the Etchings 
— " Dombey " Sketches Presented to Dickens — A Portrait of Little Paul — Pictorial 
Wrapper— Extra Plates — Criticism by Dickens — Portraits of Alice and Florence Dombey— 
Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition — Vignettes for the Library Edition. 

Master y^~>HARLES DICKENS'S next work, entitled 

Hum- i " Master Humphrey's Clock," which comprises 

phre/s V_^ "The Old Curiosity Shop" and " Barnaby 

Clock, Rudge," was first issued in weekly instalments, as well 

^ ^ * as the customary monthly parts, the new venture being 

thus announced : "Now wound up and going, preparatory to its striking 

on Saturday, the 28th March, Master Humphrey's Clock, Maker's 

name — ' Boz.' The Figures and Hands by George Cattermole, Esq. 

and 'Phiz.'" A novel feature of this undertaking was the illustra- 



8o DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

tions, which were not etched as hitherto, but engraved on wood and 
dropped into the text, the total number of designs being one hundred 
and ninety-four, including three frontispieces and twenty-four initials. 
Of these " Phiz " produced by far the greater proportion, he being 
responsible for no less than a hundred and fifty-three, including two 
frontispieces and all the initials ; the subjects of many of the latter, 
by the way, have no connection with the letterpress. Some of the 
drawings are unsigned, while others have appended to them the artist's 
initials or monogram, occasionally reversed. At this time "Phiz" 
was almost as anonymous as " Boz," but when " Master Humphrey's 
Clock" ultimately appeared in volume form, his identity was fully 
established on the title-page as " Habl6t Browne." The result of a 
careful analysis of the illustrations discloses the fact that "Phiz" 
produced sixty-one for "The Old Curiosity Shop" and " Barnaby 
Rudge " respectively, and seven for the miscellaneous papers relating 
to "The Clock," exclusive of the initials. The greater number of 
figure-pieces fell to his pencil, while the architectural subjects were 
entrusted to his coadjutor, George Cattermole. 

In many of the drawings (admirably engraved by S. Williams, 
Landells, Gray, and Vasey) Browne hardly did himself justice, their 
exaggerated grotesqueness tending to deprive these little pictorial com- 
positions of much of their artistic value. Observe, for example, the 
repulsive features of Kit, his mother, and the child in the tenth chapter 
of "The Old Curiosity Shop," and note how positively diabolical are his 
representations of Sampson Brass and his sister, and of Dick Swiveller. 
It is difficult to believe that the terrible-looking creature intended for the 
Marchioness, in the fifty-seventh and sixty-fifth chapters, would ever 
have developed into a "good-looking " girl, as she really did, according 
to the text. It is probably such unpleasing illustrations as these which 
induced Mr. Frederic Harrison in The Forum to condemn, with ex- 
ceeding severity, the artist's propensity for caricature ; " the grins, the 
grimaces, the contortions, the dwarfs, the idiots, the monstrosities of 
these wonderful sketches could not be found in human beings con- 



Plate XXXIII 

• "PAUL AND MRS. PIPCHIN " 

FacsimiU ot the Original Sketch for " Dombey and Son " by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

A subsequent and more complete Drawing of this subject is included in 
the Duchess of St Albans' Collection. 

Lnl h Mr. J. F. Dtxttr. 

I/, 





'^^/^^"'«w. 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 8i 

structed on any known anatomy." Other woodcuts are of course 
excellent, especially those in which Mr. Pickwick and the Wellers are 
resuscitated. One of the most striking, however, is the weird water- 
scape showing the corpse of Quilp washed ashore — a vista of riparian 
scenery which, for the sense of desolate breadth and loneliness it 
suggests, it would be difficult to excel. An illustration deserving 
special examination is the tailpiece for the chapter immediately fol- 
lowing the end of "The Old Curiosity Shop," where the artist has 
depicted Master Humphrey in his arm-chair, surrounded by Lilliputian 
figures, among which may be recognised some of the principal actors 
in the story. 

A careful comparison of the illustrations with the text of " The Old 
Curiosity Shop " reveals certain slight inaccuracies on the part of the 
artist For example, in the twenty-seventh chapter we read that Quilp 
leant upon his stick as he beckoned to the boy carrying his trunk, 
whereas " Phiz " depicts him raising the stick. In the woodcut por- 
traying Kit and his party at Astley's Theatre, the umbrella should be 
held by Barbara's mother, and not Kit's. Again, in a subsequent chapter, 
we are told that Sampson Brass's hat was " grievously crushed," but 
" Phiz " has represented it with the crown suspended by a single 
thread, — a striking instance of his tendency to exaggeration. The 
careful reader will also note (in the seventeenth chapter) that the stilt 
on the right leg of the "young gentleman" in "Grinder's lot" is at 
least twelve inches shorter than its fellow, and that Mrs. Jarley's 
horse (in the twenty-sixth chapter) is considerably out of proportion 
with its surroundings ; the caravan, too, is incorrectly drawn, and 
Mrs. Jarley with the drum should have been placed upon the 
platform of the van. The inherent humour of " Phiz " was often 
apropos, an amusing instance being discoverable in the illustration 
of Miss Monflathers and her young ladies (in the thirty-first 
chapter), where the inscription on the board above the wall reads, 
"Take notice — Man traps." 

Although the designs in " Bamaby Rudge " are not entirely 



82 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

exempt from the charge of exaggeration, they are, on the whole, 
more pleasing. The artist seems to have fairly revelled in the scenes 
depicting the rioters, and, while failing in his conception of Sir John 
Chester, he successfully realised the more picturesque figures of 
Barnaby and Maypole Hugh, the latter being admirably limned. 
Professor Ruskin, however, in his " Ariadne Florentina," denounces 
these woodcuts in language more caustic even than that of Mr. 
Frederic Harrison : " Take up," he says, " for an average specimen 
of modern illustrated works, the volume of Dickens's ' Master 
Humphrey's Clock ' containing ' Barnaby Rudge.' . . . The cheap 
popular Art cannot draw for you beauty, sense, or honesty ; and for 
Dolly Varden, or the locksmith, you will look through the vignettes 
in vain. But every species of distorted folly or vice . . . are pictured 
for your honourable pleasure on every page, with clumsy caricature, 
struggling to render its dulness tolerable by insisting on defect." 
The drawing of Barnaby and the Raven (the final illustration in the 
second volume) is one of the few the author of this pungent criticism 
can bring himself to admire. "The raven," he observes, "like all 
Dickens's animals, is perfect; and I am the more angry with the 
rest because I have every now and then to open the book to look 
for him." Respecting these woodcuts, it may be pointed out that 
Dickens omitted to mention which arm Joe Willet was deprived of 
" in the defence of the Salwanners." Curiously enough, " Phiz " 
similarly fails to assist us in deciding the point, as, in the illustra- 
tions depicting him after the war, he is seen minus the right arm 
in four instances, while in another woodcut it is the left which 
has disappeared. 

The frontispieces designed by Browne for the second and third 
volumes are both elaborate and fanciful. In the first is seen an 
enormous hour-glass containing a crowd composed of some of the 
minor characters in the story, while surrounding it are representa- 
tions of the more prominent persons. It was originally intended that 
George Cattermole should execute this drawing, but, being prevented 



HABL6t K. BROWNE ^3 

by illness, it fell into the hands of " Phiz," who thereupon wrote to 
the novelist : — 

" Sunday Morning. 

" My Dear Dickens, — Will you give me some notion of what 
sort of design you wish for the Frontispiece for second volume of 
ClocA f Cattermole being put hors de combat — Chapman with a 
careworn face (if you can picture that) brings me the block at the 
eleventh hour and requires it finished by Wednesday. Now, as I 
have two others to complete in the meantime, something nice and 
tight would be best adapted to my palette, and prevent an excess of 
perspiration in the relays of wood-cutters. You shall have the others 
to criticise on Tuesday. — Yours very truly, 

Habl6t K. Browne." 

In the frontispiece to the third volume is portrayed an ornamental 
clock, at the summit of which is seated Master Humphrey, while on 
either side and at the base are introduced the presentments of 
Barnaby with his raven and other individuals in the tale. " Phiz " 
was also responsible for the elaborate design on the wrapper of the 
weekly numbers. 

The following amusing epistle, having reference to the initial 
letter drawn by " Phiz " for the sixty-fifth chapter, was addressed by 
Dickens to a member of his publishing firm, Edward Chapman, the 
"precipice" here mentioned being a humorous allusion to the latter's 
approaching marriage : — 

" Broadstairs, Thursday, \tlh SepUmber 1841. 

" Mv Dear Sir, — Know for your utter confusion, and to your 
lasting shame and ignominy, that the initial letter has been provided, 
that it was furnished to the artist at the same time as the subject — and 
that it is a 

D 

— which stands for Double — Demnible — Doubtful — Dangerous — 



84 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Doleful — Disastrous — Dreadful — Deuced — Dark — Divorce— and 
Drop— all applicable to the Precipice on which you stand 

" Farewell ! If you did but know— and would pause, even at this 
late period -better an action for breach than— but we buy experience. 
Excuse my agitation. I scarcely know what I write. To see a 
fellow-creature— and one who has so long withstood — still if — will 
nothing warn you? 

"In extreme excitement 

C. D. 

" My hand fails me. 

P.S. — PAUSE 

PUT IT OFF 
P.P.S. — EMIGRATE 
P. P. P.S. — AND LEAVE ME 

THE BUSINESS 

I MEAN THE STRAND ONE." 

On the conclusion of the second volume of " Master Humphrey's 
Clock," a dinner was given by Dickens to celebrate the event. 
Serjeant Talfourd presided, and the guests included those engaged 
in the production of the work. " Phiz," in accepting the invitation 
to be present, wrote as follows : — 

33 HowLAND Street [1841]. 

"My Dear Dickens, — I shall be most happy to remember not 
to forget the loth April, and let me express a </winterested wish that, 
having completed and established one ' Shop ' in an ' extensive line 
of business,' you will go on increasing and multiplying suchlike 
establishments in number and prosperity till you become a Dick 
Whittington of a merchant, with pockets distended to most Brobdig- 
nag dimensions. — Believe me, yours very truly, 

"Habl6t K. Browne." 



Plate XXXIV 

"MR. PEGGOTTY'S DREAM COMES TRUE" 

Facsimile of the Original Drawing for "David Copperfield" by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

In the published version the figure of Rosa Dartle (on the left) is omitted, 
and David's hat is placed upon the table. 

Lent iy Her Grace tht Duchess of St. Alians. 



7I/XX 

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HABL6t K. BROWNE 85 

Through the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Dexter, I am enabled to 
reproduce in facsimile one of the original designs for " Master Hum- 
phrey's Clock," depicting Master Humphrey and the Deaf Gentle- 
man. This drawing, executed in pencil, differs slightly from the en- 
graving ; underneath it Dickens has written, " Master Humphrey 
ADMIRABLE. Could his Stick (with a crooked top) be near his chair ? 
I misdoubt the deaf gentleman's pipe, and wish he could have a 
better one." 

To the first cheap edition of " Barnaby Rudge," 1849, "Phiz" 
contributed the frontispiece, — a drawing on wood (engraved by 
W. T. Green) representing Dolly Varden, with Hugh hiding in the 
bushes. In the Library Edition (1858-59) the stories were published 
independently, each in two volumes, with pretty vignettes on the 
title-pages, specially designed by the same artist and engraved on 
steel. The original drawings were delicately tinted in water-colours, 
the subjects being Little Nell and her Grandfather, Dick Swiveller 
and the Marchioness, Dolly Varden and Joe Willet, Barnaby and 
Hugh. In these engravings the female characters are much more 
charmingly conceived than are those in the woodcuts. 

In 1848, when the first cheap edition of the story appeared, Habl6t 
Browne made four new designs as "Extra Illustrations" for "The 
Old Curiosity Shop," viz.. Little Nell and her Grandfather, the 
Marchioness, Barbara, and the Death of Little Nell. They were 
beautifully engraved in stipple, and issued as an independent publica- 
tion by the artist and his coadjutor, Robert Young, whose joint venture 
it was. In the following year they produced a similar set of four 
plates illustrating "Barnaby Rudge," viz., Emma Haredale, Dolly 
Varden, Mrs. Varden and Miggs, and Hugh and Barnaby. The 
portraits of the various characters were engraved by Edwards and 
Knight, under the superintendence of Browne and Young. The 
original drawing of Dolly Varden, one of " Phiz's " happiest concep- 
tions, is in the possession of Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans, 
together with an unengraved study for Emma Haredale. There are 



86 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

extant, in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection, two other studies for the 
Dolly Varden plate, neither of which has been reproduced ; the same 
gentleman also owns the drawings of Nell and Barbara, the latter 
being slightly different from, and superior to, the engraving. 

A complete series of original water-colour drawings by " Phiz " 
for " The Old Curiosity Shop " and " Barnaby Rudge," including an 
unused design for a tailpiece, were sold at Sotheby's in 1897, and 
realised ;^6io. These drawings were executed as a commission 
for Mr. F. W. Cosens. 

Browne's versatile pencil was again actively employed in embellish- 
ing the story begun by Dickens soon after his return 
Martm ^^^^ America in 1842, and to this he contributed 

P * forty etchings. Here the figures are drawn on a 

larger scale than usual, thus affording more scope for 
the delineation of character. 

The frontispiece is a most elaborate design, representing the 
principal characters and incidents in the story, with Tom Pinch at 
the organ as a central idea. In the illustration where Mark Tapley 
is seen starting from his native village for London, " Phiz " exhibits 
his sense of the picturesque in the old gables and dormers of the ancient 
tenements in the background, while that depicting " Mr. Pecksniff 
on his Mission" is an excellent verisimilitude of such a locality as 
Kingsgate Street of fifty years since. But the etching in "Chuzzle- 
wit " which may be described as the artist's happiest effort as a comic 
creation is that where Mrs. Gamp " propoges " a toast. Here he has 
admirably illustrated the text, — the two midwives in friendly chat, 
surrounded by bandboxes and other accessories, while behind are seen 
the immortal Sarah's rusty gowns, which, depending from the bed- 
posts, " had so adapted themselves by long usage to her figure, that 
more than one impatient husband, coming in precipitately at about 
the time of twilight, had been for an instant stricken dumb by the 
supposed discovery that Mrs. Gamp had hanged herself." 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 87 

All the designs for "Martin Chuzzlewit" were etched on quarto 
plates, two on each plate. Five of these plates were etched three 
times, these including, besides the frontispiece and vignette title, 
the first six illustrations in the book, and two which appeared in the 
fourteenth number, viz., " Mr. Pinch Departs to Seek his Fortune," and 
" Mr. Nadgett Breathes, as Usual, an Atmosphere of Mystery." A 
careful examination of different copies of the first edition will disclose 
minute variations in these particular illustrations, worthy of special 
mention being the vignette title, where, in the earliest impressions, the 
J[^ mark is incorrectly placed after the figures in the amount of reward 
on the bill. 

In the majority of the "Chuzzlewit" etchings there is a vigour 
and precision of touch indicating the artist's riper experience. It must, 
however, be admitted that a few of the plates are so feeble in execu- 
tion in comparison with the rest as to suggest that " Phiz's " drawings 
were copied on the plate by a less expert etcher. An instance of this 
poverty of execution will be found in the first design, depicting 
" The Meekness of Mr. Pecksniff and his Charming Daughters," 
and the fact that this plate is unsigned seems significant ; in 
reply to my enquiry respecting it, Mr. Robert Young assured me 
that " no one ever copied or etched plates for Browne ; he traced the 
subject on the steel himself, and etched every line before it was bitten 
in. I know no reason for the omission of his signature to any of his 
plates." 

In a few instances the artist has not strictly followed the text For 
example, in the plate where Mr. Pecksniff calls upon Mrs. Gamp, the 
pie-shop is placed next door, whereas it is clearly described as being 
next door but one. In the etching of Mark Tapley "finding a jolly 
subject for contemplation," instead of Mark's name being inscribed in 
full upon the " Rowdy Journal " door, his initials only should appear, 
" in letters nearly half a foot long, together with the day of the month 
in smaller type ; " the four horses harnessed to the coach in which 
Tom Pinch departs to seek his fortune ("Phiz's" horses, by the way, 



88 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

are always well drawn) are described as "greys," while in the plate 
only one is thus represented. Such discrepancies, however, although 
interesting to note, are unimportant. As usual, we find in the acces- 
sories (such as the titles of books and pictures) sly touches of humour 
peculiarly apropos of the principal theme. " Phiz's " design for the 
wrapper of the monthly parts is emblematical of the story; here 
"silver spoons" and "wooden ladles," as embodied in the original 
title, play a conspicuous part. 

The " Chuzzlewit " drawings, all of which have been preserved, 
are executed in pencil, some having washes of neutral tint. They vary 
but slightly from the etchings, the greatest differences being noted 
in the first two designs, this doubtless arising from the difficulty 
experienced by the artist in immediately seizing the author's meaning. 
In one special instance Dickens favoured his illustrator with very 
precise instructions. Respecting the American scenes, the £irtist 
desired more details than usual, so he received from the novelist the 
following letter (now in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), giving parti- 
culars for the plate representing " The Thriving City of Eden, as it 
appeared in Fact." 

" Martin and Mark are displayed as the tenants of a wretched log 
hut (for a pattern whereof see a vignette brought by Chapman & 
Hall) in a perfectly flat, swampy, wretched forest of stunted timber in 
every stage of decay, with a filthy river running before the door, and 
some other miserable log houses distributed among the trees, whereof 
the most ruinous and tumble-down of all is labelled ' Bank and National 
Credit Office.' Outside their door, as the custom is, is a rough sort 
of form or dresser, on which are set forth their pot and kettle and so 
forth, all of the commonest kind. On the outside of the house, at one 
side of the door, is a written placard, ' Chuzzlewit and Co., Architects 
and Surveyors,' and upon a stump of tree, like a butcher's block, before 
the cabin, are Martin's instruments — a pair of rusty compasses, &c. 
On a three-legged stool beside this block sits Martin in his shirt 
sleeves, with long dishevelled hair, resting his head upon his hands — 



HABL6T K. BROWNE 89 

the picture of hopeless misery — watching the river and sadly remember- 
ing that it flows towards home. But Mr. Tapley, up to his knees in 
filth and brushwood, and in the act of endeavouring to perform some 
impossibilities with a hatchet, looks towards him with a face of un- 
impaired good humour, and declares himself perfectly jolly. Mark, 
the only redeeming feature. Everything else dull, miserable, squalid, 
unhealthy, and utterly devoid of hope — diseased, starved, and abject. 
The weather is intensely hot, and they are but partially clothed." 

The artist, naturally bewildered by such elaborate directions, has 
written underneath this note : " I can't get all this perspective in, 
unless you will allow of a long subject — something less than a mile ! " 

For the plate, " Martin Chuzzlewit Suspects the Landlady," two 
drawings were prepared, but the second was probably only to guide 
the biter-in of the steel as to the effect of light and shade required ; for 
it occasionally happened that " Phiz " had not time to give verbal in- 
structions to his assistant, when he would send a rough indication of 
what was needed in the matter oi chiaroscuro. In the original drawing 
representing "The Meekness of Mr. Pecksniff and his Charming 
Daughters," the figure of Tom Pinch differs from the plate, and shows 
signs of having been quickly sketched in, as though the first idea was 
not to introduce him at all ; in a second delineation of the same subject 
this figjure is limned with greater care. 

The original designs for " Chuzzlewit " were disposed of at Sotheby's 
in 1889 for ;^433, 13s., the beautifully-finished drawing of the frontis- 
piece realising £zS> while that of " Mrs. Gamp 'Propoges' a Toast," 
rightly considered as one of the artist's c/ief-d'aeuvres, was purchased 
for ;^35, los. 

To the Library Edition (1858-59) " Phiz" contributed a vignette 
for the title-page of each of the two volumes of " Martin Chuzzlewit," 
which were engraved on steel from the original water-colour drawings. 
The subject of the first design is almost a repetition of the etching in 
the original issue, and depicts the " Meekness of Mr. Pecksniff and his 
Charming Daughters," the ladies being certainly more attractive in the 



90 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

later conception. In the second vignette we see Mrs. Gamp and 
Betsy Prig, at the moment when the latter, in her wrath, denied the 
existence of the memorable Mrs. Harris. 

Among the forty illustrations prepared by " Phiz " for " Dombey 
and Son" will be found some of the artist's happiest 
Uombcy efforts. By this time his experience with the etching- 
*ft ( °R ' needle enabled him to execute his designs upon the steel 
plates with wonderful facility and dexterity, and con- 
tinual practice had made him almost perfect in this particular branch 
of art. All these plates were etched in duplicate ; the greater number 
were drawn on quarto plates, having two subjects on each as usual, 
but the frontispiece, the last four illustrations, and the duplicates of 
three others were etched singly on steels of octavo size.* 

The duplicates do not vary much ; that in which an alteration is 
most noticeable, although hardly perceptible, is "Abstraction and 
Recognition," the bills on the wall near Alice in one plate being less 
mutilated than in the other. There was such a large circulation of 
the book in part form that the printing from the plates could not be 
executed quickly enough, the etchings being rarely sent in until the 
last minute ; so that it became necessary to resort to lithographic 
transfers until the duplicate plates could be etched. In " Dombey 
and Son" the artist first introduced the oblong form of illustration, 
this lending itself more appropriately to the subjects so treated, and in 
succeeding novels we find a fair sprinkling of designs of this shape. 
When nearing the end of the story he essayed, with considerable 
success, a new method of obtaining chiaroscuro, and he afterwards 
adopted it whenever striking effects were required. The only plate in 
" Dombey " so treated is "On the Dark Road," on which, by means of 
a ruling-machine, a tint had been placed before the subject was drawn, 
and, by a process of biting-in, stopping-out, and burnishing, an effect 

■ An American edition (published in 1844) contains fourteen clever replicas of the " Dombey " 
etchings. 



i 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 91 

resembling mezzotint was obtained. The machine was kept in Mr. 
Young's studio at Furnival's Inn, and could be manipulated by a boy, 
the operation of " ruling " being a purely mechanical one ; it was the 
subsequent treatment by acid and burnisher, in reproducing the tones 
of the original drawing, that required the knowledge of an expert. 

A few anomalies may be discovered in the " Dombey " plates. 
In the various representations of Captain Cuttle the artist has de- 
picted him, in two instances, with the hook upon the left arm instead 
of the right. When comparing the three plates portraying Sol Gills's 
little back-parlour, certain little discrepancies are apparent, such as 
the altered position of the model of a brig, &c. In the plate entitled 
"The Wooden Midshipman on the Look-out," Florence is delineated 
as a well-developed young woman, whereas, according to the text, she 
was then but a mere child of fourteen. In the same illustration the 
artist has drawn a pair of horses (or rather their heads) which can 
have no possible connection with the omnibus near by, although they 
are evidently intended to be associated therewith. In the etching 
" Abstraction and Recognition," Alice and her mother standing in 
the archway are much too tall ; it is interesting to note here the 
advertisement on the wall of Cruikshank's "Bottle," which may be 
considered as denoting the popularity of that remarkable series of 
pictures, then being issued. Two palpable errors are discoverable in 
the illustration entitled "On the Dark Road," for not only does the 
driver hold the reins in the wrong hand, but it will be seen that the 
wheels of the rapidly-moving carriage are really represented as station- 
ary, while the " off" wheels are omitted altogether. In the last plate but 
one, the figure of Florence is not sufficiently visionary, and therefore 
fails to convey the author's meaning respecting the conscience-stricken 
Dombey. 

Habldt Browne invariably laboured under some disadvantage 
when designing his illustrations for Dickens ; indeed, he was some- 
times compelled to draw his inspiration merely from the author's 
verbal explanation or reading of a particular passage ; so it is not 



92 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

surprising that we discover an occasional discrepancy. In the case of 
" Dombey," he experienced a difficulty of another kind, for during 
the writing of the story Dickens was living at Lausanne in Switzer- 
land, and the sketches had to be sent there for his criticism and 
approval, which not only caused delay, but gave the artist some 
trouble in understanding the suggestions made by the author when 
returning the drawings. 

Several letters from Dickens to Forster at this time express 
solicitude concerning these plates. Writing from Lausanne on the 
1 8th of July 1846, he said: "The prints for illustration, and the 
enormous care required, make me excessively anxious." A nervous 
dread of caricature on the face of his merchant-hero had led him 
to indicate by a living person the type of city gentleman he would 
have had the artist select. " The man for Dombey," he explained, 

"if Browne could see him, the class man to a T, is Sir A 

E , of D 's ; " and this is all he meant by his reiterated urgent 

request, " I do wish he could get a glimpse of A., for he is the 
very Dombey." It seems, however, that the "glimpse of A." was 
impracticable, so it was resolved to send, for selection by himself, 
glimpses of other letters of the alphabet — actual heads as well as 
fanciful ones — and the sheetful of sketches forwarded for this purpose 
contains no less than twenty-nine typical Dombey portraits, compris- 
ing full-length and half-length presentments, as well as studies of 
heads in various poses, but with the same hard characteristic expres- 
sion.* Against four of them " Phiz " has placed little arrows, to 
indicate that (in his opinion) they best accorded with the author's 
conception. The Dombey actually etched was not, after all, an 
absolute transcript of these tentative ideas, but seems to be a com- 
bination of several ; and it is curious to note that, in the various 
representations of the proud city merchant as seen in the plates, 
" Phiz " did not keep religiously to the same type. That Dickens 

1 In Mr. Andrew Lang's opinion, these sketches for Mr. Dombey look like " a collection 
of criminal butlers." 



Plate XXXV 

"MR. CHADBAND 'IMPROVING' A TOUGH SUBJECT" 

FacHmilt of the Original Drawing for " Bleak House " by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

In the Etching the figtire of Jo is placed on the opposite side of the picture. 
Latt by Her Grace the Duchess of St. AOans. 



HiillOT 



n 



m 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 93 

considered the artist's presentment as satisfactory is proved by his 
remark to Forster, " I think Mr. Dombey admirable," this doubtless 
referring to the illustration entitled " Mr. Dombey and the World." 
In a fragment of a letter preserved by Mr. J. F. Dexter may be 
read a few instructions to the artist with reference to the delinea- 
tion of Mr. Dombey and his second wife : " It is a part of his 
character that he should be just the same as of yore. And in the 
second subject, I should like Edith Granger to possess the reader 
with a more serious notion of her having a serious part to play in 
the story. I really hardly know, however, what [part] beyond an 
expression of utter indifference towards Mr. Dombey. ..." 

In the letter to Forster already quoted, the novelist sent (for trans- 
mission to the artist) a few hints for the earlier designs: "Great 
pains will be necessary with Miss Tox. The Toodle family should 
not be too much caricatured, because of Polly. I should like Browne 
to think of Susan Nipper, who will not be wanted in the first number. 
After the second number, they will all be nine or ten years older, 
but this will not involve much change in the characters, except in 
the children and Miss Nipper." After the completion of the first 
two plates, Dickens seems to have been in better heart about his 
illustrator, for, again writing to Forster from Lausanne, he said : 
" Browne seems to be getting on well. He will have a good subject 
in Paul's christening. Mr. Chick is like D., if you'll mention that 
when you think of it." Then, a little later : " Browne is certainly 
interesting himself and taking pains." He seems, however, to have 
been greatly disappointed with the designs in the second number, 
viz., "The Christening Party" (which he anticipated would be a 
success) and " Polly Rescues the Charitable Grinder," declaring them 
to be so " dreadfully bad " (in the sense of not keeping strictly to the 
text) that they made him "curl his legs up." This failure on the 
part of the artist caused him to feel unusually anxious in regard to 
a special illustration on which he had set much store, intended for 
the number he then had in hand. Communicating with Forster 



94 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

anent this, he said : " The best subject for Browne will be at Mrs. 
Pipchin's ; and if he liked to do a quiet odd thing, Paul, Mrs. Pipchin, 
and the Cat, by the fire, would be very good for the story. I 
earnestly hope he will think it worth a little extra care." On first 
seeing the etching of this subject, he was sorely displeased, and could 
not refrain from thus expressing himself to Forster : " I am really 
distressed by the illustration of Mrs. Pipchin and Paul. It is so 
frightfully and wildly wide of the mark. Good Heaven! in the 
commonest and most literal construction of the text it is all wrong. 
She is described as an old lady, and Paul's 'miniature arm-chair' 
is mentioned more than once. He ought to be sitting in a little 
arm-chair down in the corner of the fireplace, staring up at her. I 
can't say what pain and vexation it is to be so utterly misrepresented. 
I would cheerfully have given a hundred pounds to have kept this 
illustration out of the book. He never could have got that idea of 
Mrs. Pipchin if he had attended to the text Indeed, I think he 
does better without the text ; for then the notion is made easy to 
him in short description, and he can't help taking it in." It is cer- 
tainly strange that the sketch for this subject was not submitted to 
Dickens for approval before it was etched. We are told by Forster 
that the author felt the disappointment more keenly because "the 
conception of the grim old boarding-house keeper had taken back 
his thoughts to the miseries of his own child-life, and made her, as 
her prototype in verity was, a part of the terrible reality." In justice 
to the artist, it must be conceded that the etching of this subject 
seems to be an excellent rendering of the description of the scene 
as conveyed in the letterpress. 

"Phiz" sometimes complained that Dickens did not send him 
more than a few printed lines as a guide to the subject to be illus- 
trated, and, being kept in ignorance as to the context, he found it 
difificult to delineate the characters as well as the novelist might 
wish. Occasionally, as we have seen, he received quite a lengthy note 
when at work upon the designs, these communications sometimes 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 95 

being partly literal extracts from the text and partly condensation, 
such as the following : — 

" Paul (a year older) has left Mrs. Pipchin's and gone to Doctor 
Blimber's establishment at Brighton. The Doctor only takes ten 
young gentlemen. Doctor Blimber's establishment is a good hot- 
house for the young mind, with a forcing apparatus always at work. 
Mental green peas are produced there at Christmas, and intellectual 
asparagus all the year round. Every description of Greek and 
Latin vegetable is got off the driest twigs of boys under the frostiest 
circumstances. Mrs, Blimber is fond of the boys not being like 
boys, and of their wearing collars and neckerchiefs. They have all 
blown before their time. The eldest boy in the school — young Toots 
by name, with a swollen nose and an exceedingly large head — left 
off blowing suddenly one day, and people do say that the Doctor 
rather overdid it with him, and that when he began to have 
whiskers he left off having brains. All the young gentlemen have 
great weights on their minds. They are haunted by verbs, noun- 
substantives, roots, and syntactic passages. Some abandoned hope 
half through the Latin Grammar, and others curse Virgil in the 
bitterness of their souls. Classical Literature in general is an im- 
mense collection of words to them. It's all words and grammar, 
and don't mean anything else. 

" Subject — These young gentlemen out walking, very dismally 
and formally (observe it's a very expensive school), with the lettering. 
Doctor Blimber s young gentlemen as they appeared when enjoying 
themselves. I think Doctor Blimber, a little removed from the rest, 
should bring up the rear, or lead the van, with Paul, who is much 
the youngest of the party. I extract the description of the Doctor. 
[Here follows a quotation from the eleventh chapter.] 

" Paul cis last described, but a twelvemonth older. No collar or 
neckerchief for him, of course. I would make the next youngest boy 
about three or four years older than he." 

A remarkable oversight on the part of "Phiz" with reference to 



96 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

this plate is immediately observable, for while Dickens explicitly 
states the number of Dr. Blimber's pupils as ten, the artist has 
introduced no less than seventeen young gentlemen. Concerning 
the illustration, " Major Bagstock is Delighted to have that Oppor- 
tunity," there is extant an interesting letter (dated March lo, 1847) 
from Dickens to "Phiz" (printed for the first time in Mr. D. C. 
Thomson's Memoir of H. K. Browne), in which the novelist is very 
explicit respecting his requirements : — 

"My Dear Browne— . . . The occasion of my coming home 
makes me very late with my number, which I have only begun this 
morning; otherwise you should have been fed sooner. . . . The 
first subject I am now going to give is very important to the book. 
/ should like to see your sketch of it if possible. 

" I should premise that I want to make the Major, who is the 
incarnation of selfishness and small revenge, a kind of comic Mephis- 
tophilean power in the book ; and the No. begins with the departure 
of Mr. Dombey and the Major on that trip for change of air and 
scene which is prepared for in the last Number. They go to Leam- 
ington, where you and I were once. In the Library the Major 
introduces Mr. Dombey to a certain lady, whom, as I wish to fore- 
shadow dimly, said Dombey may come to marry in due season. She 
is about thirty, not a day more — handsome, though haughty-looking 
— good figure, well dressed, showy, and desirable. Quite a lady in 
appearance, with something of a proud indifference about her, sugges- 
tive of a spark of the Devil within. Was married young. Husband 
dead. Goes about with an old mother, who rouges, and who lives 
upon the reputation of a diamond necklace and her family. Wants a 
husband. Flies at none but high game, and couldn't marry anybody 
not rich. Mother affects cordiality and heart, and is the essence of 
sordid calculation. Mother usually shoved about in a Bath chair 
by a page who has rather outgrown and outshoved his strength, 
and who butts at it behind like a ram, while his mistress steers 
herself languidly by a handle in front. Nothing the matter with 



T 

I 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 97 

her to prevent her walking, only was once when a Beauty sketched 
reclining in a Barouche, and having outlived the Beauty and the 
Barouche too, still holds to the attitude as becoming her uncommonly. 
Mother is in this machine in the sketch. Daughter has a parasol. 

"The Major presents them to Mr. Dombey, gloating within 
himself over what may come of it, and over the discomfiture of 
Miss Tox. Mr. Dombey (in deep mourning) bows solemnly. 
Daughter bends. The native in attendance bearing a camp-stool 
and the Major's greatcoat. Native evidently afraid of the Major 
and his thick cane. If you like it better, the scene may be in the 
street or in a green lane. But a great deal will come of it ; and I 
want the Major to express that as much as possible in his apoplectic 
Mephistophilean observation of the scene, and in his share of it." 

The design was promptly executed and submitted to Dickens, 
who, in a letter to the artist dated five days later, expressed his 
approval thereof: "The sketch is admirable," he wrote, — "the 
women quite perfect. I cannot tell you how much I like the younger 
one. There are one or two points, however, which I must ask you to 
alter. They are capital in themselves, and I speak solely for the story. 

" First — I grieve to write it — that native — who is so prodigiously 
good as he is — must be in European costume. He may wear earrings 
and look outlandish and be dark brown. In this fashion must be 
of Moses, Mosesy. I don't mean Old Testament Moses, but him 
of the Minories, 

" Secondly, if you can make the Major older, and with a larger 
face — do. 

" That's all. Never mind the pump-room now, unless you have 
found the sketch, as we may have that another time. I shall ' propoge ' 
to you a trip to Leamington together. We might go one day and 
return the next. . . . Don't mind sending me the second sketch. It 
is so late." * 

■ This letter was by chance preserved from a bonfire made by Browne of his old letters and 
unfinished drawings previous to a change of residence. 

G 



98 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

In Mr. J. F, Dexter's collection there is a pencil-sketch by " Phiz " 
for this subject (evidently an earlier conception than that submitted 
to Dickens), in which the incident is depicted as occurring at the sea- 
side (probably Brighton), while, curiously enough, the figure of Mr. 
Dombey is omitted. Another interesting drawing, also owned by 
Mr. Dexter, is a tentative sketch (in blue ink) for "The Dombey 
Family," under which the artist has written the following query : 
"Whether 'twere better to have him [Mr. Dombey] standing thus, 
stiff as a poker, with a kind of side glance at his daughter — or sitting, 
as in the other.''" In the etching we see that Mr. Dombey is repre- 
sented as seated, while Florence is transferred to the other side of 
the picture. 

Through the kind courtesy of Her Grace the Duchess of St. 
Albans, I have been enabled to examine the original "working" 
drawings for "Dombey and Son," all of these, with one exception 
(viz. "Polly Rescues the Charitable Grinder," which has mysteriously 
disappeared), being in the possession of her Grace. The majority of 
the designs were not reversed when copied upon the steels, and 
this accounts for some of the incongruities already referred to. In 
certain cases the drawings are sketched with blue ink and the 
effects lightly washed in ; others are in pencil, or pencil and brush- 
work combined. 

In comparing the drawings with the plates, certain unimpor- 
tant variations are discoverable ; for example, in the drawing of 
"Paul's Exercises," the candlestick is placed on the table, and more 
to the right, instead of being raised on a pile of books ; in " Major 
Bagstock is Delighted to have that Opportunity," the figure of the 
"Native" is differently posed, besides being almost erased, in con- 
sequence, perhaps, of Dickens's criticism ; in " Coming Home from 
Church," the ringers hold two bells in either hand. On one of the 
drawings Dickens has placed his initials, while in the corner of 
another, "Secret Intelligence," the artist has written the words, 
" Better, eh ? " whence we may infer that a previous sketch had been 



Plate XXXVI 

DOLLY VARDEN 

Facsimile of an Original Drawing by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 



This Drawing, which was designed for the series of extra plates for 
" Barnaby Rudge," has never been engraved. The published portrait of 
Dolly is a reproduction of a subsequent Drawing. 

Lent by Mr. J. P. Dexter. 



17/ 



A on 



r 




\ 



.4; 



1 



^ 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 99 

submitted. It seems likely that " Phiz " made two or three trial 
sketches for every etching in the book, as there are still in existence 
other tentative designs for some of the subjects above referred to. 

Writing to the editor of the Daily News (December 30, 1882), 
Dr. Edgar A. Browne, the artist's son, says : " Dickens's delight in 
the [' Dombey '] illustrations as a whole was, as a matter of fact, very 
great, and was expressed (doubtless with some characteristic exaggera- 
tion) so forcibly, that my father gave him the original designs, which 
were acknowledged in the following letter : — 

"'Devonshire Terrace, Thirteenth June, 1848. 

" ' Mv Dear Browne, — A thousand thanks for the Dombey 
sketches, which I shall preserve and transmit as heirlooms. 

" ' This afternoon, on Thursday, I shall be near the whereabout of 
the boy in the flannel gown, and will pay him an affectionate visit. 
But I warn you now and beforehand (and this is final, you'll observe) 
that you are not agoing to back out of the pigmental finishing said 
boy ; for if ever I had a boy of my own that boy is 

MINE, 

and, as the demon says at the Surrey, 

'i claim mv victim,' 
ha! ha! ha!! 

at which you will imagine me going down a sulphurous trap, with the 
boy in my grasp — and you will please not to imagine him merely in 
my grasp, but to hand him over. 

" ' For which this is your warrant and requirement 

(Signed) Charles Dickens. 

" ' Witness — William + Topping, 
His groom.'" 

The allusion to " the boy in the flannel gown " has reference to 
a portrait of Little Paul, painted by " Phiz " as a present to Dickens. 



loo DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Miss Hogarth informs me, however, that she has no recollection of 
this picture, nor of the " Dombey " sketches. 

" Phiz," as usual, designed the pictorial wrapper for the monthly 
parts, concerning which Dickens wrote : " I think the cover very 
good ; perhaps with a little too much in it, but that is an ungrateful 
objection." The criticism was justified, however, for the design, 
though ingeniously conceived, certainly errs on the side of over- 
elaboration. 

The success attending the sale of the extra plates for " Master 
Humphrey's Clock " encouraged a repetition of this form of inde- 
pendent publication, and a similar series of portraits were produced 
ot the principal characters in " Dombey and Son." Four capital 
plates, consisting of portraits of Little Paul, Florence, Edith, and 
Alice, were designed by Browne, and engraved on steel {in stipple 
and line) by Edwards and Knight, under the superintendence of 
the artist and Robert Young, whose joint venture it was. The 
engravings were published with Dickens's sanction concurrently with 
the story ; the original impressions are now very scarce, but the 
plates still exist in good condition, and have recently been reprinted. 
Dickens was much pleased with these delightful portraits, and in a 
hitherto unpublished letter to the artist (dated January 5, 1847) he 
thus referred to the drawings : "I think Paul very good indeed — a 
beautiful little composition altogether. The face of Florence strikes 
me as being too old, particularly about the mouth. Edith, not so 
handsome as in the little drawings, and something too long and 
flat in the face. The better Alice of the two, decidedly that which 
is opposite Edith." There are extant as many as six pencil- 
sketches for the portrait of Alice, presenting slight variations in 
pose and expression, and Mr. Dexter owns an interesting study (in 
pencil and red chalk) of Florence Dombey, which has never been 
engraved. 

Almost simultaneously with the production of the above portraits, 
"Phiz" designed and etched eight additional plates containing full- 



w 



I 



HABL6t K. BROWNE loi 

length presentments of Mr. Dombey and Carker, Mrs. Skewton, 
Old Sol and Captain Cuttle, Miss Tox, Mrs. Pipchin, Major Bagstock, 
Miss Nipper, and Polly Toodle. This undertaking was entirely a 
speculation of the artist, the plates being also issued in sets 
by Chapman & Hall. Dr. Browne informs me that the original 
drawings were unexpectedly discovered by him, rolled up and dirty, 
and were afterwards included in the Memorial Exhibition of his 
father's works at the Liverpool Art Club in 1883. 

The first cheap edition of "Dombey and Son," 1858, includes a 
frontispiece by " Phiz," representing the flight of Carker. The artist 
also contributed to each of the two volumes of the Library Edition 
(1858-59) specially-designed vignettes, engraved on steel, the sub- 
jects being Mr. Dombey and the second Mrs. Dombey, and Paul 
with Florence at the seaside. 



HABLOT K. BROWNE 



III 



"DavidCopperfield"— The DesignspreparedinDuplicate—" Phiz's" Port rait of Mr. Micawber 
— Peggotty's Hut— Trifling Errors in the Plates— Original Drawings— Designs for " I Make 
myself Known to my Aunt"— Variations in the Etchings— Frontispiece for the First Cheap 
Edition— Vignettes for the Library Edition— "Bleak House"— Plates partly Duplicated 
— Some Curious Inaccuracies— Skimpole successfully Portrayed— " Phiz " takes Mental 
Notes— Original Drawings— Alterations in the Plates— The " Bleak House " Illustrations 
Criticised— Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition — Vignettes for the Library Edition— 
"Little Dorrit"— Illustrations Unsigned— " Machine-ruled Designs— A Letter from 
Dickens respecting one of the Plates— Original Drawings— Pictorial Wrapper—" A Talk 
OF Two Cities "—A Letter from " Phiz " to his Son— Dickens Forestalled— An Unpublished 
Design— Last of Dickens's Stories Illustrated by " Phiz "—The Artist's Conjectures as to 
the Cause of the Severance — His Tender Regard for the Novelist — His Antecedents- 
Apprenticeship at Finden's— Exhibits at the Royal Academy— Inability to Draw from 
"the Life"— Some Letters to Dickens— " The Pic Nic Papers"— An Early Reminiscence 
of Dickens— "Phiz's" Remuneration — From Prosperity to Adversity— Serious Illness — 
A Broken-down Old Man— Paralysis— A Pathetic Grievance— Applies for a Government 
Pension — Recognition by the Royal Academy — Decline of Imagination and Power of 
Invention— Death of the Artist— Mr. J. G. Fennell's Tribute—" Phiz's " Shyness— An 
Extraordinary Commission — Water-colour Replicas of the Dickens Illustrations — Vignettes 
for the Library Edition of "Sketches by Boz" and "Oliver Twist"— " Phiz's" Fellow- 
Apprentice, Coadjutor, and Friend— Etching the Plates— Mezzotint Eflfects— Fumival's Inn 
—A Note from " Phiz " to his Colleague — Mr. Robert Young's Autobiographical Sketch. 



David "T N " David Copperfield," the most fascinating of 

Gspperficld, I Dickens's novels, it cannot be said that "Phiz" 
1049-50. X quite rose to the occasion. Ahhough some of these 

plates he never excelled, the majority are marked by a certain hard- 
ness and stiffness of treatment, and are conspicuously deficient in 
that vigour and deftness of touch which characterise his previous 
efforts. 

As in the case of " Dombey and Son," the whole of the designs 
were etched in duplicate, the replicas differing but slightly from the 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 103 

originals. About half of the series were executed singly on octavo 
steels, instead of in couples on the usual quarto plates. In one of 
the designs, viz., "The River," the artist has again resorted to the 
ruling-machine for attaining the desired effect, but the result is poor 
and meagre. He has succeeded admirably in his presentment of 
Micawber, respecting which Dickens wrote to Forster : " Browne has 
sketched an uncommonly characteristic and capital Mr. Micawber for 
the next number." The most pleasing of all these etchings, however, 
are those in which the boy-hero figures, such as those depicting him 
with the " friendly waiter " at the bar of the public-house, and as, with 
battered hat and ragged raiment, he "makes himself known to his 
aunt" 

It has been asserted that " Phiz " at this period sometimes grew 
careless, and that Dickens did not exercise that particular surveillance 
over the cutist's work which he customarily bestowed upon it in the 
early days. For example, the novelist thus describes Peggotty's odd 
residence, an old boat drawn up on land and fashioned into a house : 
" There was a delightful door cut in the side, and it was roofed 
in, emd there were little windows in it." He never refers to it as 
an inverted boat, although it is so delineated by " Phiz," — indeed, 
the inference is that the vessel stood upon its keel, for elsewhere it 
is mentioned as being left " high and dry," as though it were a boat 
that had been washed ashore. If such was the novelist's conception, 
it seems strange and unaccountable that he should have accepted 
without a protest the artist's misrepresentation of Peggotty's home. 
Curiously enough, there might have been seen within recent years, 
on the open Denes at Yarmouth, an inverted boat similarly converted 
into a cosy residence, the existence of which apparently gives actuality 
to " Phiz's " drawing. 

In some of the etchings may be discovered a few trivial errors ; 
for instance, in the plate entitled " Somebody Turns Up," Mrs. 
Heep is left-handed, an oversight which (as in previous cases) is 
doubtless the result of the etching being in reverse of the original 



104 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

design, although "Phiz" was generally careful to remember this 
when preparing his sketches. Strange to relate, in the scene de- 
picting divine service at Blunderstone Church, he has omitted the 
officiating clergy ! In " My First Fall in Life," the horses (especially 
the leaders) are undoubtedly disproportionate, and the same criticism 
applies to the figures in the illustration depicting the unexpected 
arrival of David and his friend at Peggotty's fireside. In the etching 
of "The River," the scene should have been reversed, and from this 
point of view (the river-side at Millbank) the dome of St. Paul's is 
not visible, although it is shown in the picture Another curious 
mistake is apparent in the interesting plate entitled " Our Housekeep- 
ing ; " here David is seen struggling with a loin of mutton, whereas 
in the text the joint is distinctly described as a boiled leg of mutton. 
It is amusing to note the appropriate character of the pictures adorn- 
ing the walls of some of "Phiz's" interiors. In the etching of "The 
Friendly Waiter and I " he has thus introduced the scene illustrating 
the familiar fable of the Fox and the Stork ; in "Changes at Home" 
we have the Return of the Prodigal Son and the Finding of Moses 
in the bulrushes ; and in the plate delineating Steerforth and Miss 
Mowcher will be noticed over the fireplace a scene from Gulliver's 
adventures in Brobdingnag, an allusion to the diminutive proportions 
of the remarkable dwarf who was " so volatile." 

Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans possesses the complete 
series of " working " drawings for " David Copperfield." Like the 
" Dombey " designs, these highly-finished drawings are executed 
chiefly in pencil and the effects washed in with indian-ink, while a 
few are in pencil only. Of that well-known design, " I Make myself 
Known to my Aunt," there exist no less than three tentative sketches ; 
the first (on which the artist has written "Or — so — so? ") represents 
Miss Trotwood sitting " flat down on the garden-path," — a pose 
which, although accurate enough according to the text, was rightly 
deemed inartistic, whereupon the artist prepared another design, and 
submitted it to Dickens. In the second picture (where "Phiz" has 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 105 

queried, " Or — so ? "), the lady stands erect, but the pathetic appearance 
of David is lost, and the composition of the background proves less 
fortunate. In the etching " Phiz " combined the two designs, — that is, 
he used the first drawing, but substituted the standing figure of Miss 
Trotwood for the seated one. On the margin of the second design 
the artist (in a humorous mood) has limned an unmerciful caricature 
of the whole incident. The third tentative drawing for this subject, 
believed to be the first sketch, was sold at Sotheby's in 1887 for 
£6, 15s. ; it is now in the collection of Mr. Thomas Wright, of Paris. 

With the sketch for " The Friendly Waiter and I " the novelist 
was delighted. " Phiz " originally represented David as wearing a 
long jacket, but this not being quite in accordance with Dickens's idea, 
he wrote asking the artist to " put Davy in a little jacket instead 
of this coat, without altering him in any other respect," which was 
accordingly done. 

In the drawing for the plate entitled " My Magnificent Order at 
the Public-house," the form of the two large spirit-vessels behind David 
are more jug-shaped than in the etching. The " little white hat," 
by-the-way, as here worn by David, is just such head-gear as Dickens 
himself disported when a boy. In the drawing of David on the box- 
seat of the coach, " My First Fall in Life," the western towers of 
Canterbury Cathedral are indicated in the distance, but these are 
omitted in the etching. In the scene, " Mr, Micawber Delivers some 
Valedictory Remarks," certain faint lines are observable near the 
principal figure, indicating that he was originally delineated in a 
different attitude. The effective sketch of " The Wanderer " portrays 
more of the woman's figure than is visible in the plate. In the design 
entitled " Our Housekeeping," the frame of a mirror or picture is 
introduced on the wall behind David, but this was afterwards con- 
sidered superfluous ; and in the drawing of " The Emigrants," Mr. 
Micawber grasps a telescope, which does not appear in the plate. 
The drawing of "Mr. Peggotty's Dream Comes True" varies con- 
siderably from the etching, for not only is David seen wearing a hat 



io6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

(which in the etching is placed upon the table), but the artist has 
included a fourth figure, that of Rosa Dartle, who, seated in the 
chair, leans her head upon her arms above the table. The introduc- 
tion of Miss Dartle is, of course, incorrect, as she had left the room 
before Mr. Peggotty entered ; but the error was detected, and the 
necessary alteration effected in the published design. 

"Phiz's" pictorial wrapper for the monthly parts is replete with 
detail, around the title in the centre being displayed various figures 
apparently exemplifying the Seven Ages of Man, with Dame Fortune 
crowning the whole. 

The first cheap edition of "David Copperfield," 1858, contained 
a frontispiece by "Phiz," engraved on wood by Swain, representing 
Little Em'ly and David as children on Yarmouth Sands ; to the 
Library Edition (1858-59) the artist contributed two vignettes (en- 
graved on steel), the subject in the first volume being Little Em'ly 
and David by the sea, and for the second, another version of the 
etching entitled " Mr. Peggotty's Dream Comes True." 



Bleak 

House, 

1852-53. 



In the forty illustrations for " Bleak House" the artist introduced a 
greater variety of subjects, and resorted more frequently 
to the use of the ruling-machine, no less than ten being 
so treated with considerable success. "Phiz" etched 
one complete set of the plates and duplicates of the 
machine-ruled designs, which were repeated probably because they 
could not so readily withstand the wear-and-tear of the printing. 

A very few of the "Bleak House" illustrations are signed. In 
some of them the details do not entirely accord with the letterpress, 
a noteworthy instance of this inaccuracy being found in the etching 
entitled " Miss Jellaby," who is represented as dipping her forefinger 
in the egg-cup, whereas we are told that it was her " inky middle 
finger." A more important oversight in the same picture is the intro- 
duction of the infant Jellaby in the bed, who was not in the room 
at all, as a careful reading of the text readily discloses. In two 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 107 

instances, Turveydrop pire is depicted without the false whiskers 
he customarily wore, and in the illustration of "The Smallweed 
Family," the son is incorrectly omitted. It is perhaps worth noting 
an odd mistake on the part of the artist — in the etching entitled 
" Consecrated Ground " he has represented the iron gates in a manner 
to lead one to suppose they could not be opened ; it is unfortunate, 
too, that, in this pathetic scene (in which, by the way, the chiar- 
oscuro is curiously forced) he partly destroys its sentiment by in- 
appropriately introducing on the left the comical shadow of a man 
in the act of drinking from a tankard. With reference to one of the 
characters in "Bleak House" Dickens wrote to Forster: "Browne 
has done Skimpole, and helped to make him singularly unlike the 
great original." The "great original" was, of course, Leigh Hunt, 
a fact which the novelist himself did not so successfully disguise, 
and subsequently paid the penalty for his indiscretion. 

" Phiz " invariably depended upon his imagination or memory for 
his scenes and characters ; as the artist himself expressed it, he would 
merely go " to have a look at a thing," and then be able to prepare his 
picture without further aid. For instance, before designing the weird 
illustration of "The Lonely Figure" in "Bleak House," he visited a 
lime-pit, in order to see what the big crushing-wheels were like that 
he desired to introduce, and made a mental note of them without 
leaving the seat of his trap. 

Besides the original "working" drawings for " Dombey and Son" 
and " David Copperfield," Her Grace the Duchess of St. Albans also 
possesses those for " Bleak House." They vary considerably in treat- 
ment, some being carefully rendered, while those reproduced with the 
mezzotint shading are very broadly and vigorously executed by means 
of a soft lead-pencil, the lights heightened with chinese-white. In 
comparing the drawings with the etchings, slight variations may here 
and there be noted ; for example, in the design for " Mr. Guppy's En- 
tertainment," Mr. Jobling was first seen wearing his hat, but this was 
partly obliterated and the contour of the head afterweirds drawn in ; in 



I 



io8 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

" Visitors at the Shooting Gallery," the figure of Mr. George is slightly 
different in pose, while the sword rests on his shoulder ; in " Mr. Small- 
weed Breaks the Pipe of Peace," Miss Smallweed stands a short distance 
from her father's chair, holding his "long clay ; " in the charming design 
representing " Lady Dedlock in the Wood," we see Ada coming up 
behindher ladyship, the figure of Charley (differently posed) being trans- 
ferred to the other side of the picture. A more remarkable alteration, 
however, occurs in the design "Mr. Chadband ' Improving' a Tough 
Subject." Chadband's attitude is entirely changed from that in the 
etching, and Jo is placed on the other side of the drawing, with his 
back to Guster, while a cat reposes upon an ottoman near Mrs. 
Snagsby. In the drawing of " Attorney and Client," the face of 
Mr. Vholes is of a type differing from the published version, and his 
arms rest upon the desk ; also, there is no waste-paper basket, and the 
deed-box is nearer the table. Mr. J. F. Dexter has another sketch for 
this illustration (presumably an earlier one), in which Richard Carstone 
stands with his back to the table, with his right hand pressed despond- 
ingly against his forehead. The original drawings for the sombre 
scenes, although more effective than the etched reproductions, are 
remarkably crude in treatment — a criticism which applies more especi- 
ally to those depicting, " The Lonely Figure" and " The Night." The 
etchings of these subjects are technically superior to the drawings, 
their quality, however, being principally owing to the results obtained 
by means of the ruling-machine. The late Mr. James Payn once ex- 
pressed the belief that it was " Phiz's " selection of subjects such as 
these which made him so acceptable an illustrator to Dickens. 

In 1882, a writer in The Academy, who considered the illustrations 
in "Bleak House "as being practically perfect, said of them: "Not 
only is the comic side, the even fussily comic, such as ' The Young Man 
of the Name of Guppy,' understood and rendered well, but the dignified 
beauty of the old country-house architecture, or the architecture of the 
chambers of our Inns-of-court, is conveyed in brief touches ; and there 
is apparent everywhere that element of terrible suggestiveness which 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 109 

made not only the art of Habldt Browne, but the art of Charles 
Dickens himself, in this story of ' Bleak House,' recall the imaginative 
purpose of the art of Mdryon. What can be more impressive in con- 
nection with the story — nay, even independently of the story — than 
the illustration of Mr. Tulkinghom's chambers in gloom ; than the 
illustration of the staircase of Dedlock's own house, with the placard 
of the reward for the discovery of the murderer ; than that of Tom 
All Alone's ; the dark, foul darkness of the burial-ground under scanty 
lamplight, and the special spot where lay the man who ' wos wery good 
to me — he wos!'? And then again, 'The Ghost's Walk,' and once 
more the burial-ground, with the woman's body — Lady Dedlock's — 
now close against its gate. Of course it would be possible to find fault 
with these things, but they have nothing of the vice of tameness — they 
deliver their message effectually. It is not their business to be faultless; 
it is their business to impress." 

The design for the monthly wrapper is emblematical of the Court 
of Chancery, the artist availing himself of this opportunity of indulg- 
ing in humorous pencillings reflecting upon the integrity of lawyers. 
"Phiz" contributed the frontispiece to the first cheap edition, 1858, 
representing Mr. Jarndyce and his friends in Bell Yard. He also 
designed the usual vignettes for the two volumes in the Library 
Edition (1858-59), which were engraved on steel; in the first is 
delineated Lady Dedlock and Jo, and in the second we behold Lady 
Dedlock and Esther Summerson in the wood, the latter cqmposition 
much resembling the original etching of the same incident. 

Among the illustrations in " Little Dorrit " there are some as feeble 

in execution as there are others remarkable for exception- 

I! , ally vigorous treatment ; and it is worthy of note that, 

o _ ' whereas in " Bleak House " the artist began partly to 

relinquish the custom of appending his familiar nom de 

guerre to the plates, in " Little Dorrit " not a single design bears his 

signature. 



no DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

An examination of the "Dorrit" etchings discloses the fact that no 
less than eight are toned by means of the ruling-machine, the result 
being even more satisfactory than usual. The first of these " ruled " 
plates represents the interior of a French prison, and the effect of deep 
gloom, enhanced by a few bright rays of light darting through the 
barred window, is remarkable for its Rembrandt-like chiaroscuro. 
Pleasantly contrasting with this sombre subject there is the plate de- 
picting "The Ferry," a delightfully rural view, with trees and wind- 
ing river, and that entitled " Floating Away," where the moon, rising 
behind the trees, imparts a romantic aspect to the scene. The old 
house in the last illustration but one, "Damocles," indicates "Phiz's" 
power in expressing the picturesqueness of ancient architecture, and 
his appreciation of the effect of light as it falls upon quaintly-carved 
door and window. The plate entitled " Mr. Flintwinch has a Mild 
Attack of Irritability" is probably one of the most forcible etchings ever 
executed by " Phiz," and it is difficult to conceive that the same master- 
hand was responsible for the apparently inexperienced work to be 
found in an earlier illustration, " Little Mother," the execution of which 
is as timid and lifeless as the other is bold and expressive. 

" Phiz " etched one complete set of the plates, and duplicated the 
tinted subjects, the variations from the originals being slight and un- 
important. Of the forty illustrations, thirty-four are on octavo plates 
containing single subjects, and three are quarto plates having two 
subjects on each. 

A part of " Little Dorrit" was composed in France, and on July 2, 
1856, Dickens informed the artist that he was returning to Boulogne 
the next day, and desired him to make the illustration of "The Pen- 
sioner Entertainment" "as characteristic as ever you please, my little 
dear, but quiet." This plate proved a decided success. When, early 
in 1857, the novelist was again in London, "Phiz" forwarded for his 
inspection a sketch for the etching entitled "An Unexpected After- 
dinner Speech," which, however, did not quite realise Dickens's idea ; 
whereupon the artist received a letter (printed for the first time in Mr. 



Plate XXXVII 

STUDY KOR 
MISS HAREDALE 

Facsimile of an Original Drawing by 
H. K. BROWNE ("Phiz") 

Designed for the series of extra plates for " Barruiby Rudge." This 
Drawing differs from the published Engraving. 

Lent iy Hir Graet the Duchess of St. Albans, 




/ 



HABL6t K. BROWNE in 

Thomson's Memoir) suggesting certain improvements, afterwards duly 
carried out. " In the dinner scene," he wrote, "it is highly important 
that Mr. Dorrit should not be too comic. He is too comic now. He 
is described in the text as ' shedding tears,' and what he imperatively 
wants is an expression doing less violence in the reader's mind to what 
is going to happen to him, and much more in accordance with that 
serious end which is so close before him. Pray do not neglect this 
change." 

Dickens seems to have been much pleased with the artist's original 
drawings of " Flora's Tour of Inspection" and "Mr. Merdle a Borrower," 
which he characterised as " very good subjects — both." Of the latter 
he said : " I can't distinctly make out the detail, but I take Sparkles to 
be getting the tortoise-shell knife from the box. Am I right ? " 

Only a few of the drawings for " Little Dorrit " have been available 
for my inspection. Two of these, viz., " Mr. Merdle a Borrower " and 
"Under the Microscope" (now in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), are 
executed in pencil and wash, the second design not being reversed in 
the etching. As usual, the pictorial wrapper for the monthly parts was 
designed by " Phiz." The central picture represents Little Dorrit 
emerging from the gates of the Marshalsea ; above is placed the 
despondent figure of Britannia in a bath-chair, attended by figures 
emblematical of the Circumlocution Office, while at the base of the 
design is seen a mixed assemblage of people, including some of the 
more prominent characters in the story. 

Although " A Tale of Two Cities " was written specially for the 

pages of All the Year Round, it appeared concurrently 

£t *i° in the familiar monthly numbers, with illustrations 
Two Cities, , „„,. „ T,, . . ,. ,,, , 

Q by " rhiz. 1 he artist, m writmg to his son Walter, 

said : " A rather curious thing happened with this 

book. Watts Phillips, the dramatist, hit upon the very same identical 

plot: they had evidently both of them been to the same source 

in Paris for their story. Watts's play [' The Dead Heart '] came 



112 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

out with great success, with stunning climax, at about the time of 
Dickens's sixth number. The public saw that they were identically 
the same story, so Dickens shut up at the ninth number, instead of 
going on to the eighteenth as usual." Whether this explanation is 
correct or not, the fact remains that "A Tale of Two Cities" was 
brought to a conclusion in the eighth number (not the ninth, as stated 
by " Phiz "), being therefore less than half the usual length of Dickens's 
serials. 

As in the case of " Little Dorrit," the artist's signature does not 
appear in any of the sixteen etchings contributed by "Phiz" to this 
novel. It has been pointed out that the French personages in the 
pictures are not characteristic of the period, there being but little 
attempt at archaeological accuracy in the costumes. Only one set 
of the illustrations was prepared, none being etched in duplicate ; they 
were executed on eight quarto steels, each bearing two designs. Of 
the original drawings for "A Tale of Two Cities " I have seen only 
one (now in Mr. J. F. Dexter's collection), and this was never etched. 
The sketch in question, which is vigorously executed with pencil and 
brush, depicts the incident of the stoppage at the Fountain, and con- 
stitutes an excellent subject for illustration. 

The artist's design for the monthly wrapper is composed of distinct 
scenes separated by dividing lines. At the top of the page is St. Paul's 
Cathedral as viewed from the Thames, and at the base the Cathedral 
of N6tre Dame is represented, while around are displayed some of the 
prominent characters in the story. 

"A Tale of Two Cities" is the last of the novels containing 
illustrations by " Phiz," for, with the completion of the final plate in 
that story, there came a severance of that fortuitous collaboration 
between novelist and artist which had been maintained during a period 
of twenty-three years. As there is no evidence of any actual rupture 
between them, it is fair to surmise that a legitimate desire on the part 
of Dickens for a new illustrator constituted the actual reason for that 
severance. "Phiz" naturally felt aggrieved at "Dickens's strangely 

I 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 113 

silent manner of breaking the connection," and could only surmise the 
reason ; for, in an undated letter to Mr. Robert Young, written pre- 
sumably a short time before the publication of the succeeding story, 
he said : " Marcus [Stone] is no doubt to do Dickens. / have been 
a ' good boy,' I believe. The plates in hand are all in good time, so 
that I do not know what's ' up,' any more than you. Dickens pro- 
bably thinks a new hand would give his old puppets a fresh look, or 
perhaps he does not like my illustrating Trollope neck-and-neck with 
him — though, by Jingo, he need fear no rivalry there'. Confound all 
authors and publishers, say I. There is no pleasing one or t'other. 
I wish I had never had anything to do with the lot." 

The amicable relationship that had subsisted between the author 
and his principal illustrator was not strained by this event. As a 
matter of fact, the artist ever entertained a tender regard and 
admiration for the famous romancer with whom he had so long 
been associated, and we may readily believe what a writer in the 
Frankfurt Zeitung tells us when he says : "Just after the death 
of Charles Dickens, ' Phiz ' was considerably affected by the mere 
mention of the name of that illustrious novelist, which seemed to 
stir up in his breast feelings of regret at losing such a friend." 

Habl6t Knight Browne, as designer of the plates for ten of the 
fourteen principal novels by "Immortal Boz," is justly termed "the 
illustrator of Dickens." His name and fame are similarly identified 
with the works of Lever and Ainsworth, while, in addition to this, 
his familiar signature (" Fizz, Whizz, or something of that sort," as 
Tom Hood used to say, when endeavouring to recall the artist's 
sign-manual) may be found appended to innumerable etchings and 
woodcuts. He was born at Kennington, London, in July 18 15, 
being the ninth son of William Loder Browne, who is somewhat 
indefinitely described as "a merchant." The artist's forefathers 
were of French descent, the original name (according to tradition) 
being Le Brun, a member of which family emigrated to England 

H 



114 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

after the Massacre of St Bartholomew in 1572. His ancestors 
lived in London in the early part of the last century and adopted 
the essentially English cognomen of Browne. With regard to the 
artist's baptismal names, it is interesting to learn that the first 
(Habl6t) was the patronymic of a Colonel (or Captain) who was 
engaged to marry a sister of " Phiz," but was killed in a charge 
of Napoleon's Garde Impdriale at Waterloo, while the second 
(Knight) was received from Admiral Sir John Knight, an old friend 
of the family ; thus, in respect of names, was the artist associated 
with both Army and Navy. 

"Phiz" inherited a strong artistic faculty, and, when a boy, was 
encouraged to cultivate his wonderful talent for drawing by his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Elhanan Bicknell, the well-known Art patron, 
who took so keen an interest in his welfare that he offered to defray 
all expenses of a thorough art education. It was through Mr. Bick- 
nell's generosity that the youth was apprenticed to Finden, the 
engraver, who, it appears, more than once complained that his 
proUgi persisted in covering with comic figures the entire margins 
of the plates entrusted to him, thus indicating the humorous bent 
of his mind. In after years he took occasional lessons in painting, 
but he never distinguished himself as a painter, although he occa- 
sionally exhibited at the Royal Academy and other public galleries. 
The only regular training he ever had was at Finden's ; but the 
work he was required to perform there proved much too irksome 
and monotonous for one who, like " Phiz," possessed ideas so emi- 
nently original and fanciful. As in the case of his two famous con- 
temporaries, Cruikshank and Leech, " Phiz " could never accustom 
himself to draw from the living model, which accounts, of course, 
for his conventional treatment of the human figure ; his representa- 
tions of moving crowds, as well as other scenes of life and character, 
being drawn either from recollection or by the aid of a few slightly- 
pencilled memoranda. 

It is unfortunate for my present purpose that nearly all the 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 115 

correspondence which passed between author and artist should have 
been destroyed. I am enabled, however, to print one or two brief 
notes indicating their friendly and familiar relationship. In 1841, 
" Phiz " supplied some etchings to " The Pic Nic Papers," a col- 
lection of essays edited by Dickens and produced for the benefit 
of Mrs. Macrone, the widow of the well-known publisher, who had 
been left in impoverished circumstances. In reply to an inquiry 
on the part of the novelist respecting the illustrations, the artist 
wrote : — 

" Mv Dear Dickens, — I have just got one boot on, intending 
to come round to you, but you have done me out of a capital 
excuse to myself for idling away this fine morning. I quite forgot 
to answer your note, and Mr. Macrone's book has not been very 
vividly present to my memory for some time past, for both of 
which offences I beg innumerable pardons. I think by the begin- 
ning of next [week] or the middle {certain) I shall have done the 
plates, but on the scraps of copy that I have I can see but one good 
subject, so if you know of another, pray send it me. I should like 
' Malcolm ' again, if you can spare him. — Yours very truly, 

" Very short of paper. Hablot K. Browne." 

The following terse epistle is undated, which is characteristic of 
" Phiz's " letters :— 

" My Dear Dickens, — I am sorry I cannot have a touch at battle- 
dore with you to-day, being already booked for this evening, but I 
will give you a call to-morrow after church, and take my chance of 
finding you at home. — Yours very sincerely, 

" Habl6t K. Browne." 

On March 15, 1847, when forwarding to the artist some written 
instructions respecting a " Dombey " illustration, the novelist made an 
interesting allusion to an early incident in his own life. " I wish you 



ii6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

kadheen at poor Hall's' funeral, and I am sure they would have been 
glad. . . . He lies in Highgate Cemetery, which is beautiful. ... Is 
it not a curious coincidence, remembering our connection afterwards, 
that I bought the magazine [T/ie Monthly Magazine, Dec. 1833] in 
which the first thing I ever wrote was published [" A Dinner at 
Poplar Walk"] from poor Hall's hands? I have been thinking all 
day of that, and of that time when the Queen went into the City, and 
we drank claret (it was in their [Chapman & Hall's] earlier days) in 
the counting-house. You remember ? " 

" Phiz " received fifteen guineas each for his early plates, but 
sometimes agreed to accept smaller fees ; he estimated that it took 
him ten days to prepare and etch four designs. Being a bad business 
man, he never raised his prices, the consequence being that his income 
was not what it should have been for one who so long held a unique 
position as an illustrator of popular books. During the first ten or 
twelve years of his professional life he was comparatively prosperous, 
but when etching as a means of illustrating went out of favour, and 
he became somewhat indifferent concerning this method of work, his 
income suffered considerably. The artist did not actually experience 
financial difficulties, however, until he was seized with a serious illness 
in 1867, said to have been partly caused by his having slept in a 
draught at a seaside house. After five months of great suffering he 
again essayed to use his pencil, but it soon became obvious to his 
friends that his health was completely shattered, and that, in less 
than six months, he had become a broken-down old man. The worst 
trouble of all was a partial paralysis of the right arm and leg, which 
he persisted in calling "rheumatism," and in consequence of which 
his hand lost its cunning. Then it was that the demand for his work 
practically ceased. " I don't know where to turn or what to do," he 
wrote in 1879. "I have at last come to a full stop, and don't see 
my way just yet to get on again. My occupation seems gone, extinct ; 
I suppose I am thought to be used up, and I have been long enough 

' Partner in the firm of Chapman & Hall. 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 117 

before the public. I have not had a single thing to do this year, nor 
for some months previous in the past year." 

In 1878, at the suggestion of his friend Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A., 
"Phiz" applied to Government for a pension. The petition was pre- 
pared by Mr. Robert Young, but the result was unfavourable. 
Happily he received unexpected assistance from another quarter, 
in the shape of a well-deserved annuity from the Royal Academy, 
awarded in recognition of his distinguished services to Art. Ever 
hopeful of being restored to health, he began on his recovery to 
again use his pencil, but the crippled condition of his right hand, 
together with the rapid decline of his fanciful imagination and power 
of invention, made it impossible for him to produce anything worthy 
of his past reputation. At length his affliction became so pronounced 
that all hope of recovery was abandoned, and on the 8th of July 
1882 the famous "Phiz" breathed his last, in his sixty-seventh year. 
He spent the end of his busy life in the quiet seclusion of Hove, and 
his last resting-place is on the summit of a hill on the northern side 
of the extra-mural cemetery at Brighton. 

" Phiz's " many excellent qualities far outweighed any defects in 
his character. A life-long friend of the artist, Mr. John Greville 
Fennell, writes thus to me : " No man knew more of Habldt Browne 
than I- did, for though he was very reticent to most, he never, I 
believe, concealed anything from me. We used to wander together 
in the country for two or three weeks or more at a time, and a man 
more full of fun, when he had thrown off the 'harness,' I have not 
known in my large acquaintance." His naturally modest disposition 
eventually developed into a remarkable shyness, and this, when coupled 
with a dislike of publicity, was often misconstrued as pride. Even 
Dickens had considerable difficulty in persuading him to meet a few 
friends and spend a pleasant evening. When he did accept such 
invitations, he invariably tried to seclude himself in a corner of the 
room or behind a curtain. In former years he was occasionally 
prevailed upon to attend certain dinners given by Dickens to celebrate 



ii8 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

the completion of his stories ; and the novelist sometimes succeeded 
in inducing him to accept invitations to join him for a brief holi- 
day by the sea, as we. learn from a communication addressed to 
Forster, and dated from Bonchurch during the "Copperfield" days, 
in which Dickens said : " Browne is coming down when he has 
done his month's work." Eventually, all desire for social intercourse 
ceased, " Phiz " preferring to lead the life of a recluse in his country 
home. 

A short time prior to his severe illness in 1867, Habl6t Browne 
received an extraordinary commission from Mr. F, W. Cosens, one of 
his most liberal patrons, who solicited the artist to make coloured 
replicas of the entire series of his published designs for the works of 
the great novelist. In a letter to me on this subject in 1882, Mr. 
Cosens said : " I remember to have had only two or three interviews 
with him, and, as a stranger, found him shy and nervous. I desired 
to secure any sketches he might have of the illustrations to Dickens, 
but understood him to say he had none, as he drew them on the 
blocks [plates]. He evidently did not like the drudgery of reproduction, 
and named such terms as he thought would deter me ; but finding the 
honorarium was of great importance to him, the bargain was struck. 
The work extended over some years, and the later productions evince 
haste and inferiority. The work can hardly be called water-colour 
drawing, as it is simply sketching, slightly heightened by colour- 
washing." Strange to say, " Phiz " did not possess copies of Dickens's 
novels, so he borrowed Mr. Cosen's set, and from these he executed 
the tinted replicas. At the sale of Mr. Cosen's library at Sotheby's 
in 1890, this interesting collection, numbering 405 drawings, was 
disposed of for the aggregate sum of ;^67i. 

It should be mentioned in conclusion, that, besides the vignettes 
already described as having been prepared by " Phiz " for the Library 
Edition (1858-59), he also designed for that edition the following 
subjects, which were executed in water-colours and, like the rest, 
engraved on steel :— Mr. Trott and the " Boots," illustrating " The 



HABL6t K. BROWNE 119 

Great Winglebury Duel" in "Sketches by Boz ; " Mr. Bumble and 
Oliver, for "Oliver Twist;" Scrooge and Marley, for the series of 
Christmas Books ; and a Vineyard Scene, which appropriately decorates 
the title-page of " Pictures from Italy." 

Although, as already stated, Habl6t Browne was quite capable 
of biting-in his own designs upon the steel plates, he had not sufficient 
time to devote to this part of his work. From the " Pickwick " days 
onward the artist was fortunate in securing the services of his fellow- 
apprentice in Finden's studio, Mr. Robert Young, who was afterwards 
his partner in many artistic ventures, and always his most intimate 
friend and admirer. When at Finden's, Mr. Young acquired the art 
of biting-in, a process which, although to some extent a mechanical 
one, requires a considerable amount of artistic knowledge and manipu- 
lative skill, for there is nothing to guide the etcher as to the required 
effect, except in some cases a rough indication on paper. It was 
Mr. Young's duty, after each plate was bitten-in, to go over it with 
a graver and join any lines which in the etching had become broken 
or rotten. For biting-in and finishing the two subjects on one plate 
he received from Chapman & Hall (with whom he had a separate 
account) the sum of three guineas. Browne's ruling-machine for 
producing the mezzotint effects was kept in his colleague's room at 
Furnival's Inn, where, more than half-a-century ago, he and the 
artist took chambers for business purposes and to be near the pub- 
lishers. These quarters, which were situated in the south-west comer 
of the Inn, have been lately demolished, together with the chambers 
at No. 15, rendered famous by the fact that the earlier portion of 
" Pickwick " was there written. 

Mr. Young acted as Browne's assistant in the manner described 
during the greater part of the years of "Phiz's" popularity, and his 
co-operation extended not only to the Dickens illustrations, but to 
the thousand-and-one designs that embellished the works of other 
writers. The following brief note (quoted from Mr. Thomson's 



I20 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Memoir) is a specimen of the many communications which constantly 
passed between the artist and his coadjutor : — 

[Circa 1845.] 

"My Dear 'Co,' — Pray help me in an emergency. Put a bottle 
of aquafortis in your pockets, wax and all other useful adjuncts, and 
come to me to-morrow about one or two o'clock, and bite in an 
etching for me, ferociously and expeditiously. Can you ? — will 
you ? — oblige. Yours sincerely, H. K. Browne." 

Mr. Robert Young, who is now in his eighty-second year, has 
recently favoured me with a few facts concerning himself, which are 
not devoid of interest in the present record. Writing from Norham- 
upon-Tweed, he says: "I was born in Dalkeith in 1816, educated 
in France, and, on leaving school, was apprenticed to Finden, the 
engraver, where my friendship with ' Phiz ' commenced, which closed 
with his death. Some years ago I was presented with a clerkship 
in the Admiralty, and retired on a pension in 1878, which enables 
me to pass my last days in this humdrum village. I am, as you see, 
very old, have many infirmities, and cannot always remember past 
events." 





/y^^C^^^.f^.^^'T^ 



3 



Plate XXXVI II 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 



From an Unpublished Photograph by 
LAKE PRICE 
Lent by Iht Artists Daughter, Mrs. Edviard franks. 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 

First Acquaintance with Dickens — Declines Offer of Knighthood — Favourite Subjects for 
Pictures— " Master Humphrey's Clock"— A Letter from Dickens respecting the 
Illustrations— Cattermole's Designs Copied on Wood by "Phiz" and Samuel Williams — 
Some Dickens Correspondence — Minute Directions to the Artist — Design for Frontis- 
piece — Useful Hints and Suggestions — The "Maypole" Inn — "Grip," the Raven — 
Subjects for " Bamaby Kudge " — An Unpublished Letter from Cattermole to Dickens — 
Closing Chapters of the Story — The Novelist Approves of the Illustrations — Frontispiece 
for the First Cheap Edition of "The Old Curiosity Shop" — Water-colour Drawings of 
"Little Nell's Home" and "Little Nell's Grave"— Dickens's Gratitude to Cattermole— 
Death of the Artist — His Vivacity and Good-fellowship. 

BORN at Dickleburgh, Norfolk, in the year 1800, George 
Cattermole was a dozen years the senior of Charles Dickens, 
His acquaintance with the novelist began in 1838, and when, 
in the following year, he married Miss Elderton, a distant connection 
of the author of " Pickwick," the friendship subsisting between the 
two men ripened into sincere affection. George Cattermole had been 
elected a member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours as early 
as 1833, which indicates that his reputation was already well estab- 
lished, and in 1839 he had achieved such distinction in Art that he 
received the offer of knighthood, — an honour he modestly declined. 
Thv, subjects he loved to portray were scenes from mediaeval history, 
fiction, or ballad literature, and he revelled in depicting incidents of 
bygone times, with their manners and customs, their architecture and 
costumes, in the representation of which he has been considered the 
chief exponent. It was this antiquarian feeling, as well as his power- 
ful imagination and vivid fancy, which excited the admiration of John 
Ruskin, whose favourable criticisms of the artist's early productions 
proved of infinite service. 



122 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

George Cattermole had already enjoyed considerable experience 

as an illustrator of books, and had made drawings 

Master ^""^' of buildings and scenery described in Scott's novels, 

"_, ^ ' when, in 1840, Dickens invited him to collaborate 

1840-41. 

with D. Maclise, R.A., and Habl6t K. Browne 

("Phiz") in designing the woodcuts for " Master Humphrey's Clock." 

The earliest intimation received by the artist respecting the projected 

publication was contained in the following letter, dated January 

13, 1840:— 

"My Dear Cattermole, — I am going to propound a mightily grave 
matter to you. My new periodical work appears — or I should rather 
say the first number does — on Saturday, the 28th of March. . . . 
The title is ' Master Humphrey's Clock,' Now, among other im- 
provements, I have turned my attention to the illustrations, meaning 
to have woodcuts dropped into the text, and no separate plates. I 
want to know whether you would object to make me a little sketch 
for a woodcut — in indian-ink would be quite sufficient — about the size of 
the enclosed scrap ; the subject, an old quaint room with antique 
Elizabethan furniture, and in the chimney-corner an extraordinary 
old clock— the clock belonging to Master Humphrey, in fact, and 
no figures. This I should drop into the text at the head of my 
opening page. 

" I want to know, besides — as Chapman & Hall are my partners 
in the matter, there need be no delicacy about my asking or your 
answering the question — what would be your charge for such a thing, 
and whether (if the work answers our expectations) you would 
like to repeat the joke at intervals, and if so, on what terms .■* I 
should tell you that I intend to ask Maclise to join me likewise, 
and that the copying, the drawing on wood, and the cutting will be 
done in first-rate style. ... I want to talk the matter over with 
you, and wish you would fix your own time and place. ... — 
Faithfully yours Charles Dickens." 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 123 

We gfather from this letter that Cattermole was then unaccustomed 
to drawing upon the wood block, and therefore executed his designs 
upon paper, to be afterwards copied upon wood by a practical hand. 
In the next communication, dated a few days later, it will be seen 
that the artist agreed to Dickens's proposals (preferring, however, to 
select his own subjects), and that " Phiz's " pencil was made available 
for copying purposes ; the drawing here referred to being that of the 
"old quaint room" which forms the heading of the first chapter of 
" Master Humphrey's Clock." The novelist wrote : — 

" I think the drawing most famous, and so do the publishers, to 
whom I sent it to-day. If Browne should suggest anything for the 
future which may enable him to do you justice in copying (on which 
point he is very anxious), I will communicate with you. It has 
occurred to me that perhaps you will like to see his copy on the 
block before it is cut, and I have therefore told Chapman & Hall 
to forward it to you. 

" In future, I will take care that you have the number to choose 
your subject from. I ought to have done so, perhaps, in this case ; 
but I was very anxious that you should do the room. . . ." 

The artistic skill of the eminent draughtsman and engraver, 
Samuel Williams, was at first similarly requisitioned for copying 
purposes, as proved by the signature appended to the illustration of 
Little Nell's room in the initial chapter of " The Old Curiosity 
Shop," the original drawing of which was undoubtedly supplied by 
Cattermole, who, before very long, was enabled to dispense with these 
professional services. 

Judging from the amount of correspondence still extant, Dickens 
was constantly in communication with Cattermole respecting the 
illustrations for "Master Humphrey's Clock." In a letter dated 
March 9, 1840, he said : — 

"I have been induced, on looking over the works of the 'Clock,' 
to make a slight alteration in their disposal, by virtue of which the 
story about ' J ohn Podgers ' will stand over for some little time, and 



124 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

that short tale will occupy its place which you have already by you, 
and which treats of the assassination of a young gentleman under 
circumstances of peculiar aggravation.^ I shall be greatly obliged 
to you if you will turn your attention to this last morsel as the feature 
of No. 3, and still more if you can stretch a point with regard to 
time (which is of the last importance just now), and make a subject 
out of it, rather than find one in it. I would neither have made this 
alteration nor have troubled you about it, but for weighty and cogent 
reasons which I feel very strongly, and into the composition of which 
caprice or fastidiousness has no f)art. . . . 

" I cannot tell you how admirably I think Master Humphrey's 
room comes out, or what glowing accounts I hear of the second design 
you have done.* I had not the faintest anticipation of anything so 
good, taking into account the material and the despatch." 

The text of " Master Humphrey's Clock" afforded the artist many 
congenial themes for his pencil. The story of Little Nell evidently 
fascinated him, and the various subjects selected for illustration were 
lovingly dealt with. An interval of several months elapsed before 
the following instructions were received by him respecting future 
designs : — 

" I sent the MS. of the enclosed proof, marked 2, up to Chapman 
& Hall from Devonshire, mentioning a subject of an old gateway,' 
which I had put in expressly with a view to your illustrious pencil. 
By a mistake, however, it went to Browne instead. 

"The subject to which I wish to call your attention is in an 
unwritten number to follow this one, but it is a mere echo of what 
you will find at the conclusion of this proof marked 2. I want the 
cart, gaily decorated, going through the street of the old town with 
the wax brigand displayed to fierce advantage, and the child seated 
in it also dispersing bills. As many flags and inscriptions about 

• " Mr. Pickwick's Tale," in the first chapter. 

^ See headpiece to " First Night of the Giant Chronicles." 

' See illustration in " The Old Curiosity Shop," chap, xxvii. 



Plate XXXIX 

^Cg^i QUILP'S WHARF 

Fatsimilt of the Original Sketch for " The Old Curiosity Shop" by 
GEORGE CATTERMOLE 

Lent iy Mrs. Edward Franks. 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 125 

Jarley's Wax Work fluttering from the cart as you please. You 
know the wax brigands, and how they contemplate small oval 
miniatures ? That's the figure I want. I send you the scrap of 
MS. which contains the subject. 

"Will you, when you have done this, send it with all speed to 
Chapman & Hall, as we are mortally pressed for time. . . ." 

For some reason, the drawing of Mrs. Jarley's cart was not 
executed by Cattermole ; perhaps he was otherwise occupied at the 
moment, so that the work fell to Browne, whose initials are appended. 
Concerning the frontispiece the novelist offered some valuable sug- 
gestions, of which the artist readily availed himself : — 

"Will you turn your attention to a frontispiece for our first 
volume, to come upon the left-hand side of the book as you open it, 
and to face a plain printed title ? My idea is, some scene from ' The 
Curiosity Shop,' in a pretty border, or scroll-work, or architectural 
device ; it matters not what, so that it be pretty. The scene even 
might be a fanciful thing, partaking of the character of the story, 
but not reproducing any particular passage in it, if you thought that 
better for the effect. 

" I ask you to think of this, because, although the volume is not 
published until the end of September, there is no time to lose. We 
wish to have it engraved with great care and worked very skilfully ; 
and this cannot be done unless we get it on the stocks soon. They 
will give you every opportunity of correction, alteration, revision, and 
all other -ations and -isions connected with the fine arts." 

In this design will be found Cattermole's only representations of 
Mr. Pickwick and the two Wellers. In the following letter (dated 
December 21 [1840]), some hints were gfiven as to the treatment of 
one of the most charming illustrations in the series, viz., the pictu- 
resque parsonage-house which was the temporary home of Little Nell 
and her Grandfather. The lanthorn here referred to is not only omitted 
from the drawing, but we fail to find it mentioned in the text : — 

" Kit, the single gentleman, and Mr. Garland go down to the 



126 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

place where the child is, and arrive there at night. There has been 
a fall of snow. Kit, leaving them behind, runs to the old house, and, 
with a lanthorn in one hand and the bird in its cage in the other, 
stops for a moment at a little distance with a natural hesitation before 
he goes up to make his presence known. In a window — supposed 
to be that of the child's little room — a light is burning, and in that 
room the child (unknown, of course, to her visitors, who are full of 
hope) lies dead. 

" If you have any difficulty about Kit, never mind about putting 
him m. . . . 

The next letter contained useful suggestions for the delineation 
of the most pathetic scenes in "The Old Curiosity Shop." 

(i.) "The child lying dead in the little sleeping-room, which is 
behind the open screen. It is winter-time, so there are no flowers ; 
but upon her breast and pillow, and about her bed, there may be strips 
of holly and berries, and such free green things. Window overgrown 
with ivy. The little boy who had that talk with her about angels may 
be by the bedside, if you like it so ; but I think it will be quieter and 
more peaceful if she is quite alone. I want it to express the most 
beautiful repose and tranquillity, and to have something of a happy 
look, if death can. 

(2.) The child has been buried inside the church, and the old man, 
who cannot be made to understand that she is dead, repairs to the 
grave and sits there all day long, waiting for her arrival, to begin 
another journey. His staff and knapsack, her little bonnet and 
basket, &c., lie beside him. ' She'll come to-morrow,' he says when 
it gets dark, and goes sorrowfully home. I think an hour-glass 
running out would help the notion ; perhaps her little things upon 
his knee or in his hand. 

" I am breaking my heart over this story, and cannot bear to 
finish it." 

In the first of these two delightful drawings the artist rightly 
omitted the figure of the boy, and in order to emphasise the sense 






I 



Plate XL 

TWO STUDIES FOR 
"THE DEATH-BED OF LITTLE NELL" 

Fttcsimitt of the Original Drawings for " The Old Curiosity Shop " by 
GEORGE CATTERMOLE 
Unt by Mr. S. J. Davey and Mrs. Edward Franks. 



■ni ■ 




fe" rS^yV^' 



^'■%. 




« 



i 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 127 

of repose in that humble death-chamber, he introduced a bird, which 
is seen perched upon the window-ledge, while the hour-glass (sug- 
gested for the second picture) seemed to him more appropriate here. 
Cattermole made two or three sketches of No. i before he quite 
satisfied the author, who had asked him to carry out certain altera- 
tions, these resulting in such a marked improvement that Dickens 
wrote : " I cannot tell you how much obliged I am to you for alter- 
ing the child, or how much I hope that my wish in that respect didn't 
go greatly against the grain."* "Will you do me," he asks, in the 
same letter, "a little tailpiece for the 'Curiosity' story? — only one 
figure if you like — giving some notion of the etherealised spirit of 
the child ; something like those little figures in the frontispiece." 
This litde allegory formed the closing illustration. 

" Barnaby Rudge " immediately followed " The Old Curiosity 
Shop," under the collective title of " Master Humphrey's Clock." 
For the first chapter of this stirring romance Cattermole provided 
a charming illustration, depicting the old "Maypole" Inn, which, 
however, was not intended to portray the " delicious old inn " 
opposite Chigwell churchyard, referred to by Dickens in a letter to 
Forster at this time, it being an entirely fanciful design. When 
the novelist saw the drawing on wood of this subject he was delighted. 
" Words cannot say how good it is," he wrote to the artist. " I can't 
bear the thought of its being cut, and should like to frame and gla^e 
it in statu quo for ever and ever." On January 28, 1841, he 
queried : — 

" I want to know whether you feel ravens in general and would 
fancy Barnaby 's raven in particular? Barnaby being an idiot, my 
notion is to have him always in company with a pet raven, who is 
immeasurably more knowing than himself. To this end I have been 
studying my bird, and think I could make a very queer character 

• Macready, upon whom the death of Little Nell had a painful effect, was much impressed 
by this illustration, as an entry in his diary testifies : " Found at home ... an onward number 
of ' Master Humphrey's Clock.' I saw one print in it of the dear dead child that gave a dead 
chill through my blood. I dread to read it, but must get it over." 



128 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

of him. Should you like the subject when this raven makes his 
first appearance ? " 

Two days later, he again pressed the question : — 

" I must know what you think about the raven, my buck ; I other- 
wise am in this fix. I have given Browne no subject for this number, 
and time is flying. If you would like to have the raven's first appear- 
ance, and don't object to having both subjects, so be it. I shall be 
delighted. If otherwise, I must feed that hero forthwith." 

But Cattermole apparently declined the privilege of introducing 
to the world a presentment of the immortal " Grip," — an honour which 
therefore fell to " Phiz's" pencil. On January 30, 1841, Dickens de- 
spatched to the artist some printed slips describing Gabriel Varden's 
house, " which I think [he said] will make a good subject, and one 
you will like. If you put the ''prentice' in it, show nothing more 
than his paper cap, because he will be an important character in the 
story, and you will need to know more about him, as he is minutely 
described. I may as well say that he is very short. Should you 
wish to put the locksmith in, you will find him described in No. 2 
of ' Barnaby ' (which I told Chapman & Hall to send you). 
Browne has done him in one little thing, but so very slightly that 
you will not require to see his sketch, I think." 

On February 9th the artist received the following request : — 

"Will you, for No. 49, do the locksmith's house, which was 
described in No. 48 ? I mean the outside. If you can, without 
hurting the effect, shut up the shop as though it were night, so much 
the better. Should you want a figure, an ancient watchman in or on 
his box, very sleepy, will be just the thing for me. 

" I have written to Chapman and requested him to send you a 
block of a long shape, so that the house may come upright, as it were." 

From this note, and a subsequent one in which Dickens commands 
the artist to put " a penny pistol to Chapman's head and demand the 
blocks of him," we learn that Cattermole had by this time accustomed 
himself to copying his designs upon wood, and could dispense with that 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 129 

kind of assistance. His drawing of the dilapidated but picturesque 
old country inn, "The Boot," whither the rioters resorted, is, I 
believe, a direct transcript from an old print representing the place as 
it appeared at the time referred to, 1 780 ; the woodcut is in reverse 
of the print.* Here are two letters (dated July 28th and August 6th, 
1 84 1 , respectively) that fairly bristle with details of scenes, in chapters 
liv. and Ivi., which the artist was desired to depict : — 

"Cui you do for me by Saturday evening — I know the time is 
short, but I think the subject will suit you, and I am greatly pressed — 
a party of rioters (with Hugh and Simon Tappertit conspicuous among 
them) in old John Willet's bar, turning the liquor taps to their own 
advantage, smashing bottles, cutting down the grove of lemons, 
sitting astride on casks, drinking out of the best punch-bowls, eating 
the great cheese, smoking sacred pipes, &c., &c. ; John Willet fallen 
backward in his chair, regarding them with a stupid horror, and 
quite alone among them, with none of the Maypole customers at 
his back? 

"It's in your way, and you'll do it a hundred times better than 
I can suggest it to you, I know." 



" Here's a subject for the next number. . . . The rioters went, 
sir, from John Willet's bar (where you saw them to such good pur- 
pose) straight to the Warren, which house they plundered, sacked, 
burned, pulled down as much of it as they could, and greatly 
damaged and destroyed. They are supposed to have left it about 
half-an-hour. It is night, and the ruins are here and there flaming 
and smoking. I want — if you understand — to show one of the 
turrets laid open — the turret where the alarm-bell is, mentioned in 
No. I ; and among the ruins (at some height if possible) Mr. Hare- 
dale just clutching our friend, the mysterious file, who is passing over 

' A modem public-house still stands upon the site, in Cromer Street, Gray's Inn Road. 
It retains the original sign. 

I 



I30 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

them like a spirit ; Solomon Daisy, if you can introduce him, looking 
on from the ground below. 

" Please to observe that the M. F. wears a large cloak and slouched 
hat. This is important, because Browne will have him in the same 
number, and he has not changed his dress meanwhile. Mr. Haredale 
is supposed to have come down here on horseback pell-mell ; to be 
excited to the last degree. I think it will make a queer picturesque 
thing in your hands. . . . P.S. — When you have done the subject, I 
wish you'd write me one line and tell me how, that I may be sure 
we agree." 

In sending to Dickens for approval a sketch of the ruined home 
of Mr. Haredale, the artist enclosed the following letter, now printed 
for the first time : — 

"My Dear Dickens, — I cannot hope you will make much out 
of the accompanying sketch.' I suppose the spectator to be placed 
upon the roof of one of the wings of the Warren House, and towards 
him are rushing . . . [Rudge] and Mr. Haredale as they issue from a 
small door in the tower, whereunto is attached (as part and parcel 
of the same) the bell-turret. A small closet through which they pass 
to the roof has been dismantled, or rather thrown down and carried 
by the fire and the other spoilers ; on the grass below is rooted 
Solomon Daisy in an ecstasy of wonder, &c., &c. ; beyond are clouds 
of smoke a-passing over and amongst many tall trees, and all about 
are heard the tenants, frightened rooks, flying and cawing like mad. — 
In haste, my dear Charles, G. Cattermole." 

Clapham, Aug. 12 [1841]. 

It will be observed that the incident depicted in this illustration 
takes place in utter darkness, while the published woodcut represents 
a daylight scene. This remark also applies to the subject of the 
next letter (dated August 19, 1841), which was treated by the artist 

> See Plate. Both sketch and letter are in the collection of Mr. Augustin Daly, of New 
York, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of reproducing them. 



Plate XLI 

"THE NIGHT WATCHMAN" 

AND 

"THE 'MAYPOLE' INN" 

Facsimiks fii Original Sketches for " Bamaby Rudge" by 
GEORGE CATTERMOLE 

Lent by Mr, S. /. Davty. 



■'KAWHOrAW rHTMH BHV 



'^^f ,.'T ,. J 



t • ■.•r'-.i-'-'r f ■! 



■<-V'\ >, 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 131 

in a similar manner ; the effect of torchlight being entirely absent from 
the picture necessarily deprives it of much dramatic character : — 

" When Hugh and a small body of the rioters cut off from the 

Warren beckoned to their pals, they forced into a very remarkable 

postchaise Dolly Varden and Emma Haredale, and bore them away 

with all possible rapidity ; one of their company driving, and the 

rest running beside the chaise, climbing up behind, sitting on the 

top, lighting the way with their torches, &c., &c. If you can express 

the women inside without showing them — as by a fluttering veil, a 

delicate arm, or so forth, appearing at the half-<:losed window — so 

much the better. Mr. Tappertit stands on the steps, which are 

partly down, and, hangjing on to the window with one hand and 

extending the other with great majesty, addresses a few words of 

encouragement to the driver and attendants. Hugh sits upon the 

bar in front ; the driver sitting postilion-wise, and turns round to 

look through the window behind him at the little doves within. The 

gentlemen behind are also anxious to catch a glimpse of the ladies. 

One of those who are running at the side may be gently rebuked for 

his curiosity by the cudgel of Hugh. So they cut away, sir, as fast 

as they can. 

"P.S.—]ohn Willet's bar is noble." 

There were yet a few more illustrations required for the closing 
chapters of " Barnaby Rudge," concerning which the artist, received 
very precise instructions from the author. For example, on September 
14, 1 84 1, Dickens forwarded to his illustrator the following "business 
letter, written in a scramble just before post-time," the directions 
having reference to incidents in chapters Ixxiii., Ixxxi., and Ixxxii. : — 

"Firstly, Will you design, upon a block of wood. Lord George 
Gordon, alone and very solitary, in his prison, and after your own 
fancy ; the time, evening ; the season, summer ? 

''Secondly, Will you ditto upon a ditto, a sword-duel between Mr. 
Haredale and Mr. Chester, in a grove of trees .<• No one close by. 
Mr. Haredale has just pierced his adversary, who has fallen, dying, on 



132 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

the grass. He (that is, Chester) tries to staunch the wound in his 
breast with his handkerchief; has his snuff-box on the earth beside 
him, and looks at Mr. Haredale (who stands with his sword in his 
hand looking down on him) with most supercilious hatred, but polite 
to the last. Mr. Haredale is more sorry than triumphant. 

" Thirdly, Will you conceive and execute, after your own fashion, 
a frontispiece for ' Barnaby ' ? 

''Fourthly, Will you also devise a subject representing 'Master 
Humphrey's Clock' as stopped; his chair by the fireside empty ; his 
crutch against the wall ; his slippers on the cold hearth ; his hat upon 
the chair-back; the MSS. of 'Barnaby' and 'The Curiosity Shop' 
heaped upon the table ; and the flowers you introduced in the first 
subject of all withered and dead ? Master Humphrey being supposed 
to be no more. 

" I have a fifthly, sixthly, seventhly, and eighthly ; for I sorely 
want you, as I approach the close of the tale ; but I won't frighten you, 
so we'll take breath. 

" P.S. — I have been waiting until I got to subjects of this nature, 
thinking you would like them best." 

Owing to an illness from which Cattermole was then suffering, the 
frontispiece here referred to was designed by Habl6t Browne. A few 
days later, the author bethought him of an incident earlier in the 
story (chapter Ixix.), which required an illustration, and anent this he 
despatched the following note : — 

" Will you, before you go on with the other subjects I gave you, 
do one of Hugh, bareheaded, bound, tied on a horse, and escorted by 
horse-soldiers to jail.-* If you can add an indication of old Fleet 
Market, and bodies of foot-soldiers firing at people who have taken 
refuge on the tops of stalls, bulk-heads, etc., it will be all the 
better." 

This letter is the last (of those which have been preserved) having 
reference to George Cattermole's artistic association with "Master 
Humphrey's Clock." Of the one hundred and ninety-four illustrations 



Plate XLII 

THE MURDER AT THE WARREN 

Facsimile of the Original Sketch for " Barnaby Rudge " by 
GEORGE CATTERMOLE 

Ltnt by Mr. AtigusHn Daly. 



.,1.. J ..U;,1tlt . 

i.t'-ir.nr-jTTA'.i 







.:?*«'■ 



>--v>;^ 



L- 



7:..^ . 



f 



I 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 133 

contained in this work, thirty-nine were designed by him, these com- 
prising fourteen for " The Old Curiosity Shop," fifteen for " Barnaby 
Rudge," and ten for the "Clock" chapters; his signature, "G.C.," 
appended thereto has occasionally been mistaken for the initials of 
George Cruikshank, to whom some of these designs have been incor- 
rectly attributed. There can be no doubt that George Cattermole's 
drawings greatly enhanced the popularity of the work, for nothing 
could be happier than his facile treatment of such subjects as the 
" Maypole " Inn, the interior of the Old Curiosity Shop, and Quilp's 
Wharf; while especially effective are his representations of the old 
church in the village where Little Nell died. This picturesque little 
structure really exists at Tong, in Shropshire, and, with its splendid 
carving and magnificent monuments, presents the same attractive 
appearance which inspired both Dickens and his illustrator. The 
novelist was so much charmed with Cattermole's designs in "The 
Old Curiosity Shop" that he could not refrain from expressing to 
the artist his warm appreciation of them. " I have so deeply felt," he 
wrote, " your hearty and most invaluable co-operation in the beautiful 
illustrations you have made for the last story, that I look at them 
with a pleasure I cannot describe to you in words, and that it is im- 
possible for me to say how sensible I am of your earnest and friendly 
aid. Believe me that this is the very first time that any designs 
for what I have written have touched and moved me, and caused me 
to feel that they expressed the idea I had in my mind. I am most 
sincerely and affectionately grateful to you, and am full of pleasure 
and delight." 

In concluding this account of George Cattermole's illustrations for 
the writings of Dickens, it only remains to add that he prepared a 
special design as the frontispiece for the first cheap edition of " The 
Old Curiosity Shop" (1848), an admirable drawing on wood, excel- 
lently engraved by Thomas Williams, depicting " Little Nell in the 
Church." 

On the completion of "Master Humphrey's Clock," the author 



134 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

commissioned Cattermole to make two water-colour drawings of scenes 
in " The Old Curiosity Shop," one representing " Little Nell's Home," 
while the other (now in the Forster Collection at South Kensington) 
portrays "Little Nell's Grave" in the old church, this being an en- 
larged version of the woodcut. These drawings are excellent examples 
of Cattermole's work, and were highly valued by the novelist, who, 
in a letter to the artist (dated December 20, 1842), expressed his 
sincere approval of them. " It is impossible," he said, "for me to tell 
you how greatly I am charmed with those beautiful pictures, in which 
the whole feeling, and thought, and expression of the little story is 
rendered, to the gratification of my inmost heart ; and on which you 
have lavished those amazing resources of yours with power at which 
I fairly wondered when I sat down yesterday before them. I took 
them to Mac [Maclise] straightway in a cab, and it would have done 
you good if you could have seen and heard him. You can't think 
how moved he was by the old man in the church, or how pleased I 
was to have chosen it before he saw the drawings. You are such a 
queer fellow, and hold yourself so much aloof, that I am afraid to say 
half I would say touching my grateful admiration ; so you shall imagine 
the rest. . . ." 

After two years of failing health and much acute suffering, George 
Cattermole closed an anxious and laborious life on the 24th of July, 
1868, the end being undoubtedly hastened by the almost simultaneous 
deaths, in 1862, of a much-loved. son and daughter. Dickens, who 
sincerely lamented the loss of this cherished friend, actively interested 
himself on behalf of his widow and young children (who were left in a 
very distressed condition) by starting a fund for their relief 

It needs but an examination of the correspondence that passed 
between Charles Dickens and George Cattermole (in which, during 
later years, the novelist playfully addressed his friend as " My dear 
Kittenmoles ") to prove how deep was their mutual affection. The 
artist's natural vivacity and good-fellowship caused him to be a great 
favourite, and those of his family who survive recall with delight 



GEORGE CATTERMOLE 135 

the "red-letter" days when Dickens. Thackeray. Landseer, and other 
kindred spirits foregathered at the Cattermole residence in Clapham 
Rise, on which occasions the genial company retired after dinner to 
brew punch in the studio — a picturesque apartment adorned with 
armour and tapestry and carved furniture, indicative of the artist's 
tastes, and strongly reminiscent of his most characteristic pictures. 



ILLUSTRATORS 

OF THE CHRISTMAS BOOKS 



JOHN LEECH. 
RICHARD DOYLE. 
CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A. 



D. MACLISE, R.A. 
SIR JOHN TENNIEL. 
FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 



SIR E. LANDSEER, R.A. 

IT was nothing less than an inspiration when, in 1843, Dickens 
conceived the idea of "A Christmas Carol," the composition of 
which induced in him such mental excitement, that when it was 
completed he "broke out like a madman." Its extraordinary popu- 
larity encourged him to prepare a similar story for publication at 
the end of the following year, this being succeeded by three 
others, all of them appearing during the festive season, in a binding 
of crimson cloth embellished with gold designs.* Not the least 
interesting feature of these handsome little volumes is the illustra- 
tions, mainly owing to the fact that they were designed by the 
leading black-and-white artists of the day, including three Royal 
Academicians and one Associate of the Royal Academy. Of this 
talented company only one member survives, — Sir John Tenniel, 
whose pencil is still actively employed in the pages of Punch. The 
following table denotes the number of designs supplied by each 
artist to the Christmas Books. 

' The first issue of the " Carol " was bound in cloth of a brownish colour, the subsequent 
issues appearing in crimson. 

i3« 



THE CHRISTMAS BOOKS 



137 



Analysis of Illustrations. 



Artist 


A Christmas 
Carol, 
1843. 


The 

Chimes, 

1845. 


The Cricket 

on the 

Hearth, 

1846. 


The Battle 

of Ufe, 

1846. 


The 

Haunled 

Man, 1848. 


Total. 


Leech . . . 
Doyle . . . 
Stanfield . . 
Maclise . . 
Tenniel . . 
Stone . . . 
Landseer 


8 


5 
4 

a 
2 


7 
3 


3 
3 
3 
4 


5 
3 

6 
3 


28 
10 

9 
8 
6 

3 
I 


8 


13 


>4 


13 


17 


65 



The engravers were the Dalziel Brothers (14 subjects), T. 
Williams (11), W. J. Linton (10), Martin and Corbould (8), Smith 
and Cheltnam (5), Groves (3), Thompson (3), F. P. Becker (2), Gray 
(2), Swain (2), Green (i). Four designs were etched on steel by 
John Leech, thus making up the full complement of illustrations. 



JOHN LEECH 



Leech's Early Attempts at Drawing — Medical Studies— First Published Work— Desires to 
Illustrate "Pickwick" — Becomes Acquainted with Dickens — "A CHRISTMAS Carol" — 
Sale of the Original Drawings — "THE Chimes" — Leech Misinterprets his Author — 
"The Cricket on the Hearth" — An Altered Design— The Artist's Humour Exem- 
plified— "The Battle OF Life"— Sale of Original Drawings— Unpublished Letters by 
Leech— A Grave Error— "The HAUNTED Man"— Leech's Method of Work— Artistic 
Value of his Sketches — Ruskin's Criticism — Leech as an Actor — A Serious Accident — 
Dickens as Nurse— Ill-health— A Fatal Seizure — Sir John Millais' Portrait of Leech. 



JOHN LEECH, the leading spirit ol Punch for more than twenty 
years, was born in London in 1817, his father (an Irishman of 
culture) being a vintner, and at one time the proprietor of the 
London Coffee- House on Ludgate Hill, then the most important of 
the large City hotels. As the elder Leech showed some skill as a 
draughtsman, we may reasonably assume that from him the son in- 
herited a talent for drawing, by means of which he was destined, 
before many years had passed, to astonish the world by his humour 
and originality. When a mere lad, he exhibited such aptitude and 
dexterity with the pencil, that Flaxman, the famous sculptor, pro- 
nounced these precocious efforts to be wonderful, and exclaimed : 
" That boy must be an artist ; he will be nothing else or less." 
Notwithstanding this recommendation, young Leech (after a course 
of schooling at the Charterhouse, where he had William Makepeace 
Thackeray as a fellow-pupil) was entered by his father at St. Bartho- 
lomew's Hospital, with a view to his adopting the medical profession ; 
but his penchant for drawing and sketching proved irresistible, and 
he gained more repute among the students by means of his lifelike 
(but good-natured) caricatures, than for any ability he may have 
displayed in hospital work. On leaving St. Bartholomew's, he was 

placed under an eccentric practitioner named Whittle (whom Albert 

.38 



Plate XLIII 

JOHN LEECH 

From the Water-colour Drawing by 
Sir JOHN E. MILLAIS, P.R.A., 1864 



finn-! t v.voi 



JOHN LEECH 139 

Smith has immortalised as Mr, Hawkins), and subsequently under 
Dr. John Cockle, afterwards Physician to the Royal Free Hospital. 

Leech, however, gradually relinquished his medical studies, and 
resolved to live by his pencil. He was only eighteen years of age 
when he published his first venture, " Etchings and Sketchings, by 
A. Penn, Esq.," comprising a collection of slightly caricatured sketches 
of various odd characters to be met with on the streets of London. 
Shortly after this maiden effort there appeared upon the scene the 
initial number of the celebrated " Pickwick Papers," and when, in the 
second number, the sad death was announced of Robert Seymour, the 
illustrator, Leech immediately conceived the idea of seeking election 
as his successor. " Boz " at this time was absolutely unknown to him 
except by that strange pseudonym, so the ambitious young artist com- 
municated his desire to the publishers. Chapman & Hall, to whom he 
sent as a specimen of his powers a clever drawing, delicately tinted in 
colour, of that familiar scene in " Pickwick " where Tom Smart sits 
up in bed and converses with the animated chair.* Thackeray (it 
will be remembered) also aspired to the position coveted by Leech, but 
neither possessed the necessary qualifications. 

In those early years Leech designed numerous illustrations for 
Belts Life in London, and concocted schemes of drollery with his 
literary friends which resulted in the publication of such humorous 
productions as the " Comic Latin Grammar," " Comic English 
Grammar," &c. In August, 1841, he contributed his first drawing 
to Punch (the fourth number), this being the forerunner of many 
hundreds of pictures, chiefly of " life and character," bearing the 

' Concerning this design, of which a facsimile is given in the Victoria edition of " The 
Pickwick Papers," 1887, a correspondent received the following interesting communication 
from a representative of Dickens's publishing firm : — 

"Mayvid, 1888. 

"Dear Sir,— The history of the drawing by Leech of 'Tom Smart and the Arm-chair' 
is, that at the time there was a difficulty about the artist for illustrating ' Pickwick,' Mr. Leech 
sent it in as a specimen of his ability to illustrate the work. This was in the year 1836, and 
it was in the possession of my predecessor, Mr. Edward Chapman, until twenty-five years ago, 
when it came into my possession. — Faithfully yours, Fred. Chapman." 



I40 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

familiar sign-manual of a leech wriggling in a bottle. The artist's 
connection with Punch gave him a great opportunity, for he was 
thus enabled to come before the public, week after week, with 
an endless succession of scenes in high life and low life, now of 
the hunting-field and now of the river, — always with something that 
could not fail to delight the eye and to excite good-natured laughter. 
His deftness and versatility naturally brought many commissions 
from publishers anxious to secure the aid of his prolific pencil, so 
that besides his weekly contribution to Punch he was occupied in 
preparing designs for other works, notably Douglas Jerrold's Shilling 
Magazine, Hood's Comic Annual, and " The Ingoldsby Legends." 

The year 1843 w^s memorable to John Leech, for then he first 
. , became acquainted with the author of " Pickwick." 

C n1 ifl/iQ ^y whom the introduction was brought about is 
not quite clear ; perhaps the credit of it may be 
awarded to Douglas Jerrold or Thomas Hood. In the above-men- 
tioned year Leech's services were obtained for the illustration of 
" A Christmas Carol," for which he prepared eight designs ; four 
of these were etched on steel, the impressions being afterwards 
coloured by hand, while the remaining four were drawn on wood, 
and beautifully engraved by W. J. Linton. The popularity of 
the "Carol" (the pioneer of all Dickens's Christmas Books, and, 
indeed, of Christmas literature generally) proved enormous, and 
much of its success was undoubtedly due to the attractive designs 
of John Leech, who entered so thoroughly into the spirit of this 
charming little allegory. In 1893 the original drawings, with the 
exception of that entitled " Scrooge's Third Visitor," were sold at 
Sotheby's for 155 guineas, and afterwards catalogued by a London 
bookseller at j[,2Afi — a considerable advance on the price paid to 
the artist and engraver, which was just under ;^50. This interesting 
series of drawings (two of them tinted in colours) had hitherto re- 
mained in the possession of a daughter of the artist. 



Plate XLIV 
"richard and margaret" 

FatrimiU of the Original Sketch for " The Chimes" by 
JOHN LEECH 

The figure of Richard was altered in the published design. 

By Permission of the An Museum Commitlet 9f Iht 
CorforatUm cf NoUiiigkam. 



i 



JOHN LEECH 141 

To " The Chimes " Leech contributed five illustrations, the 
original drawings for which realised 66 guineas at 
P ' Sotheby's in 1893. Some of these slight pencillings 

now form part of the Leech Collection at Nottingham 
Castle, including the first sketch for the illustration referred to by 
Dickens (in a letter to his wife) as being, together with a sketch 
by Doyle for the same story, so unlike his ideas that he invited both 
artists to breakfast with him one morning, and, " with that winning 
manner which you know of, got them, with the highest good-humour, 
to do both afresh." The design in question appears in the "Third 
Quarter," in which two scenes are represented, the upper one depict- 
ing Margaret in her garret, while in the lower compartment appears 
Richard, with "matted hair and unshorn beard," as he enters Trotty 
Veck's cottage. The artist misunderstood his author, and delineated, 
instead of Richard as described in the text, an extremely ragged and 
dissipated-looking character, with a battered hat upon his head. When 
the novelist saw it, the drawing had already been engraved, but 
the woodcut was promptly suppressed ; there still exists, however, 
an impression of the cancelled engraving, which is bound up with 
what is evidently a unique copy of " The Chimes" (now the property 
of Mr. J. F. Dexter), where blank spaces are left for some of the 
woodcuts; this particular copy is probably the publishers' "make 
up," and had accidentally left their hands. 

'• The Cricket on the Hearth " is embellished with seven designs 

by Leech. The original sketch for one of these 

, illustrations, representing John and Dot seated by 

H tVi iR/tft ^^^ ^^^' i'^dicates that it was Leech's intention at first 

to introduce Tilly Slowboy nursing the baby ; but it 

was apparently considered that her presence in the picture destroyed 

the domestic harmony of the scene, so the figure was omitted, and 

a separate woodcut made of the subject for a subsequent chapter. 

It is interesting to compare Leech's illustration of Caleb Plummer 



142 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

and his blind daughter at work with a similar design by Doyle in 
the same chapter, the vigorous character of the former happily con- 
trasting with the more restrained treatment of the latter. In the final 
woodcut of " The Dance," Leech's sense of humour (not always 
devoid of exaggeration) has free play, for here not only do we see 
the human characters in the story indulging in the pleasant exercise, 
but observe that, in one corner, the carrier's pets. Boxer and the 
cat, are similarly disporting themselves, while even the artist's signa- 
ture (in the opposite corner) of a leech in a bottle is placed upon a 
couple of lively legs, and is kicking away with an abandon worthy 
of the occasion. 

In Dickens's fourth Christmas Book, " The Battle of Life," John 
Leech is represented by three illustrations, all of which 
t T 't ^ ^^ designed in the manner characteristic of these little 
Q , * volumes, in having one scene superimposed upon 

another. The original sketches for two of these 
woodcuts, viz., "The Parting Breakfast" and "The Night of the 
Return," are in the South Kensington Museum,^ while the third 
drawing has found its way to America, whither so many Dickens 
relics have departed. When, in June 1893, some highly-finished 
replicas of these designs were disposed of at Sotheby's, they realised 
the extraordinary sums of ;^35, los., £,\T, los,, and ;^20, los. re- 
spectively. In the Forster Collection at South Kensington there 
are two very interesting letters, addressed by Leech to the biographer 
of Dickens, having special connection with these illustrations. The 
first (dated November 16, 1846) refers to the breakfast scene, and 
from it we gather that there was a very limited time for preparing 
the designs : — 

' Facsimiles of these have already appeared in my Memoir of John Leech. A duplicate 
sketch (more completely carried out) of "The Parting Breakfast" will be found in the Print 
Room of the British Museum, but there is, I believe, some doubt as to its authenticity. The 
late Mr. G. A. Sala pointed out that the engraving of this subject contains an astonishingly good 
likeness of that admired comedian, Robert Keeley, as the old servant Britain. 






Plate XLV 

"JOHN, DOT, AND TILLY SLOWBOY " 

Fatsimilt of the Original Drawing for ' ' The Cricket on the Hearth " by 
JOHN LEECH 

The figure of Tilly Slowboy was omitted in the published Drawing, a 
separate Illustration being made of that portion of the Design. 

Unt fy Mr. W. H. Ixvtr. 



VJX fTAl'? 



■"'""^ ' ' ' '^^ ,i,uu ,.-. 



H-JH'M VlHOi 



JOHN LEECH 143 

" My Dear Forster, — I really cannot say off-hand how many 
illustrations I can make within the week ; indeed, I am so embarrassed 
by the conditions under which I am to make my share of the drawings 
that 1 hardly know what to do at all. Conscientiously, I could not 
make Clemency Newcome particularly beautiful. If you will read 
a little beyond the words ' plump and cheerful,' you will find the 
following : ' But the extraordinary homeliness of her gait and manner 
would have superseded any face in the world. To say that she had 
two left legs and somebody else's arms, and that all four limbs 
seemed to be out of joint, and to start from perfectly wrong places,' 
&c., &c. Again, she is described as having 'a prodigious pair of 
self-willed shoes,' and a gown of ' the most hideous pattern pro- 
curable for money.' The impression made upon me by such a 
description as I have quoted certainly is that the character so de- 
scribed is both awkward and comic. Of course I may be wrong in 
my conception of what Dickens intended, but / imagine the lady in 
question a sort of clean 'Slowboy.' The blessed public (if they 
consider the matter at all) will hold me responsible for what appears 
with my name ; they will know nothing about my being obliged to 
conform to Maclise's ideas. I cannot tell you how loath I should 
be to cause any delay or difficulty in the production of the book, or 
what pain it would give me to cause either Dickens or yourself any 
annoyance. I confess I am a little out of heart. — Believe me ever 
yours faithfully, John Leech." 

"John Forster, Esq." 

Maclise, who also provided illustrations to " The Battle of Life," 
was anxious that his own type of character for Clemency Newcome 
should be reproduced in the designs by Leech ; hence that artist's 
protest. Writing again two days later on the subject. Leech said : — 

" Mv Dear Forster, — Perhaps I was wrong in using the word 
'conditions' in my note to you — I should have said 'circumstances,' 



144 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

and by being ' embarrassed ' by them I meant that I found it very 

harassing to do work (that I am for several reasons anxious to do 

well) under the constant feeling that I have too little time to do it 

in ; and also I meant to convey to you that the necessity (which I 

certainly supposed to exist) of preserving a sort of resemblance to 

the characters as conceived by Mr. Maclise made it a rather nervous 

undertaking to me. It seems I expressed myself clumsily, as the 

tone of my note appeared to you anything but what I intended it to 

be. Any suggestion from you I should always consider most valuable. 

I send you one drawing, completed this morning at four o'clock, and 

I assure you I would spare neither time nor any personal comfort to 

show my personal regard for both yourself and Dickens. 

" I should not like to promise more than two other drawings, if 

Saturday is positively the last day. I might be able to do more, 

but I should not like to promise, and fail. Pray overlook any glaring 

defects in the block I send, and believe me yours faithfully, 

John Leech, 
"John Forster, Esq., &c. &c. 

"P.S. I should like, if there is no objection, that Linton should 
engrave for me." 

It was natural that, remembering the excellent reproductions of 
his wood-drawings in the "Carol" and "The Chimes," Leech should 
express a wish that Linton * might also engrave those in " The 
Battle of Life ; " but the signatures appended to the cuts show 

1 As I write, the decease of that admirable artist and engraver is reported from New 
Haven, U.S.A. W. J. Linton was bom in London in 1812, and had therefore attained a 
venerable age, spending the latter portion of his life in America. During an extremely active 
career he produced, among other literary works, a valuable and comprehensive history of the 
art of which he was undoubtedly the most capable exponent. Mr. Linton, who may justly 
be termed the father of modern wood-engraving, carried on the tradition of Bewick, and was 
a thorough champion of the " white-line school." As a zealous Chartist he took an active 
and prominent part in politics, and, in addition to this, he was a voluminous writer both in 
poetry and prose, his works including " The English Republic," " Claribel, and other Poems," 
" A Life of Whittier," &c. 



i 



Plate XLVI 

"CALEB AT WORK" 

FacsimiU of the Original Drawing for " The Cricket on the Hearth " by 
JOHN LEECH 

Lent ty Mr. W. H. Lever. 



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JOHN LEECH 145 

that, doubtless for some sufficient reason, the artist's wish was not 
respected. 

In his third design for "The Battle of Life" Leech committed 
an extraordinary blunder, the result (it must be confessed) of care- 
lessly studying his author. In this illustration, where the festivities 
to welcome the bridegroom at the top of the page contrast with the 
flight of the bride represented below, Leech gravely erred in suf>- 
posing that Michael Warden had taken part in the elopement, and 
has introduced his figure with that of Marion, This curious mistake, 
which might have been avoided had the drawing been submitted to 
Dickens, was not discovered until too late for remedy, and it is 
highly characteristic of the novelist, of the true regard he felt for 
the artist, that he preferred to pass it silently. The most remarkable 
thing of all is (as Forster has pointed out), nobody seems to have 
noticed the unfortunate oversight, although it must be obvious to every 
attentive reader that it makes great havoc of one of the most delicate 
episodes in the story. The feelings of the author, on realising the 
seriousness of this terrible misconception on the part of the artist, 
may be readily imagined. Writing to his biographer, he said : 
"When I first saw it, it was with a horror and agony not to be 
expressed. Of course I need not tell you, my dear fellow, Warden 
has no business in the elopement scene. He was never there! In 
the first hot sweat of this surprise and novelty, I was going to implore 
the printing of that sheet to be stopped, and the figure taken out of 
the block. But when I thought of the pain this might give to our 
kind-hearted Leech, and that what is such a monstrous enormity to 
me, as never having entered my brain, may not so present itself to 
others, I became more composed ; though the fact is wonderful to 
me. No doubt a great number of copies will be printed by the time 
this reaches you, and therefore I shall take it for granted that it 
stands as it is. Leech otherwise is very good, and the illustrations 
altogether are by far the best that have been done for any of my 
Christmas Books. . . ." 

K 



146 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

" The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain " — the last of the 

Christmas stories — contains five designs by Leech, 

__ n -, and one of the original sketches is here reproduced, 
Man, 1848. , , . f u A/r L. • • 

through the courtesy ot the Museum authorities at 

Nottingham Castle. They are not among Leech's happiest efforts, 
and do not compare favourably with the vignettes in " A Christmas 
Carol." 

Like Cruikshank, " Phiz," and other contemporary book-illustrators, 
John Leech never worked from models, relying chiefly upon his re- 
tentive memory ; he seldom made sketches of any kind, but merely 
jotted down such useful memoranda of bits of scenery and character, 
details of particular costume, &c., as could be recorded in a little 
note-book which he invariably carried about with him. When 
developing an idea for a drawing, he would first make a slight out- 
line of the subject upon paper of the size required, then trace it 
down upon the wood-block, and finally complete the picture with 
care and deliberation. The only lessons in etching he ever had he 
received from George Cruikshank ; but it was as a draughtsman on 
wood that he excelled, his etchings (of which those in the "Carol" 
are among the best) not being technically equal to those of either 
Cruikshank or " Phiz," nor do they exhibit that sense of freedom 
and spontaneity visible in his published drawings. The late George 
du Maurier, his friend and colleague on Punch, tells us that Leech 
"drew straight on the wood block, with a lead-pencil; his delicate 
grey lines had to be translated into the uncompromising coarse black 
lines of printer's ink — a ruinous process ; and what his work lost in 
this way is only to be estimated by those who know." In giving 
an account of Leech's work. Professor Ruskin points out a fact not 
generally known, viz., that from an artistic standpoint his first sketches 
for the woodcuts are much more valuable than the finished drawings, 
even before those drawings sustained any loss in engraving. " The 
first few lines in which he sets down his purpose are invariably, of all 
drawing that I know," says the eminent critic, "the most wonderful 






!■ 



I 



Plate XLVII 

"THE TETTERBYS" 

Faesimilt of the Original Drawing for ' ' The Haunted Man ' by 
JOHN LEECH 

By Permission of the Art Museum Committee of tkt 
Corporation of Noltingkam. 



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JOHN LEECH 147 

in their accurate and prosperous haste." Dickens remained a constant 
admirer of Leech's genius, and when, in 1848, there appeared a col- 
lection of lithographs, where the artist humorously depicted "The 
Rising Generation," the novelist indited for The Examiner a glowing 
eulogium upon the work of his friend, in the course of which he 
declared that he was "the very first Englishman who had made 
beauty a part of' his art." It was from Dickens that Leech occa- 
sionally accepted happy thoughts for Punch, and it will be remembered 
that he frequently availed himself (as did Sir John Tenniel subse- 
quently) of " Phiz's " designs for Dickens, whenever he thought they 
could be appropriately converted into political cartoons. 

John Leech occasionally associated himself with the amateur 
theatrical performances organised by Dickens, but it must be admitted 
that, owing to his naturally modest and retiring disposition, he did 
not achieve great distinction as an actor. In 1849, while on a visit 
to the novelist at Bonchurch, he was stunned by a huge wave when 
bathing, and was put to bed with " twenty of his namesakes on his 
temples." Congestion of the brain ensued, and Dickens, who pro\/ed 
one of the most attentive of nurses during this anxious time, proposed 
to Mrs. Leech to try magnetism. "Accordingly," he wrote to Forster, 
" in the middle of the night I fell to, and after a very fatiguing bout 
of it, put him to sleep for an hour and thirty-five minutes. A change 
came on in the sleep, and he is decidedly better. I talked to the 
astonished Mrs. Leech across him, when he was asleep, as if he had 
been a truss of hay." 

Incessant brain-work induced in John Leech a peculiar irritability, 
and he was so much affected by street noises, even such as would 
escape ordinary attention, that he was compelled at length to resort 
to the device of double windows. Eventually this abnormal sensi- 
tiveness told so seriously upon his health that he was ordered to 
Homburg for change of scene ; but, on returning to his London home 
in the autumn of 1864, he was still strangely susceptible to noise of 
all kinds. In addition to this, the artist suffered acutely from angina 



148 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

pectoris, and on October 29, 1864, he was seized with an attack of 
that terrible disease, which, alas ! proved fatal. Dickens was sadly 
overcome by the death of this kindly man, and attributed thereto his 
inability to make progress with " Our Mutual Friend," upon which 
he was then engaged. Around the artist's grave there assembled, 
on a bright autumn day, many who were distinguished in Art and 
Literature, in honour of him they sincerely mourned, grieving for the 
loss of a spirit, so gentle and graceful, that had just passed away. 

The portrait of John Leech reproduced for this work is from a 
beautiful water-colour drawing by his friend, the late Sir John E. 
Millais, P.R.A., representing the artist in the prime of life. This 
interesting and valuable presentment of the great pictorial humorist 
was purchased in 1892 by the Trustees of the National Portrait 
Gallery, and during the previous year a reproduction of it was given, 
at my suggestion, as the frontispiece to the biography of John Leech 
by Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A. Another intimate friend of Leech, Mr. 
Holman Hunt, informs me that he considers this drawing by Millais 
as undoubtedly the best portrait of the artist. 







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Platk XLVIII 

RICHARD DOYLE 

From a Photograph by 
G. JEKRARI) 

/^n/ *v Afn. Henry Voyle. 

D. MACLISE, R.A. 

From the Painting by 
E. M. WAKD, R.A., lK4fi 



RICHARD DOYLE 

Inherits a Talent for Drawing— Not Permitted to Study from Models— No Regular Training 

in Art — A Skilful Amateur— Precocious Sense of Humour — Fanciful Designs Doyle 

Joins the Punch Staff— Instructed in Drawing on Wood— His Sign-manual— Retirement 
from Punch— Hot Acquainted with Dickens— His Illustrations for "The Chimes"— Elves 
and Goblins— An Oversight by the Artist— "The Cricket ON THE Hearth " and "The 
Battle of Life"- Doyle's Original Sketches for the Christmas Books Dispersed. 

WITH the single exception of John Leech, Richard Doyle 
contributed the greatest number of illustrations to the 
Christmas Books, three of these little volumes containing, 
in the aggregate, ten designs by him. He Wcis born in London in 
1824, his father, John Doyle, being the famous caricaturist, "H.B.," 
whose political cartoons created much sensation in their day. At an 
early age Richard Doyle proved that he inherited a talent for drawing, 
and was encouraged in this direction by his father, who (strange to 
say) would not allow him to study from the living model, preferring 
that the boy should be taught "to observe with watchful eye the 
leading features of the object before him, and then some little time 
after to reproduce them from memory as nearly as he could." He 
had no regular training in art, except such as he was privileged to enjoy 
in his father's studio, the result being that (as Mr. M. H. Spielmann 
reminds us in his "History of Puruh") he never attained a higher 
position than that of an extremely skilful amateur, "whose short- 
comings were concealed in his charming illustrations and imaginative 
designs, but were startlingly revealed in his larger work and in his 
figure-drawing. . . . He was saved by his charm and sweetness, his 
inexhaustible fun and humour, his delightful though superficial realisa- 
tion of character, and his keen sense of the grotesque." 

Richard Doyle's precocious sense of humour is exemplified in his 



I50 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

illustrations for the Comic Histories, executed by him when fifteen years 
of age, but which were posthumously published. An extraordinary 
power of fanciful draughtsmanship distinguishes the majority of his 
designs, so that his pencil was in frequent request for works which 
demanded the display of this special faculty, such as Leigh Hunt's 
"Jar of Honey," Ruskin's "King of the Golden River," "Pictures 
from the Elf World," Planches " Old Fairy Tales," &c. In 1843, 
when the artist was only nineteen, he was installed as a member of 
the regular pictorial staff of /*««M, and received instruction in drawing 
on wood from Joseph Swain, the engraver for that journal. Richard 
Doyle was familiarly known to his intimate friends as " Dicky Doyle," 
which probably suggested his sign-manual of a little dicky-bird 
perched upon his initials, R.D., — a signature that may be found 
appended to a very considerable number of cuts designed for Punch 
during a period of seven years — that is, until his retirement there- 
from in 1850. 

Although Doyle furnished illustrations to three of Dickens's 
— ,, -,, , Christmas Books, there is no evidence that he was 

jO ' ever personally acquainted with the novelist. No 

reference is made to the artist by Forster, nor does 
it appear that any correspondence passed between him and Dickens, 
the necessary instructions being apparently transmitted through the 
publishers. The earliest Christmas story with which we find him 
associated is " The Chimes," to which he supplied four illustrations, 
viz., " The Dinner on the Steps," " Trotty at Home," " Trotty 
Veck among the Bells," and "Margaret and her Child." His de- 
signs embellish the initial pages of each chapter, and are treated 
in a decorative and fanciful manner. In the first of these it will be 
noticed that the upper portion consists of a representation of the tower 
of St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, — a subject repeated by 
Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., in a subsequent illustration. In the other 
woodcuts the artist exhibits his acknowledged skill in delineating elves 



RICHARD DOYLE 151 

and goblins, that depicting Trotty among the Spirits of the Bells 
affording a delightful example of his wonderful power in portraying 
goblin-like creatures, with their weird expressions and varied postures. 
Apropos of this engraving, a curious oversight has been discovered 
by the Rev. H. R. Haweis, for Doyle has introduced only three 
bells, thus seeming to have forgotten that four are required to ring 
a quarter! The subject of the remaining design, where Margaret, 
with her babe, kneels at the river's brink, is replete with pathos, the 
impression of desolation and despair being admirably rendered by 
means of a few simple lines. 

The next Christmas story, "The Cricket on the Hearth," con- 
tains three illustrations by Doyle, one for each 
y^ chapter, as before. The first really comprises two 

H th \9,a( '^is^'"'^^ subjects, separated by a quaintly-designed 
initial letter; in the upper drawing is seen John 
Peerybingle's cart on its journey, preceded by Boxer, while below 
we are presented with an ideal scene of domestic happiness, where 
John and Dot are seated before the fire in their humble home. 
The first page of " Chirp the Second " contains a capital picture of 
Caleb Plummer and his blind daughter Bertha, busily at work among 
the toys ; in the last design, illustrating the opening lines of " Chirp 
the Third," the honest carrier is observed reclining his head upon 
his hand in silent grief, while comforting spirits hover around him. 

Dickens's fourth Christmas Book, " The BatUe of Life," includes 
three designs by Doyle, which are also introduced as 
The Battle of embellishments of the initial pages of the different 
Lite, 1846. . _, . . , , . I. 

chapters. They are much bolder m treatment, how- 
ever, than the artist's earlier drawings, and do not possess the 
artistic charm appertaining to his illustrations in " The Cricket on the 
Hearth." The most successful are the vignette subjects at the top 
of each page, which are charming little studies. 



152 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

It is unfortunate that no original sketches for these illustrations 
are available for reproduction. A member of the artist's family 
declares that they were dispersed, principally as gifts to friends, and 
that their present destination is unknown. 

On December lo, 1883, Richard Doyle was struck down by 
apoplexy as he was quitting the Athenaeum Club, and died on the 
following day. Thus passed away not only one of the most graceful 
limners of Fairyland that England has produced, but one who 
will long be remembered for his many noble qualities of heart 
and mind. 




4 



m 



Plate XLIX 
clarkson stanfield, r.a. 

From a Photograph 

Lenl by Mr. Fitld StanJuUL 

FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 

From a Photograph 

Lent by Mrs. Kalt Ptnigini. 



CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A. 

Apprenticed to a Heraldic Painter — Goes to Sea — Meets Douglas Jerrold— Scene-painting — 
Exhibits at the Royal Academy— Becomes Acquainted with Dickens— A Memorable 
Trip to Cornwall— The Logan Stone— Illustrations for "The Chimes"— A Labour of 
Love — A Present and a Letter from Dickens— Illustration for "The Cricket on the 
Hearth"— A Quaint Epistle, signed "Henry Bluff"— Illustrations for "The Battle of 
Life"— Dickens's Opinion of Stanfield's Designs— Illustration for "The Haunted Man" 
—Another Gift from Dickens to the Artist— A Drawing of the " Britannia" Steam-ship— 
Private Theatricals— A Remarkable Act-Drop — Declining Health— Death of the Artist 
—Dickens's Eulogium— " The Most Lovable of Men." 

FIRST a sailor, then an artist and a Royal Academician, 
William Clarkson Stanfield acquired the reputation of being 
the greatest marine-painter of his time. Born in 1793, he 
was brought up to the sea, and at sea (curiously enough) was 
thrown into the companionship of Douglas Jerrold, who, like him- 
self, was ordained to make his mark in a very different profession. 

When about twelve years old Clarkson Stanfield was appren- 
ticed to a heraldic painter in Edinburgh, but an intense longing for 
the career of a sailor resulted in his entering the merchant service 
in 1808. Four years later he was pressed into the Royal Navy, 
and while on board the King's ship Namur in 18 14 (where he first 
met Jerrold, then a midshipman), his talent for drawing was dis- 
covered, whereupon he was sent ashore at Sheerness to assist in 
the painting and decoration of the Admiral's ball-room, his work 
giving so much satisfaction that he was promised his discharge 
from the Navy — a promise, however, that was not fulfilled. After 
another interval of three or four years he finally left the sea, having 
been temporarily disabled by a fall, and procured an engagement 
as scene-painter at the East London Theatre, for he had already 
essayed this branch of Art on board ship. So eminently satis- 

>5J 



154 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

factory were his pictorial achievements in East London that he 
obtained a similar position at the Edinburgh Theatre, and thence, 
in 1822, in conjunction with his friends David Roberts and Nasmyth, 
he was employed in a like capacity at the Theatre Royal, Drury 
Lane. From that time his success in Art was assured. 

Stanfield had already exhibited in the Royal Academy, and year 
by year his work in this and other Institutions continued to excite 
interest and admiration, by reason of the simple truthfulness of all 
his representations. Usually, but not invariably, he preferred to 
depict scenes in which his nautical experience could be made avail- 
able, and his natural gifts permitted him to combine with the 
genuine sailor-like feeling displayed in the treatment of his subjects 
a poetical sentiment which considerably enhanced the charm of his 
productions. In 1832 Stanfield was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, and three years later he attained full honours. It 
will thus be seen that he had gained a very dignified position in 
the world of Art before even the name of Charles Dickens became 
known to the reading public, — as a matter of fact, the future novelist 
was at that date writing the earliest of those wonderful sketches 
which appeared under the nom de guerre of " Boz." 

Clarkson Stanfield, who was Charles Dickens's senior by about nine- 
teen years, made the acquaintance of the novelist late in the " Thirties," 
when began those affectionate relations subsisting between the two 
distinguished men. " I love you so truly," observed Dickens to the 
artist, in a letter dated August 24, 1844, "and have such pride and 
joy of heart in your friendship, that I don't know how to begin writing 
to you." Two years previously Stanfield joined Dickens and his 
friends Forster and Maclise in their famous trip to Cornwall, — three 
memorable weeks, overflowing with enjoyment and fun ; the artists 
made sketches of the most romantic of the halting-places, one of 
these being a drawing of the Logan Stone by Stanfield (now in the 
Forster Collection at South Kensington), where are seen the figures 
of himself and his three fellow-travellers. 



CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A. 155 

In 1844 Dickens conceived the idea of a second Christmas Book, 

_ "The Chimes," and what more natural than that he 

J, * should desire to enlist the services, as illustrator, of 

so skilled a draughtsman as Clarkson Stanfield? It 

was decided to depart from the plan adopted in regard to the "Carol," 

by engaging more than one artist, thus imparting an agreeable variety 

to the designs. Stanfield, eager to gratify his friend, did not require 

much persuasion to co-operate in the pictorial embellishment of the 

little volume, for which he provided two choice drawings, viz., "The 

Old Church," — a faithful representation of the " old London belfry " of 

St. Dunstan's in Fleet Street, — and "Will Fern's Cottage," — a pretty 

bit of landscape scenery, such as the artist knew so well how to depict. 

With these Dickens was charmed, and in a letter to his wife he said : 

" Stanfield's readiness, delight, wonder at my being pleased with what 

he has done is delicious." 

Stanfield, it appears, would not accept payment for these drawings, 
preferring that they should be considered as tokens of friendship. 
Dickens, however, could not pass over so generous an act without 
some acknowledgment, and this took the form of a silver claret-jug, 
which was presented (as the inscription records) " In Memory of 
'The Chimes.'" Accompanying the gift was the following letter, 
dated October 2, 1845, where allusion is made to the succeeding 
Christmas Story : — 

"Mv Dear Stannv, — I send you the claret-jug. But for a 
mistake, you would have received the little remembrance almost 
immediately after my return from abroad. 

"... I need not say how much I should value another little 
sketch from your extraordinary hand in this year's small volume, to 
which Mac again does the frontispiece. But I cannot hear of it, 
and will not have it (though the gratification of such aid to me is 
really beyond all expression), unless you will so far consent to make 
it a matter of business as to receive, without asking any questions, 



156 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

a cheque in return from the publishers. Do not misunderstand me — 
though I am not afraid there is much danger of your doing so, for 
between us misunderstanding is, I hope, not easy. I know perfectly 
well that no terms would induce you to go out of your way, in such 
a regard, for perhaps anybody else. I cannot, nor do I desire to, 
vanquish the friendly obligation which help from you imposes on me. 
But I am not the sole proprietor of these little books ; and it would 
be monstrous in you if you were to dream of putting a scratch 
into a second one without some shadowy reference to the other 
partners, ten thousand times more monstrous in me if any considera- 
tion on earth could induce me to permit it, which nothing will 
or shall. 

" So, see what it comes to. If you will do me a favour on my 
terms, it will be more acceptable to me, my dear Stanfield, than I can 
possibly tell you. If you will not be so generous, you deprive me 
of the satisfaction of receiving it at your hands, and shut me out 
from that possibility altogether. What a stony-hearted ruffian you 
must be in such a case ! — Ever affectionately yours, 

"Charles Dickens." 

The "small volume" here alluded to was "The Cricket on the 
The Cricket Hearth," for which Stanfield prepared one illustra- 
on the tion, viz., " The Carrier's Cart." 

Hearth, 1846. 

To the fourth Christmas Book, "The Battle of Life," Stanfield 
_ contributed three beautiful little designs, represent- 

L'f iR/i^ *"S respectively "War," "Peace," and "The 'Nut- 

meg Grater' Inn." Happily, I am enabled to 
present facsimiles of the original sketches (very slight in treatment) 
of the first two subjects, through the courtesy of the artist's son, 
Mr. Field Stanfield. The story was written at Lausanne, and, 
during Dickens's absence in Switzerland, Forster succeeded in 
enlisting Stanfield as one of the illustrators as a glad surprise for 



I 



Plate L 

"war" and "peace" 

Faciimilt of the Original Sketches for " The Battle of Life " by 
C. STANFIELD, R.A. 

LtHt by Mr Field Slanfietd. 








^O 



i 



CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A. 157 

the author, who, on being informed of the fact, wrote to his biog- 
rapher : " Your Christmas Book illustration-news makes me jump 
for joy." Forster intimates that these " three morsels of English 
landscape," delineated by Stanfield, had a singular charm for Dickens 
at the time, who referred to the illustrations altogether as by far 
the best that had been done for any of the Christmas Books. " It 
is a delight," he remarked concerning Stanfield's designs, " to look 
at these little landscapes of the dear old boy. How gentle and 
elegant, and yet how manly and vigorous they are! I have a 
perfect joy in them." 

The last of the Christmas Books, viz., " The Haunted Man," 

_ contains three illustrations by this artist, viz., " The 

M 8 8 Lighthouse," " The Exterior of the Old College," 

and " The Christmas Party in the Great Dinner 

Hall." In the first subject, which is decidedly the most successful, 

Stanfield found a most congenial theme, for here his knowledge of 

sailors and of the dangers of the sea proved serviceable. With 

regard to his designs for these little annuals, it appears that the 

artist could not be prevailed upon to accept payment for them, 

Dickens's protests notwithstanding. He consequently became the 

recipient of another gift — a pair of handsome silver salvers, bearing 

the simple inscription, "Clarkson Stanfield from Charles Dickens," in 

recognition of his friendly collaboration, and these are now in the 

possession of one of the artist's sons. 

There is another illustration by Stanfield to which some allusion 
must be made. This is an admirable water-colour 
J, Q drawing of the Britannia, the steamship that 

conveyed Dickens to America in 1842. The 
drawing was made with a view to reproduction as the frontis- 
piece for the first cheap edition of "American Notes," and the 
following hitherto unpublished letter (dated May 11, 1850) to 



158 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Edward Chapman (of Chapman & Hall), is of interest in this 
connection : — 

" Dear Sir, — Mr. Stanfield will ^draw the packet-ship for the 
frontispiece to the ' American Notes.' He says lithograph is better 
than wood for that kind of subject ; please let me know immediately 
whether it will suit us to lithograph it.— Faithfully yours, 

"Charles Dickens." 

The suggestion was found impracticable, so it was decided that 
the drawing should be made on wood. The block was therefore 
forwarded to the artist, who complained to Dickens of its imperfect 
surface, whereupon the novelist despatched to Edward Chapman this 
brief missive, dated May 22 : — 

" Dear Sir, — Mr. Stanfield wonders you didn't send him a paving- 
stone to draw upon, as send a block in this unprepared state. I send 
you his drawing to do the best you can with. It costs nothing, and 
I wish it to be kept very clean and returned to me. — Faithfully yours, 

"Charles Dickens." 

It may be inferred from this letter that the drawing was copied 
upon the wood-block by the engraver himself, whose name (T. 
Bolton) is appended to the frontispiece. The original picture was 
purchased at the sale of Dickens's effects in 1870 for the sum of 
£1 10, 5s., by the late Earl of Darnley, for many years the novelist's 
friend and neighbour. 

Clarkson Stanfield, whose intimacy with the Dickens family was 
very close, used to take part in their Christmas sports and gambols, 
and in connection with the private theatricals at Tavistock House 
his services as scene-painter were invaluable. Apropos of this, the 
novelist once wrote to Frank Stone, A.R.A. : "Stanfield bent on 
desperate effects, and all day long with his coat off, up to his eyes 
in distemper colours." Again : " If Stanfield don't astonish 'em [the 



CLARKSON STANFIELD, R.A. 159 

audience], I'm a Dutchman. O Heaven, if you could hear the ideas he 
proposes to me, making even my hair stand on end!" For Wilkic 
Collins's drama, " The Lighthouse," produced at Tavistock House, the 
artist painted a very remarkable act-drop representing the Eddystone 
Lighthouse, concerning which it may be observed that, although it 
occupied the great painter only one or two mornings, it realised at 
the novelist's death nearly a thousand guineas ! 

Dickens, when writing to Stanfield, frequently adopted nautical 
expressions, in allusion to the artist's experiences as a seaman. He 
sometimes addressed him as "Old Tarpaulin," "Old Salt," "Messmet," 
&c, and as an example of this I here reprint a letter, written on an 
occasion when Stanfield innocently demanded of Dickens to be in- 
formed of the amount due for a pair of candlesticks that the novelist 
had sent him : — 

"Mv Dear Stannv, — In reference to the damage for the candle- 
sticks, I beg to quote (from 'The Cricket on the Hearth,' by the 
highly popular and deservedly so Dick) this reply : 
' I'll damage you if you inquire.' 
Ever yours. 

My block-reeving, 

Main-brace splicing, 

Lead-heaving, 

Ship-conning, 

Stun'sail-bending, 

Deck-swabbing 

Son of a sea-cook, 

Henry Bluff, 

H.M.S. Timber:" 

■ From "The Letters of Charles Dickens." Mr. Field Stanfield informs me that it is 
quite certain the candlesticks were not a gift from Dickens to his father. It would seem most 
probable that there may have been some accident during theatrical preparations, for which the 
artist considered himself responsible, and that Dickens undertook to repair the misfortune 
hiinsel£ 



i6o DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

During the last ten years of his life Stanfield's health became 
less strong, and he was obliged in some measure to retire from the 
congenial circle of his artistic and literary associates, continuing, how- 
ever, to take great delight in his art. Stanfield breathed his last 
on May i8, 1867. His death proved a great blow to Dickens, 
who, in a note of sympathy to Mr. George Stanfield, observed : 
" No one of your father's friends can ever have loved him more dearly 
than I always did, or can have better known the worth of his noble 
character." To the famous painter, for whom he ever entertained 
a strong affection, the novelist had dedicated " Little Dorrit," and, 
as a tribute to his memory, wrote (in All the Year Round) a 
sympathetic eulogium upon his departed friend of thirty years, 
where, after alluding to the artist as "the National historian of 
the Sea," he says : " He was a charitable, religious, gentle, truly 
good man. A genuine man, incapable of pretence or of concealment. 
He was the soul of frankness, generosity, and simplicity. The most 
genial, the most affectionate, the most loving, and the most lovable 
of men." 



X 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 

His Precocious Talent— Studies Anatomy— Enters the Royal Academy Schools— Gains a 
"Travelling Studentship"— Elected a Royal Academician— Declines the Presidency- 
Introduced to Dickens — A Lifelong Friendship — " Master Humphrey's Clock" — 
Maclisc Essays an Illustration— "The Chimes"— A Reading by Dickens and a Sketch by 
Madise — His Original Drawings— "The CRICKET ON THE HEARTH "—An Unpublished 
Letter from Madise— "The Battle of Life"— Dickens's Appreciation of Maclise's 
Illustrations — The Artist's Correspondence with Forster Respecting his Designs— His 
Anxiety Concerning the Engraving— An Indignant Letter— " Little Dirty Scratches" — 
Madise Dispenses with the Living Model — Dickens's Relations with the Artist — A 
Memorable Trip— Picture of the Waterfall at St. Nighton's Cave — A Portrait of Dickens 
—An Interesting Pencil- Drawing — Death of "Grip" — The Raven Immorulised by 
Madise — A Letter of Sympathy— The Artist's Dedining Health— His Death a Severe 
Shock to Dickens — The Novelist's Tribute to his Memory. 

A MONG a host of intimate friends, none was more beloved by 
/ \ Dickens than the warm-hearted Irish artist, Daniel Maclise, 
■^ ^ whose fine genius and handsome person charmed all who 
knew him. Maclise was the son of a Scotch soldier quartered at 
Cork, and was born in that city on January 25, 181 1, being thus the 
novelist's senior by about a year. As a child he exhibited great 
facility in executing caricatures, and was soon enabled to support 
himself by the sale of his sketches. It was at first intended that 
he should adopt the surgical profession, with which object he studied 
anatomy under Dr. Woodroffe, but, like John Leech, he did not take 
kindly to the science of healing, preferring (as did Leech) the more 
congenial pursuit of Art. Accordingly, in 1827, Maclise entered 
the Royal Academy Schools, where he made such rapid progress, 
that two years later his work was admitted to the Exhibition of the 
Royal Academy. Although, in 1831, the fortunate young painter re- 
ceived the gold medal entitling him to the " Travelling Studentship," 
he elected to remain in England, having already visited Paris and 



i62 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

studied at the Louvre and the Luxembourg. Achieving success after 
success as a painter of Shakesperian scenes, portraits, &c., he became 
an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1836, and attained full honours 
in 1840. In 1866 he was offered the Presidency, but, as did Sir 
Edwin Landseer during the previous year, he declined that distinction. 

It was in the year of his election as Associate that Maclise was 

introduced by Forster to Charles Dickens, and we 

Master Hum' ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^le tastes and pursuits of the three friends 

phre/s Clock, ... , r . , 

ifl/in /If were so congenial that thenceforth they were msepar- 

able, — this affectionate intercourse being maintained 
without interruption for nearly thirty years. When, in 1840, Dickens 
contemplated the publication of " Master Humphrey's Clock," it 
was his intention to endeavour to secure the valuable co-operation 
of Maclise as an illustrator of that work, in conjunction with George 
Cattermole. Forster states that there seems to have been a desire 
on Maclise's part to try his hand at an illustration, but he did not 
remember that it bore other fruit than "a very pleasant day at Jack 
Straw's Castle, where Dickens read one of the later numbers to us." 
That Maclise's wish was actually realised, however, is proved by 
the fact that in the fifty-fifth chapter of "The Old Curiosity Shop" 
there is a design by him representing Little Nell and the Sexton. 
Why this should have been his only contribution to the pages of 
" Master Humphrey's Clock " has never been explained, but it is not 
improbable that the artist was too busily occupied with his paintings 
just at this time, and therefore unable to devote serious attention to 
black-and-white work. 

Maclise had been much engaged in book-illustration (sometimes 

-,, p., signing himself "Alfred Croquis") when, in 1844, 

o ' it was proposed that he should provide designs for 

Dickens's second Christmas Book, "The Chimes." 

This little story was written in Italy, and, during Dickens's absence. 



Il 



Plate LI 

THE TOWER OF THE CHIMES' 

AND 

"THE SPIRIT OF THE CHIMES" 



Fiutimibs of the Original Drawings for " The Chimes " bjr 
D. MACLISE. R.A. 



-•i /,' 



L 




K» 







^ ^>- !:^> Rm7^ -^ "i^ 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 163 

the necessary arrangements respecting the illustrations were made by 
Forster. It may be incidentally mentioned that, eager to try the 
effect of the story, the novelist journeyed to England for the express 
purpose of reading it aloud to his friends at Forster's residence in 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, the memorable incident being depicted by Mac- 
lise in an amusing pencil-sketch, afterwards reproduced for Forster's 
biography. Maclise became responsible for the frontispiece and de- 
corative title-page of "The Chimes," both of these fanciful designs 
gracefully portraying elves and fairies, spirits of the bells, and alle- 
gorical figures typifying Love, Life, and Death. The original drawings, 
now in South Kensington Museum, were delicately executed in pencil, 
and engraved on steel by F. P. Becker. With reference to these 
illustrations, the artist wrote : — 

" My Dear Forster, — I wonder if it would be possible to make the 
paper of the book an inch bigger, that is, to increase the width of 
margin around the letterpress, without much additional expense. I 
wish you to put the question. I do not think my design too large, but 
it would marvellously increase the elegance of the look of the book. I 
must say the ' Carol ' book is the very climax of vulgarity in its mise 
en planches. — Au revoir. D. M."' 

It was, of course, considered inadvisable to depart from precedent 
by acting upon the above suggestion. Dickens was highly pleased 
with the artist's designs, and, writing to his wife on December 2, 
1844, he said : " Mac's frontispiece is charming." 

To the third Christmas Book, "The Cricket on the Hearth," 

Maclise also contributed the frontispiece and deco- 

u '' rative title-page, which were engraved on wood 

?? .1 o A instead of steel. These designs are replete with 
Hearth, 1846. . , , r • • l • • n u 

quamt fancy, the frontispiece being especially worthy 

of attention, comprising, as it does, no less than ten miniature tableaux, 

• This and the succeeding letters from Maclise to Forster are now printed for the first time. 



i64 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

the chief of these representing a homely scene, where the Carrier and 
his wife are seated by the fireside, their babe being rocked in its 
cradle by the fairies, while above the steaming kettle is perched that 
good spirit, the Cricket. The following undated letter is interesting 
on account of its connection with this Christmas story : — 

" My Dear FoRSTER, — . . . I write to ask ifyou have a moment to 
see B[radbury] and E[vans] about these blocks for my little designs. I 
wrote to Dpckens] Saturday, and there came to me such a small pair 
that I instantly sent them back. Then on Saturday evening two more 
came ; one of them will do — but as you understand the matter, and last 
year even got the book enlarged a little,^ I want you to say that I 
muU have a block for the frontispiece the exact size of the leaf on 
which the frontispiece of the ' Chimes ' is. I have made a little sketch 
to be placed on the wood, and some of the little shapes come as close to 
the edge of the page as this line I make — . I want the wood as high 
and as wide as that page — but oh ! my I — on, if it could but be — the 
page I mean, not the wood, — a little — so much larger, ah ! I should be 
happy for life. Tell B. and E. this and ask D. to insist on it. Mind, 
I am not exceeding the present paper of the 'Chimes,' but for the 
look of the book it would be very important — and they have sent me a 
block much smaller than that page, whereas I cannot afford one- 
hundredth part of a pin's point. I know 'tis vain to write to them — so 
trouble you, and I want the blocks — in an hour ! ! ! — Ever most 
faithfully, D. M." 

The artist prepared for " The Battle of Life " not only the custo- 

_ . mary frontispiece and title-page, but two additional 

J ,r p X designs for the later portion of the story. Dickens, 

who was in Paris at the time, was delighted when he 

heard of this, and in a letter to a friend observed : " Forster writes 

me that Mac has come out with tremendous vigour in the Christmas 

* There was practically no enlargement 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 165 

Book, and took off his coat at it with a burst of such alarming energy 
that he has done four subjects!" Of these, the principal is the 
frontispiece, representing the Dance round the Appletree, but the 
most successful design is that depicting "The Sisters," — a graceful 
composition, and the last drawing produced by the artist for Dickens. 

Remembering the novelist's keen appreciation of Maclise's illustra- 
tions in the preceding Christmas Books, it seems somewhat strange that 
the artist should have thus emphatically expressed himself to Forster 
in the following letter, evidently indited in a moment of pique : — 

" My Dear F., — It is clear to me that Dickens does not care one 
damn whether I make a little sketch for the book or not. However, 
if jfou think that the appearance of the volume should be as like the 
former ones as possible, I will with even pleasure gulp down my 
jealousy and draw on the wood that apple-tree, &c., for a frontispiece. 
In which case you must skut tip that same subject to Doyle— as I saw 
in his sketch last night. But I do this at your bidding, and not at all 
for D., and on the whole would much prefer not engaging in the 
matter at all. — Yours truly, D. M." 

Apparently some little misunderstanding had hurt the suscepti- 
bilities of the artist, but, happily, it was speedily removed, for he 
presently wrote in a more conciliatory spirit : — 

" My Dear Forster, — I have received the blocks and will make 
the design of the apple-tree and the girls dancing — so keep that 
subject sacred to me. B[radbury] and E[vans] have sent the block 
as large as the last, but as I do not approve the look of the design 
without margin, I intend to keep this one within bounds. They have 
sent me a smaller one for title-page. Now I propose, and I know it 
will improve the appearance of the little book, not to cram in another 
design there with the title — a printed title in type has always still been 
necessary — but if you like I will make another design for the body of 



i66 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

the book. That one, perhaps, the lover of Marion's interview with 
her — and Clemency. I hope very much you will see no good objection 
to this proposition — or will j^ou propose a second subject ? — Ever yours 
truly D. M." 

Again, a few days later : — 

" My Dear Forster, — . . . I write to say that you will find me at 
the Athenaeum to-morrow at five o'clock. Do not be later, I hope 
tken to bring with me the drawing on the block for the frontispiece — 
the girls dancing ; for the other, I will do what you like, the girls and 
the Doctor, Marion reading, &c., or the lover of Marion's interview 
with her, and Clemency outside the door, &c. We will agree to- 
morrow. — Very truly yours, D. Maclise. 

" I hope there may be time enough then not to hurry it." 

The following letter probably refers to the allegorical design on 
the title-page, depicting the triumph of Virtue over Vice, in which the 
figures (with one exception) are nude : although, from an allusion to 
"that tree," it might be suggested that it was the frontispiece : — 

"My Dear Forster, — I suppose the stern moralist, Thackeray, 
would have described the last design I made lecherous, libidinous, 
lustful, lewd, and loose ; but I meant it to be pure and ' mi-Id as the 
moo-n-beams.' 

"... I only write to tell you, if you can exercise any control over 
its fate, that it may be placed in the hands of as good a wood-man as 
possible, and that he be recommended to spare tAai tree-^-. 

" I fear that my character is gone abroad, and that I am a dog with 
a bad name. . . . — Ever yours, Daniel Maclise." 

Both the frontispiece and title-page were excellently rendered on 
wood by John Thompson, one of the foremost engravers of the day. 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 167 

Maclise, however, had hoped the work would have been ent'rusted to 
others, for he observed to Forster : "I am annoyed that neither 
Williams nor Dalziel are to do that little design. Some one called here 
and took it away on Monday, and he said that there was not time (the 
old excuse) to do it justice." Judging from the following trenchant 
remarks, the artist was anything but gratified by the engraved repro- 
ductions of these drawings when they appeared in print : — 

" My Dear F., — I can never hope to get you to understand how 
I am mortified and humiliated by the effect of these damnable cuts. 
It really is too much to be called upon to submit to, to be shown 
up in these little dirty scratches and to have one's name blazoned as 
if one was proud of them. I wish to Heaven you would have my 
name cut out from the corners, that at least I might have the benefit 
of the doubt as to which of the blots is mine. I would give anything 
that I had kept to my original notion and had nothing to do with the 
thing. ... I wish you had left me that last one ; I would have tried 
to beguile myself with a belief that it might be improved. My curses 
light upon the miserable dog that produced it — I don't mean myself. — 
Ever yours, D. Maclise. 

" And what is the good of employing Thom[p]son — if the demon 
printers are to ruin them with their diabolic press ? " 

Maclise, like other draughtsmen on wood, doubtless often ex- 
perienced a sense of disappointment when their delicately-pencilled 
drawings were hurriedly engraved and submitted to the arbitrary 
treatment of printer's ink. In this way those subtle touches upon 
which the artist prided himself were lost for ever, so that the designs 
appear coarse and crude. Such was obviously the case with regard 
to the illustrations now under consideration, notwithstanding the fact 
that they bear the signatures of thoroughly experienced engravers. It 
is a fact worth recording here that Maclise did not draw from life 
the figures in his designs for the Christmas Books. Indeed, it was 



i68 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

a matter of astonishment to his brother artists that, even when 
working upon his more important canvases, he very rarely resorted 
to the use of the living model, his singular facility in composition 
leading him, perhaps, too often to dispense with the study of the 
human form ; yet his works, although possessing a mannered look, 
are distinctively marked by characteristics of individual as well as 
general nature. 

As already intimated, the friendship subsisting between Dickens 
and Maclise was of a kind the most sincere, and it was naturally 
coupled with a true admiration which each entertained for the genius 
of the other. Dickens never tired of praising the talent of the artist, 
whom he thought "a tremendous creature, who might do anything," 
and recalled with delight those halcyon days when Maclise accom- 
panied Clarkson Stanfield, Forster, and himself on that memorable 
Cornish trip in 1842, one result of which was a charming painting 
(now in the Forster Collection at South Kensington) of the Waterfall 
at St. Nighton's Keive, near Tintagel, into which the artist introduced 
as the principal feature a young girl carrying a pitcher, the model for 
whom was Dickens's sister-in-law, Miss Georgina Hogarth. It should 
be remembered that one of the finest of the early portraits of Dickens 
himself was painted by Maclise in 1839, at the instigation of Chap- 
man & Hall, with a view to an engraving for "Nicholas Nickleby," 
the reproduction duly appearing as the frontispiece. The original 
picture was presented to Dickens by his publishers, and at the 
sale of the novelist's effects in 1870 this very interesting canvas 
was purchased for .^693 by the Rev. Sir E. R. Jodrell, by whom 
it was bequeathed to the National Gallery, where it may, now be 
seen. Maclise is responsible also for another excellent portrait of 
the novelist at the same youthful period — a slight pencil-drawing 
(executed in 1843) representing him with his wife and her sister. 

The premature death of Dickens's raven, immortalised in " Bar- 
naby Rudge," was formally notified to Maclise by the novelist in 
the form of a letter narrating the details of that domestic calamity. 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 169 

The artist forwarded the missive to Forster, together with a sketch 
purporting to represent "Grip's" apotheosis, while to Dickens him- 
self he dispatched (March 13, 1841) the following letter, which does 
not appear in the published collection, and is one of a very few 
letters extant that were addressed by him to the novelist:' 

"Mv Dear Dickens,— I received the mournful intelligence of 
our friend's decease last night at eleven, and the shock was great 
indeed. I have just dispatched the announcement to poor Forster, 
who will, I am sure, sympathise with us in our bereavement. I 
know not what to think of the probable cause of his death, — I re- 
ject the idea of the Butcher Boy, for the orders he must have in his 
(the Raven's) life-time received on account of the Raven himself must 
have been considerable. I rather cling to the notion o{ felo cU se — 
but this will no doubt come out upon the post-mortem. How blest 
we are to have such an intelligent coroner as Mr. Wakley. I think 
he was just of those melancholic habits which are the noticeable 
signs of your intended suicide, his solitary life, those gloomy tones, 
— when he did speak, which was always to the purpose. Witness 
his last dying speech, ' Hallo ! old girl,' which breathes of cheerful- 
ness and triumphant recognition, — his solemn suit of raven black, 
which never grew rusty. Altogether his character was the very proto- 
type of a Byron hero — and even of a Scott — a Master of Ravens- 
wood. He ought to be glad he had no family. I suppose he seems 
to have intended it, however, for his solicitude to deposit in those 
Banks in the garden his savings was always very touching. I 
suppose his obsequies will take place immediately. 

"It is beautiful, the idea of his return, even after death, to the 

' Replying to Mr. W. J. O'DriscoU's application for the loan of any of the artist's corre- 
spondence, with a view to publishing them in his Memoir of Maclise, Dickens stated that 
a few years previously he destroyed an immense correspondence, expressly because he 
considered it had been held with him and not with the public. Thus we have been deprived 
of valuable records which would have thrown additional light upon the friendly intercourse 
subsisting between the novelist and many of his distinguished contemporaries. 



lyo DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

scene of his early youth and all his associations, and lie with kindred 
dusts amid his own ancestral graves after having made such a noise 
in the world, having clearly booked his place in that immortality- 
coach driven by Dickens. Yes, he committed suicide ; he felt he 
had done it and done with life. The hundreds of years ! what were 
they to him ? There was nothing more to live for — and he committed 
the rash act. — Sympathisingly yours, Dan. Maclise." 

It is evident from the following epistle, addressed to Forster at 
the time when " Dombey and Son" was appearing in monthly 
numbers, that Maclise, while acknowledging his intense admiration of 
the novelist's powers, could not bring himself to appreciate certain of 
his youthful creations : — 

"My Dear Forster, — I think it very great — the old nautical- 
instrument-seller novel, and most promising. I'm never up to his 
young girls — he is so very fond of the age of ' Nell,' when they are 
most insipid. I hope he is not going to make another 'Slowboy' — 
but I am only trying to say something, and to find fault when there is 
none to find. He is absolutely alone. — Ever yours, D. M." 

In 1870 Maclise's health began seriously to fail him ; he appeared 
languid and depressed, and in April of that year he succumbed to 
an attack of acute pneumonia, predeceasing the novelist by only a 
few weeks. 

Dickens experienced a severe shock on hearing of the death of 
this steadfast and genuine friend, and when, three days later, he 
returned thanks for " Literature " at the Royal Academy dinner (his 
final appearance in public), he offered a most affectionate, graceful, 
and eloquent tribute to the memory of him who had just passed away. 
"For many years," he said, "I was one of the two most intimate 
friends and most constant companions of the late Mr. Maclise. Of 
his genius in his chosen art I will venture to say nothing here, but 



DANIEL MACLISE, R.A. 171 

of his prodigious fertility of mind and wonderful wealth of intellect, 
I may confidently assert that they would have made him, if he had 
been so minded, at least as great a writer as he was a painter. The 
gentlest and most modest of men, the freshest as to his generous 
appreciation of young aspirants, and the frankest and largest-hearted 
as to his peers, incapable of a sordid or ignoble thought, gallantly 
sustaining the true dignity of his vocation, without one grain of self- 
ambition, wholesomely natural at the last as at the first, 'in wit a 
man, simplicity a child,' no artist, of whatsoever denomination, I make 
bold to say, ever went to his rest leaving a golden memory more 
pure from dross, or having devoted himself with a truer chivalry to 
the art-goddess whom he worshipped." These were the last public 
words of Charles Dickens, and they were uttered when the speaker 
was far from well, and when, indeed, he was himself nearing the 
brink of the Great Unknown. 



SIR JOHN TENNIEL 

Cartoons for Punch — Book Illustrations — A Self-Taught Artist — Becomes Acquainted with 
Dickens — Designs for " The Haunted Man " — A Wonderful Memory of Observation — An 
Interview with Dickens — Knighthood. 

SIR JOHN TENNIEL, lh& doyen of the Punch staff, is un- 
doubtedly best known as the designer and draughtsman of the 
cartoon published weekly in that journal. This famous pictorial 
satirist succeeded Richard Doyle on Punch in 1850, and since 1861 , 

(with the exception of a few brief intervals) he has supplied the ^H 

subject of the principal engraving with unfailing regularity. Confining 
himself almost entirely to black-and-white drawing, Sir John has pro- 
duced, during a long and active career, a large number of book- 
illustrations, such as those embellishing certain editions of "yEsop's 
Fables," "The Ingoldsby Legends," " Lalla Rookh," and "The 
Arabian Nights," while those charming designs in the late " Lewis 
Carroll's" "Alice in Wonderland," with its sequel, "Through the 
Looking-Glass," will be readily remembered. In Once a Week may 
also be found many of his illustrations. 

Sir John Tenniel was born in London in 1820. Although for a time 
he attended the Royal Academy Schools, he is practically a self-taught 
artist, and exhibited his first picture when sixteen years of age. After 
this initial success he continued to paint and exhibit pictures both in 
oil and water-colours, but soon realised that he could exercise his facile 
pencil with greater advantage, his designs possessing a refinement and 
good taste, coupled with a sense of humour — characteristics suggesting 
the thought that to him may be attributed the establishment of 
the connection between " High " Art and what may be termed 
" Grotesque " Art. 



«7« 



SIR JOHN TENNIEL 173 

Prior to joining the Punch staff— that is to say, in 1847 — Sir 
TU H \ A (^^^" ^'"•) J°^" Tenniel became acquainted with 
Man 1848 Charles Dickens, who invited the young artist 

to contribute (in conjunction with Clarkson Stan- 
field, R.A., John Leech, and Frank Stone, A.R.A.) some designs 
to "The Haunted Man," published in 1848. Accordingly, in this 
Christmas Book we find him represented by six illustrations, con- 
sisting of the frontispiece, engraved title-page, and four other 
designs, the latter appearing at the opening of the chapters. The 
frontispiece is a remarkable achievement in respect to the deco- 
rative border surrounding the central picture, — a beautifully-fanciful 
treatment of elf-like and other figures, typifying Good and Evil, 
the drawing being admirably engraved on wood by Martin and 
Corbould. In the second chapter the artist has represented the 
Tetterby family, which it is interesting to compare with a similar 
group of the Tetterbys by John Leech in the same chapter. Sir 
John Tenniel's final drawing is a successful attempt to portray, 
in the form of allegory. Night receding before Dawn. 

Except in painting, Sir John Tenniel never resorts to the use 
of the living model for his figures, but depends entirely upon a 
wonderful memory of observation. Apropos of his collaboration with 
the novelist, he has favoured me with the following note : — 

" My ' artistic association ' with Charles Dickens began and ended 
simply with my poor little contributions towards the illustration of 
' The Haunted Man.' There was no written correspondence between 
us that I can remember, and I believe I had but one interview with 
Dickens on the subject, when he gave me certain hints as to treatment, 
&c. &c. &c. Only that, and nothing more ! 

" As to what became of the original sketches I have not the 
remotest idea ; probably I gave them away — or, more probably still, 
they were one day consigned to the waste-paper basket. At all 
events, and after an interval of about forty-five years, it is perhaps 



174 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

scarcely surprising that I should have long since forgotten all about 
them." 



It should be mentioned that, as in the case of Leech, many of Sir 
John Tenniel's Punch cartoons are adapted from illustrations in the 
works of Dickens, these happily suggesting the political situation of 
the moment. This subject is fully treated in my paper on " Dickens 
and Punch" in the English Illustrated Magazine, August 1891. 

Sir John is one of the oldest members of the Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water-Colours. In June 1893 the distinction of knighthood 
was conferred upon the veteran artist, his name having been included 
in the list of Royal birthday honours, at the recommendation of Mr. 
Gladstone, whose face and figure he has so frequently delineated ; thus 
for the first time were the claims of black-and-white draughtsmen 
deservedly recognised. Sir John Tenniel's busy pencil continues to 
be effectively employed in the pages of Punch ; but he remains, alas ! 
the sole survivor of the band of clever artists whose designs adorn 
the Christmas Books of Charles Dickens. 



FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 

Early Career— Intimacy with Dickens— Illustrations for "The Haunted Man"— Selects his 
Own Subjects— A Letter from Dickens— His Approbation of the Drawing of" Milly and 
the Old Man"— Hints from the Novelist to the Artist— Amateur Theatricals- Frank 
Stone's Portrait of Lieutenant Sydney Dickens — His Election as Associate of the Royal 
Academy — His Portraits of 'Tilda Price, Kate Nickleby, and Madeline Bray— His Fron- 
tispiece for the First Cheap Edition of " Martin Chuizlewit "—Sudden Death. 

FRANK STONE, A.R.A,, father of Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A., 
was privileged to join the ranks of Dickens Illustrators. This 
distinguished artist, born in 1800, was the son of a Manchester 
cotton-spinner, which business he also followed until twenty-four years 
of age, when he abandoned mercantile pursuits in favour of Art 
During the early portion of his professional career, which was begpjn in 
London under very modest and unassuming conditions, he made pencil- 
drawings for Heath's " Book of Beauty," and presently became suc- 
cessful as a painter in water-colours. His engaging personality and 
innate abilities caused him to be welcomed in both literary and 
artistic circles, and in this way he secured the warm friendship of 
Dickens, Thackeray, and other celebrities of the day. 

t 

Frank Stone's intimacy with Charles Dickens was especially close. 

, ^" 1845 the artist, with his family, went to reside 

The Haunted •t--,,tt t^-^ic 

-- op m Tavistock House, lavistock Square, remammg 

there until 1851, when it became the home of Dickens. 

In the interval the novelist's fourth Christmas Book, "The Haunted 

Man," was published, for which Frank Stone prepared three designs, 

representing respectively "Milly and the Old Man," "Milly and 

the Student," and " Milly and the Children." As indicated by the 

following letter (dated November 21, 1848), the novelist dispatched 

»7J 



176 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

proofs of the letterpress to the artist, in order that he might select 
his own subjects : — 

"My Dear Stone, — I send herewith the second part of the book, 
which I hope may interest you. If you should prefer to have it read 
to you by the Inimitable rather than to read it, I shall be at home 
this evening (loin of mutton at half-past five), and happy to do it. 
The proofs are full of printer's errors, but, with the few corrections 
I have scrawled upon it, you will be able to make out what 
they mean. 

" I send you on the opposite side a list of the subjects already in 
hand from the second part. If you should see no other in it that 
you like (I think it important that you should keep Milly, as you 
have begun with her), I will in a day or two describe you an un- 
written subject for the third part of the book." 

"Subjects in hand for the Second Part. 

1. Illuminated page. Tenniel. Representing Redlaw going up- 

stairs, and the Tetterby family below. 

2. The Tetterby Supper. Leech. 

3. The boy in Redlaw 's room, munching his food and staring at 

the fire." 

A preliminary sketch (in pencil and indian-ink) for the first subject 
was immediately submitted to the novelist for approval, and elicited 
the following reply : — 

" We are unanimous. 

"The drawing of Milly on the chair is charming. I cannot tell 
you how much the little composition and expression please me. Do 
that, by all means. 

" I fear she must have a little cap on. There is something coming 
in the last part about her having had a dead child, which makes it 
yet more desirable than the existing text does that she should have 



Plate LI I 

"MILLY AND THE OLD MAN" 

FacHmiU of Ihe Original Drawing for " The Haunted Man " by 
FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 

Ltnt by Mr. Marcus Stout, K. A. 




1 1 - » '^- - —5- S» 



FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 177 

that little matronly sign about her. Unless the artist is obdurate 
indeed, and then he'll do as he likes. 

" I am delighted to hear that you have your eye on her in the 
students' room. You will really, pictorially, make the little woman 
whom I love. ..." 

The original sketch of Milly on the chair has fortunately been 
preserved, and has been kindly lent for reproduction by Mr. Marcus 
Stone, R. A. The drawing of the old man in the published engraving 
is hardly so satisfactory as the delineation of him in the sketch. The 
second illustration, " Milly and the Student," was duly executed ; it 
is a very graceful design, the pose of the male figure being excellently 
rendered. Respecting the third illustration, the novelist communicated 
to the artist the following facts, to assist him in realising the principal 
theme : — 

" There is a subject I have written to-day for the third part, that 
I think and hope will just suit you. Scene — Tetterby's. Time- 
morning. The power of bringing back people's memories of sorrow, 
wrong, and trouble has been given by the ghost to Milly, though she 
don't know it herself. As she comes along the street, Mr. and Mrs. 
Tetterby recover themselves and are mutually affectionate again, and 
embrace, closing rather a good scene of quarrel and discontent. The 
moment they do so, Johnny (who has seen her in the distance and 
announced her before, from which moment they begin to recover) 
cries 'Here she is! 'and she comes in, surrounded by the little 
Tetterbys, the very spirit of morning, gladness, innocence, hope, love, 
domesticity, &c. &c. &c. &c. 

" I would limit the illustration to her and the children, which will 
make a fitness between it and your other illustrations, and give them 
all a character of their own. The exact words of the passage I 
enclose on another slip of paper. Note : There are six boy 
Tetterbys present (young 'Dolphus is not there), including Johnny ; 
and in Johnny's arms is Mulock, the baby, who is a girl. . . . Don't wait 
to send me the drawing of this. I know how pretty she will be with 



lyS DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

the children in your hands, and should be a stupendous jackass if I 
had any distrust of it. . . ." 

{Slip of paper eficlosed.) 

" ' Hurrah ! here's Mrs. Williams ! ' cried Johnny. 

" So she was, and all the Tetterby children with her ; and as she 
came in, they kissed her and kissed one another, and kissed the 
baby, and kissed their father and mother, and then ran back and 
flocked and danced about her, trooping on with her in triumph. 

"(After which she is going to say, 'What, zr^ you all glad to 
see me too ! Oh, how happy it makes me to find every one so glad 
to see me this bright morning ! ') " 

The amateur theatricals brought author and artist constantly 
together, Frank Stone being an actor of some ability. The im- 
mortal Mrs. Gamp, in describing the members of that famous 
company of players, alludes to Frank Stone as "a fine-looking portly 
gentleman, with a face like an amiable full moon." He became the 
recipient of many nicknames, that of "Pump" (or "Pumpion") being 
one by which Dickens sometimes addressed him, and it was both 
pleasantly intended and jocularly received. In 1849 the artist painted 
the portrait of the novelist's fifth son. Lieutenant Sydney Dickens, who 
was buried at sea in 1872, his death being due to a sharp attack 
of bronchitis when on his way home. 

Frank Stone exhibited at the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours from 1833 to 1846, and was elected a member of that 
Society in 1842. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 
1838, his election as an Associate taking place in 185 1. The 
artist, on receiving a commission from Dickens for a picture, 
painted a presentment of "'Tilda Price," the yfaw^/ig of the genial 
John Browdie in " Nicholas Nickleby," the picture realising the 
sum of ;^42 at the sale of the novelist's effects in 1870. This and 
^wo other paintings by Stone (portraits of Kate Nickleby and 



FRANK STONE, A.R.A. 179 

Madeline Bray) were engraved on steel by Finden, and published 
("with the approbation of Charles Dickens") by Chapman & Hall 
in 1848; the plates were intended for insertion in the first cheap 
edition of "Nicholas Nickleby." Besides his illustrations for "The 
Haunted Man," he also designed the frontispiece for the first cheap 
edition of "Martin Chuzzlewit" (1849), which depicts Mark Tapley 
on the sick - bed ; this drawing was engraved on wood by T. 
Bolton. 

The sudden death of Frank Stone in 1859 caused Dickens 
heartfelt sorrow. "You will be grieved," he wrote to Forster on 
November 19, "to hear of poor Stone. On Sunday he was not 
well. On Monday went to Dr. Todd, who told him he had 
aneurism of the heart. On Tuesday went to Dr. Walsh, who told 
him he hadn't. On Wednesday I met him in a cab in the Square 
here [Tavistock Square], and he got out to talk to me. I walked 
about with him a little while at a snail's pace, cheering him up; 
but when I came home, I told them that I thought him much 
changed, and in danger. Yesterday at two o'clock he died of 
spasm of the heart. I am going up to Highgate to look for a 
grave for him." 



SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A. 

First Acquaintance with Dickens— Designs an Illustration for "The Cricket on the 
Hearth"— Elected a Royal Academician— Receives the Honour of Knighthood — 
Declines the Presidency of the Royal Academy— Severe Illness and Death. 

CHARLES DICKENS first became acquainted with Sir 
Edwin Henry Landseer during the "Nickleby" period, and 
ever entertained the highest admiration and personal regard 
for this famous artist, to whom Thackeray once referred as "a sort of 
aristocrat among painters." Sir Edwin was an artist by hereditary 
right and family instinct, being the eldest son of the well-known 
engraver, John Landseer, A. R.A. He was born in London in 1802, 
and at the age of thirteen exhibited two pictures at the Royal 
Academy, thus proving that he possessed most exceptional powers 
as a draughtsman even at this early period. 

It is perhaps not generally remembered that Sir Edwin Landseer 

has a just claim to be numbered among the lllus- 

t. trators of Dickens. Though he made but a single 

TT 4.t, o A design, it is indubitably a masterpiece, and suffices to 

indicate the admirable skill acquired by this great 

painter in depicting what may be considered his favourite subject — 

the dog. The charming little woodcut of " Boxer" — the irrepressible 

companion of John Peerybingle, in "The Cricket on the Hearth" — 

defies criticism. 

In 1825, Sir Edwin (then Mr.) Landseer was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy, and five years later he attained the full 
honours, from which date might be chronicled a long and regular 
patalogue of pictures exhibited by him, year by year, either at the 



i 



\ 



Platk LI 1 1 

SIR JOHN TENNIEL, R.I. 

From a Photograph by 

Messrs. BASSANO 

Lent ty Ikt Artiil. 

SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A. 

From the Painting by 
Sir FRANCIS GRANT, P.R.A. 

The dog's head was added by Sir Edwin himself. 



»n «i8 




^(^^u^ /c^cyCt^tJC^ . 





j^t^c^f^^^^^ 



SIR EDWIN LANDSEER, R.A. i8i 

British Institution or on tlie walls of the Royal Academy. In 1850 he 
received the honour of Knighthood, and, at the death of Sir Charles 
Eastlake in 1865, was offered the Presidency of the Royal Academy,— 
a distinction which he could not be induced to accept. In 1871 a 
severe illness paralysed his powerful pencil ; from this illness the artist 
never recovered, and two years later the mournful intelligence of 
his death was announced, his mortal remains being interred in Sl 
Paul's Cathedral. In private life Sir Edwin was one of the most kind 
and courteous of men and warmest of friends, — qualities of mind and 
heart which endeared him to all with whom he came in contact. 



SAMUEL PALMER 

A Self-taught Artist — Exhibits at the British Institution and the Royal Academy — Marriage 
with John Linnell's Daughter— Visits Italy— His Sketches of Italian Scenery— Elected an 
Associate, and afterwards a Member, of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours — An 
Etcher and Draughtsman on Wood— His Designs for "Pictures from Italy"— A 
Letter from Dickens— The Artist's Method of Work— The Villa D'Este— His Drawings 
Difficult to Reproduce — Elaborate Instructions to Engravers — Literature a Favourite 
Amusement — Fondness for Reading Aloud — Admires the Novels of Dickens — Illness 
and Death. 

DURING Charles Dickens's very brief connection with the 
Daily News, at the time of its foundation in 1846, he con- 
tributed to its columns a series of "Travelling Sketches," 
descriptive of his experiences in Italy, and of his impressions con- 
cerning the scenery, institutions, and social aspects of the people in 
that beautiful country. Shortly after the publication of the conclud- 
ing paper, these " Sketches " were re-issued in book form, under the 
title of " Pictures from Italy," with vignette illustrations on wood by 
Samuel Palmer. 

Samuel Palmer, who was born in Newington, London, in 1805, 
was to a great extent a self-taught artist, his first successes dating 
from his fourteenth year, when he was represented by two pictures 
at the British Institution and three at the Royal Academy, his work 
from that time being frequently seen at one or the other gallery. 
In 1837 (that is, while "Pickwick" was in course of publication) he 
married the eldest daughter of John Linnell, the famous portrait and 
landscape painter, leaving England soon afterwards with his young 
wife for Italy. Here they stayed two years — years of such persistent 
and enthusiastic study that the sketches and elaborate drawings of 

some of the finest Italian scenery which the artist brought back, very 

tit 



Plate LIV 
f. w. topham 

From a Photograph by 
Messrs. ELLIOTT & FRY 

Lent fy Mr. F. W. W. Tofham. 

SAMUEL PALMER 

From a J*hotograph 

Lent by Mr. A. H. Palmer. 





'fv/a^'^. 




r I /^,D. 



/) 



* 1 

li 



SAMUEL PALMER 183 

numerous though they were, are no measure of the influence which 
the sojourn in the land of his favourite poet, Virgil, had upon his 
after-life and upon his artistic labours. 

Samuel Palmer is chiefly remembered by his charming water- 
colour drawings, but it seems that in his early years he preferred 
painting in oils, whence he afterwards gradually drifted into the 
use of the former medium, his election as Associate of the Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours in 1 843 * determining his future career. 
He was a most successful etcher, his plates being admired by the con- 
noisseur for the beauty of technique therein displayed. Concerning his 
efforts with the needle, Mr. P. G. Hamerton says that Samuel Palmer 
was one of the most accomplished etchers who ever lived, and that 
" there is more feeling, and insight, and knowledge in one twig drawn 
by his hand than in the life's production of many a well-known artist" * 
It must be admitted, however, that the occasional drawings executed 
by him for the wood-engraver do not indicate equal ability as a 
draughtsman on wood. In early days he actually attempted, in 
emulation of his intimate friend Edward Calvert, to engrave upon 
wood some of his own designs, this fact testifying to the extraordinary 
influence exercised by William Blake over the contemporary work of 
such young artists as Palmer, Calvert, and the rest of the " Ancients," 
as they jocosely dubbed themselves. 

The first drawings executed upon the wood-block by Palmer and 
intended as book-illustrations were apparently the 
J . P . designs for " Pictures from Italy ; " these are four in 

number, representing the Street of the Tombs, Pompeii ; 
the Villa D'Este at Tivoli, from the Cypress Avenue ; the Colosseum 
of Rome ; and a Vineyard Scene. One of the artist's memorandum- 
books contains an entry recording the receipt from the publishers 
of twenty guineas for these drawings. Samuel Palmer and Charles 

> Palmer was elected a Member of this Society in 1854. 
' "Etching and Etchers," 3rd edition, 1880. 



i84 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Dickens were never on terms of intimacy ; however the acquaintance 
originated has never transpired, nor does the artist's son, Mr. A. H. 
Palmer, remember his father ever referring to the subject. It is pro- 
bable that the novelist's attention had been directed to Palmer's 
excellent rendering of Italian scenery, which had attracted consider- 
able notice among artists, and that, having met him, he found a 
degree of warm enthusiasm for that scenery which was so unusual, 
that he felt convinced that the illustrating of the " Pictures" could not 
be placed in better hands. Palmer accepted the commission, but, 
like all his drawings that were destined to be engraved on wood, it 
somewhat perplexed him, for reasons presently to be explained. A 
correspondence of a formal business character ensued, and of the 
few letters still extant I am enabled to print the following, which 
endorses the belief that an interview had taken place between author 
and artist. 

" Devonshire Terrace, 
Wednesday, Thirteenth May, 1846. 

"Dear Sir, — I beg to assure you that I would on no account 
dream of allowing the book to go to press without the insertion of 
your name in the title-page. I placed it there myself, two days ago. 

" I have not seen the designs, but I have no doubt whatever (re- 
membering your sketches) that they are very good. 

Dear sir, faithfully yours, ^ Charles Dickens. 

" Samuel Palmer, Esq." 

Two of the woodcuts, viz., those printed on the first and last pages 
of the little book, were designed to allow the text to be dropped in. 
Sketches (or rather finished drawings) were made on paper before 
the subjects were copied by the artist upon the wood-blocks, which 
drawings, by the way, are much inferior to the artist's water-colours 
of the same or similar subjects. It seems evident, from the word 
" On " being tentatively introduced at the top of the original sketch of 
the Villa D'Este, that this illustration was at first intended to be 



SAMUEL PALMER 185 

placed at the beginning of the chapter entitled "Going through 
France," instead of appearing (as it eventually did) in conjunction 
with the opening lines of the preliminary chapter,—" The Reader's 
Passport." It was apparently Palmer's proposal to insert on the 
block a decorative letter "S," but Dickens, in a letter to the artist, 
says, " I am afraid I cannot comfortably manage an S. What do 
you say to the word 'On'? Could you possibly do that?" 

With regard to the treatment of these illustrations, there is no 
doubt that they are faithful representations of Nature, adapted from 
sketches made on the spot. As a matter of fact, it was directly con- 
trary to the artist's habit and principles to transcribe a sketch detail 
for detail. Although the character of his drawing was somewhat 
involved, rendering more difficult the work of the engfraver, the 
woodcuts (which bear no signature) are most carefully executed. 
Notwithstanding this, Mr. A. H. Palmer assures me that these 
designs, and the rendering of them by the wood-engraver, were 
not of a kind to which the artist could look back with much 
satisfaction. 

Mr. A. H. Palmer still retains in his possession a drawing on 
wood by his father of the Villa D'Este, the second illustration in 
" Pictures from Italy," which was apparently discarded because the 
artist had omitted to reverse his design, and therefore could not be 
properly adapted to the particular page for which it was pre- 
pared. Those who are familiar with the freedom and vigour of 
Samuel Palmer's work from Nature will realise at a glance that 
he was not at his ease upon wood. In the margin of this draw- 
ing the artist pencilled the following instructions to the engraver, 
who had not entirely succeeded in producing the more subtle 
effects : — 

" I wish the thin cypress to be very much as it appears upon the 
block — not lighter. Now that the trees have been darkened, it will be 
necessary to leave the lines of the building guiie as thick as they are 
drawn, letting them gradually gain more strength as they come 



i86 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

downwards towards the steps. The degree of sharpness with 
which the drawing terminates toward the letterpress is just what I 
wish." 

From this and the following notes, minutely written upon the two 
retouched proofs of the engraving of this subject, we discover how 
very much too sanguine the artist was as to the result of the trans- 
lation of his work, the voluminous directions clearly indicating his 
solicitude respecting the treatment of microscopic details in his de- 
sign, the alleged importance of which would be quite beyond the 
comprehension of an ordinary engraver. Palmer subsequently learnt 
by experience that his drawing on wood was practically untranslat- 
able as he preferred to offer it for engraving. 

MS. Notes on tJu First Proof. 

" (i.) In both proofs the top of the cypress is very indistinct, which 
greatly injures the design. 

"^.) From A to B the illuminated side of the cypress has lost its 
tint in both impressions, which is ruinous to the effect, as the eye 
can no longer follow it as a simple object distinct from the building 
from the top to the bottom of the design. The top of the building, 
too, in both impressions, is nearly invisible, as if the inking had 
failed. It is very important that this should be rectified, so as not 
to appear in the printing of the work, as otherwise it will spoil the 
whole work. I have worked upon building and cypress a little in 
pencil to show how they ought to have come even in a faint 
impression. 

"(3.) Opposite this mark the light on the cypress stems has been 
carried down a little lower, and two or three fine threads of light 
have been introduced into the shadowed side (which are intended to 
be scarcely perceptible) to remove a blottiness in the dark. 

" (4.) The touches on the steps, the statue, and the whole of the 
lower part of the trees and ground, though not very numerous, are 
very important to the finish of the foreground. 



Plate LV 

"THE VILLA D'ESTE" 

facsimile of an Original Design for " Pictures from Italy ' by 
SAMUEL PALMER 

Unlby Afr. A H. Palmtr. 



/ 



SAMUEL PALMER 187 

"(5.) The darkest lines in the great vase have been thinned in the 
slightest degree. 

"(6.) Close to C the thickness of a black line on the edge of the 
cypress has been split. 

"(7.) From E down to F a minute speck of light has here and 
there been inserted on the outline of the cypress foliage to split some 
blots of dark which will be seen on the untouched proofs, and which 
were rather harsh. 

" (8.) The light flashing on the steps ought to make thinner without 
removing the outline of the arm of the statue. The foot resting upon 
the pedestal should be indicated. The action of the other leg thrown 
back is shown in the retouching by the removal of the black line. 

" (9.) The getting the upper part of the slender cypress of as full 
a tint as I have given it here seems to me so important that if it can 
be done in no other way, I think a piece should be inserted into the 
block to effect it. In the drawing on the block it was like this, which 
I have retouched with pencil." 

Second Proof. 

"(i.) Opposite are a few touches on the slender cypress — two very 
thin lines of light on the stem. Specks of light on the foliage. 

"(2.) There is a thick black line on the block, thus) which I have 
here crossed with specks of white ; although it is in the body of the 
tree, it kills the fine work on the Villa. 

" (3.) The thickness of outline on the light side of this vase un- 
finishes the foreground. I have altered it. 

" (4.) The thick outline on this leaf unfinishes everything about it." 

Thus we discover how fastidious to a degree was the artist in his 
desire that every subtle touch of his poetic pencil should be repro- 
duced — a result which, as he quickly perceived, it was impossible 
to achieve. 

Samuel Palmer took a still keener delight in Literature than he did 



i88 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 



in Art. An insatiable but punctilious reader, the novels of Dickens 
and Scott were among the very few works of fiction which he read 
aloud to members of his own household. Mr. A. H. Palmer informs 
me that he has known his father to be so engrossed by reading aloud 
one of Dickens's finer and more exciting passages, that the announce- 
ment and entry of a visitor served to stop the reading only for a few 
moments ; the crisis past, he laid down the book and apologised. 
Literature, indeed, constituted the chief pleasure of his simple life — 
a life that, at one period at least, would have been almost insupport- 
able without the consolation afforded by books. Early in May, 1881, 
he became, alas ! too ill to work, and on the twenty-fourth of that 
month he passed peacefully away, leaving behind him a reputation 
which is blameless. 



F. W. TOPHAM 

Illustrations for " A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND "—Begins Life as a Writing- Engraver- 
Designs for Books— Exhibits at the Royal Academy — Elected an Associate of the New 
Society of Painters — Retires from the Society — Elected a Member of the Old Society of 
Painters in Water-Colours — First Visit to Spain— Fatal Illness — Some Pictures Inspired 
by Dickens's Stories — Histrionic Ability — The Artist as a Juggler. 

DURING the years 1851-52-53, there appeared in the pages 
of Household Words one of Charles Dickens's less familiar 
writings, "A Child's History of England." On its com- 
pletion as a serial, the little work was issued in three i6mo volumes, 
each containing a frontispiece by F. W, Topham. These illustra- 
A Child's tions were engraved on wood, each consisting of a 

History of circular design, printed in black, and surrounded by 
England, an ornraaental border of a light mauve colour, the 

1852-53-54. latter enclosing familiar scenes from English History, 
viz., Alfred in the Neatherd's Cot ; Canute reproving his Courtiers ; 
Edwy and Elgiva ; Eleanor and Fair Rosamond. The decorative 
border with its four tableaux remained unchanged, but the subject of 
the central illustration varied, that in the first volume depicting a girl 
reading to two children ; in the second, Alfred the Great receiving 
instruction in reading from his mother. Queen Osburgha ; while in the 
third there is a more modern representation of a similar incident. 

Francis William Topham, who was born at Leeds in 1808, enjoyed 
the privilege of being numbered among the personal friends of Charles 
Dickens. He entered professional life as a writing-engraver, and his 
first design was for a label required by a well-known firm of pin 
manufacturers. From this modest beginning he advanced to more 
artistic work, and was soon busily engaged in engraving plates for 



190 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

pocket-books, &c. During the several years he was thus occupied he 
engraved many original designs for book-illustrations, and in 1832 
began to exhibit pictures ; his works after this date being frequently 
seen at the Royal Academy and other London galleries. In 1842 he 
was elected an Associate of the New Society of Painters in Water- 
Colours, of which body he became a full member in the following year. 
He, with several other members, left the New Society after a com- 
paratively short time, and was immediately elected into the Old Society 
of Painters in Water-Colours — the present Royal Water-Colour Society 
— to the Exhibitions of which the majority of his more important pro- 
ductions were contributed. It was in Spain, whither he first went in 
1852-53, that he found subjects most congenial to his tastes, and there, 
in that land of sunny skies, he was seized with a fatal illness in 1877, 
expiring at Cordova on March 31st of that year. 

Topham was a great admirer of the works of Charles Dickens, and 
selected from them the subjects of some of his most successful pictures. 
One of these — a water-colour drawing executed in 185 1 — illustrates a 
scene in " Barnaby Rudge," where children flock round the half-witted 
hero as he and his mother pass through her native village ; the 
drawing was presented by the artist to Dickens, and realised at the 
sale of the novelist's effects the sum of ;^ii5, los. This picture was 
followed by another from " The Old Curiosity Shop," representing 
Little Nell and her Grandfather in the tent, making bouquets for the 
racecourse, which was also a gift to Dickens, being subsequently dis- 
posed of at the above-mentioned sale for ;^288, 15s. It is also recorded 
that the artist, in 1856, produced a drawing portraying "Little Nell in 
the Churchyard," which some five years after the novelist's death found 
a purchaser for ;^325, los. 

F. W. Topham proved a welcome addition to Dickens's company 
of distinguished amateur actors, and concerning his histrionic ability 
the artist's son, Mr. Frank W. W. Topham (himself an eminent painter), 
thus writes : " My father had, from quite a young man, a great love of 
acting, at which he was considered unusually good. One of my earliest 



F. W. TOPHAM 191 

recollections of a play was one acted at the St. James's Theatre, in 
which my father, Sir John Tenniel, the late Francis Holl, A.R.A. 
(the engraver), and others took part, for the benefit of the Artists' 
Benevolent Fund. I do not know if my father owed his introduction 
to Dickens to his acting, but have an impression that he did, — certainly 
it was the cause of their after intimacy." 

Apropos of their "splendid strolling," and the fun incidental 
thereto, Dickens observed to his wife, in a letter dated from Clifton, 
November 13, 185 1 : "I forgot to say that Topham has suddenly 
come out as a juggler, and swallows candles, and does wonderful things 
with the poker very well indeed, but with a bashfulness and embarrass- 
ment extraordinarily ludicrous." 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

The Artist's Boyish Admiration of Dickens's Stories — His Delineation of Jo, the Crossing- 
Sweeper — A Present and a Letter from Dickens — First Success as a Painter — Death 
of his Father — Desires to Become an Illustrator of Books — Befriended by Dickens — 
Initial Attempt at Drawing upon Wood — Frontispiece for the First Cheap Edition of 
"Little Dorrit" — The Artist's Dibut as a Black-and- White Draughtsman — His Designs 
for "Our Mutual Friend" — The Pictorial Wrapper— Suggestions from Dickens- 
Portrait of Silas Wegg — Preliminary Sketches for the Illustrations — Valuable Hints for 
the Artist — Realism in his Designs — The Prototype of Mr. Venus— Photography upon 
Wood — Defective Engraving — Sale of the Original Sketches — Illustrations for Cheap 
Editions — Relinquishes Black-and-White Drawing — Elected a Royal Academician — 
Popularity of his Pictures — Intimacy with Dickens — Private Theatricals. 

IT will be remembered that "A Tale of Two Cities," the last of 
Dickens's novels containing Hablot Browne's designs, was suc- 
ceeded by "Our Mutual Friend," the initial number of which 
appeared on May i, 1864. In this story Dickens repeated an early 
experience in having woodcut illustrations instead of the customary 
etchings, availing himself of the services of an artist whose style and 
method of work differed very considerably from those of " Phiz." The 
new recruit was Mr. Marcus Stone, who now holds high rank among 
Royal Academicians. 

As the son of the novelist's cherished friend, Frank Stone, A.R.A., 
who partly illustrated "The Haunted Man," Mr. Marcus Stone was 
brought by force of circumstances into early communication with the 
author of "Pickwick." Born in 1840, he soon indicated by his 
penchant for Art that he inherited his father's talent, becoming in 
course of time a painter even more distinguished ; for Frank Stone did 
not live to attain full honours of the Royal Academy. Mr. Marcus 
Stone proudly confesses that, even as a mere lad, Charles Dickens's 

romances proved most fascinating to him, and he recalls an interesting 

19a 



Plate LVI 

MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

From a Photograph speciiiUy taken for this Work by 
JAMES HYATT 






1 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 193 

incident as evidence of this influence. When, in 1852-53, the 
dramatic story of "Bleak House" appeared in serial form, he eagerly 
read each number as it came out, and was much attracted by the 
novelist's rendering of Jo, the crossing-sweeper, being quick to per- 
ceive the artistic capabilities of the scenes in which that pathetic 
character is introduced. In the eleventh chapter a specially touching 
reference is made to the poor outcast — that memorable occasion when 
he softly sweeps the step of the gateway leading to the loathsome 
graveyard in which was buried the man who had been "wery good" 
to him. Dickens's vivid description of the weird picture at once 
induced Marcus Stone (then twelve years of age) to try his hand at 
depicting it with his pencil. While so engaged the novelist entered 
the room, and, looking over his shoulder, he immediately recognised 
the subject of the sketch, whereupon he encouragingly observed, 
" Well, now, that is very good. You will have to give that to me." 
Accordingly, on completion, the little drawing was sent to Tavistock 
House.' About a year afterwards the young artist received a copy 
of " A Child's History of England," containing the author's autograph, 
and accompanied by the following note, dated December 19, 1853: — 

" My Dear Marcus, — You made an excellent sketch from a book 
of mine which I have received (and preserved) with great pleasure. 
Will you accept from me this little book? I believe it to be 
true, though it may be sometimes not as genteel as history has 
a habit of being. — Faithfully yours, Charles Dickens." 

Even at the early age of three or four, Mr. Marcus Stone evinced 
a desire to become an artist, — a wish that was never discountenanced. 
In his seventeenth year he ostensibly began his career as a painter, 
but his father, who was then an invalid, could not for that reason 

' Curiously enough, "Phiz" had already selected the same subject as an illustration for 
the succeeding number, an early proof of which was forwarded by Dickens to Mr. Marcus 
Stone, in order to direct his attention to the coincidence. 

N 



194 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

efficiently direct the course of his son's studies. Indeed, Mr. Marcus 
Stone never had any systematic training in the details of his profession, 
and what he learnt during his boyhood was, for the most part, casually 
"picked up" in his father's studio. At this time he painted a picture 
called " Rest," representing a knight in armour lying under a tree, 
and this, the first of his productions accepted by the Royal Academy, 
excited much favourable comment, the work being especially remark- 
able on account of the juvenility of the artist, who, as he himself 
intimates, was really ten years before his time. 

In November 1859, shortly after his initial success in the world of 
Art, Mr. Marcus Stone mourned the death of his father, an event 
rendering it imperative that, in entering upon a career which not un- 
frequently fails to yield a golden harvest, he should have a powerful 
helping hand. Among those of his father's friends who recognised this 
necessity was Charles Dickens, who, with characteristic promptitude and 
energy, exerted his influence on behalf of the young man. Besides 
other kind actions, the novelist introduced him to Thomas Longman, 
the publisher, to whom he wrote : " I am very anxious to present to you, 
with the earnest hope that you will hold him in your remembrance, 
young Mr. Marcus Stone, son of poor Frank Stone, who died suddenly 
but a little week ago. You know, I daresay, what a start this young 
man made in the last Exhibition, and what a favourable notice his pic- 
ture attracted.' He wishes to make an additional opening for himself 
in the illustration of books. He is an admirable draughtsman, has a 
most dexterous hand, a charming sense of grace and beauty, and a 
capital power of observation. These qualities in him I know well 
to my own knowledge. He is in all things modest, punctual, and 
right ; and I would answer for him, if it were needful, with my head. 
If you will put anything in his way, you will do it a second time, I 
am certain." 

The opportunity soon arrived when the novelist's interest in the 

' This picture was entitled " Silent Pleading " and represents a tramp with a child in his 
arms, who are discovered asleep in a shed by the squire and the village constable. 



Plate LVII 

studies for 
"mr. venus surrounded by the trophies of 

HIS ART" 

Facsimile of Original Sketches for "Our Mutual Friend " by 

MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

Lent by the Artist. 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. . 195 

son of " poor Frank Stone " assumed a very practical form, for at this 
juncture it occurred to him to test the artistic capabilities of Marcus 
Stone, probably without any intention of permanently ousting " Phiz." 
The young proUg"^, however, possessed no knowledge of etching, and, 
indeed, had gained but little experience in any other form of illustration. 
Fortunately, the art of drawing upon wood (then much in vogue, but now 
practically obsolete) needed very little training in the hands of one 
skilled in the use of the pencil, so that Dickens was induced to favour 
Marcus Stone by agreeing to the adoption of the readiest means of 
producing his designs for the engraver. It is not generally known 
that the artist's first attempt at drawing on wood was the frontispiece 
, for the first cheap edition of " Little Dorrit" (1861), 

p. ' which, although showing marked ability, is by no 

means equal to his subsequent efforts. Marcus Stone 
was fortunate in making his dSui as a black-and-white draughtsman 
at the time when a remarkable array of talent presented itself in the 
pages of the Cornhill Magazine, just then launched by Thackeray, the 
illustrations for which were supplied by Millais, Fred. Walker, Sandys, 
and Leighton — a new school of designers, whose admirable pencillings 
could not fail to inspire the younger members of the craft. 

Mr. Marcus Stone, who was scarcely twenty-one years of age 

when he first essayed the art of book-illustration, 
Our Mutual . , , ., , , , 

T7 • JO/ A rightly considers that one 01 the most important 
Fncnd, 1864-65. . u- tr u r u 

events of his life was the receipt of the com- 
mission to illustrate " Our Mutual Friend," and, doubtless, he fully 
realised at the time how valuable was the prestige arising from 
such collaboration with so popular a writer as Charles Dickens. 
This story, like those which preceded it, was issued in monthly parts, 
the first instalment appearing in May 1864. At the beginning the 
novelist was about four numbers in advance, but he lost his advantage 
as the tale progressed, until at length he found himself in a position 
necessitating the preparation of each number month by month, a^ 



196 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

required by the exigencies of publication. Before the initial number 
could be circulated, a pictorial wrapper was requisitioned, for which 
' Mr. Stone designed a series of tableaux embodying somewhat allegori- 
cally the leading characters and incidents, and displaying prominently 
in the centre the title of the story, the word " Our " being dropped in 
over one of the subjects. A preparatory sketch was submitted to 
Dickens, who, while thoroughly approving thereof, made certain pro- 
posals tending to its improvement. Writing to the artist (February 
23, 1864) he said: 

" I think the design for the cover excellent, and do not doubt its 
coming out to perfection. The slight alteration I am going to 
suggest originates in a business consideration not to be overlooked. 
The word 'Our' in the title must be out in the open like 'Mutual 
Friend,' making the title three distinct large lines — 'Our' as big as 
'Mutual Friend.' This would give you too much design at the 
bottom. I would therefore take out the dustman, and put the Wegg 
and Boflfin composition (which is capital) in its place. I don't want 
Mr. Inspector or the murder reward bill, because these points are 
sufficiently indicated in the river at the top. Therefore you can have 
an indication of the dustman in Mr. Inspector's place. Note, that the 
dustman's face should be droll, and not horrible. Twemlow's elbow 
will still go out of the frame as it does now, and the same with Lizzie's 
skirts on the opposite side. With these changes, work away ! . . ." 

Before executing this drawing for the wrapper, the artist had 
received from Dickens a few general hints as to the points to be 
illustrated, beyond which he had little to guide him. "Give a vague 
idea," said the novelist, "the more vague the better." Mr, Stone 
desired to introduce Silas Wegg into his composition, but the de- 
scription of the mercenary old ballad-monger was so indefinite that 
he was compelled to ask Dickens if he had absolutely decided in his 
own mind whether Silas's wooden leg was the right or the left one. 
Judging by his reply, the novelist had evidently overlooked this detail, 
for he said, " It's all right — please yourself;" whereupon the doubtful 



Plate LVIII 

MONSIEUR DEFARGE AND DOCTOR MANETTE 

Facsimiles of the Original Studies by 
MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

These Studies were prepared for the First Cheap Edition of 
" A Tale of Two Cities." 

Ltnt by the Artist. 



4 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 197 

point was settled by the artist, who placed the timber limb on Wegg's 
left side. Mr. Stone recalls an interesting circumstance in the fact 
that Dickens laid special stress upon a certain incident which he 
desired should be hinted at by the artist in his design for the monthly 
cover. " One of the strongest features of the story," observed the 
novelist, "will be the death of Eugene Wrayburn after the assault 
by the schoolmaster. I think," he added, " it will be one of the best 
things I have ever done." Dickens, however, changed his mind, for 
Wrayburn does not die. 

It is a recognised fact among illustrators of works of fiction that 
authors are usually devoid of what Mr. Stone aptly designates a sense 
of " pictorialism," — that is to say, the subjects selected by them for 
illustration invariably prove to be unsuitable. Charles Dickens 
(according to Mr. Stone's experience) was a noteworthy exception to 
the rule, although he usually afforded the artist free scope in this 
matter, sending him the revised proof-sheets of each number, that he 
might make his own choice of the incidents to be depicted ; and it is 
worthy of remzirk that in no instance did the novelist question the 
propriety of his selection. A preliminary sketch for each illustration 
was forwarded to Dickens, who returned it to the artist with sug- 
gestions, and with the title inscribed by him in the margin. The 
finished drawings upon the wood were never seen by the novelist, 
as they were dispatched by Mr. Stone to the engravers immediately on 
completion. 

Mr. Marcus Stone affirms that he was much hampered by Dickens 
with respect to these designs, for the novelist, hitherto accustomed 
to the diminutive scale of the figures in Hablot Browne's etchings, was 
somewhat imperative in his demand for a similar treatment of the 
illustrations for "Our Mutual Friend." The author, it seems, was 
usually in an appreciative mood whenever a sketch was submitted for 
approval, now and then favouring his illustrator with information that 
often proved indispensable. With reference to the drawing entitled 
" The Boffin Progress," he wrote : " Mrs. Boffin, as I judge of her 



198 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

from the sketch, ' very good indeed.' I want Boffin's oddity, without 
being at all blinked, to be an oddity of a very honest kind, that people 
would like." Concerning a second sketch for another proposed illustra- 
tion, he observed: "The doll's dressmaker is immensely better than 
she was. I think that she should now come extremely well. A weird 
sharpness not without beauty is the thing I want." Towards the close 
of the first volume Dickens wrote to the artist from Paris the following 
letter respecting subsequent designs : — " The sooner I can know about 
the subjects you take for illustration the better, as I can then fill the 
list of illustrations to the second volume for the printer, and enable 
him to make up his last sheet. Necessarily that list is now left blank, 
as I cannot give him the titles of the subjects, not knowing them 
myself. ... I think the frontispiece to the second volume should be 
the dustyard with the three mounds, and Mr. Boffin digging up the 
Dutch bottle, and Venus restraining Wegg's ardour to get at him.^ 
Or Mr. Boffin might be coming down with the bottle, and Venus 
might be dragging Wegg out of the way as described." 

The story, when concluded, was issued in two volumes, each contain- 
ing twenty illustrations, engraved by Dalziel Brothers and W. T. Green 
in almost equal proportions. Mr. Marcus Stone regards these early 
efforts in black-and-white art as very immature, and believes he could 
have achieved greater results if he had been less handicapped by 
certain harassing restrictions. That these clever designs possess the 
charm of unconventionality is undeniable, while in addition to this they 
are marked by an originality of treatment which may be attributed to 
the fact that each drawing is the fruit of many careful studies of 
figures and accessories, these imparting an air of reality to the scenes 
depicted. Notable instances of this may be observed in the first fron- 
tispiece, entided "The Bird of Prey," in which is represented a 
characteristic portion of the river- bank below London Bridge (pro- 
bably Rotherhithe), and in the last engraving "Not to be Shaken 
Off," the snow-covered lock-gates in this illustration having been 

' This subject was chosen. 



Plate LIX 

"BLACK AND WHITE" 

Facsimile of tbe Original Drawing by 
MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

This Study was prepared for the Library Edition of ' ' American Notes. ' 

Lent by the Artist. 



\ 




y 



I 



s^^^' 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 199 

drawn from a sketch of the gates still existing on the Regent's 
Canal, Hampstead Road. 

Mr. Stone enjoys the distinction of having introduced to Dickens's 
notice the original of that remarkable personage, Mr. Venus. Early 
in 1864, the artist was engaged upon a painting representing a "loaf- 
ing " deserter being marched off under arrest, while some busy work- 
men temporarily suspend their labours in order to watch the military 
procession as it wends its way along a public thoroughfare.* The 
artist desired to introduce into the composition a begging dog, but, not 
succeeding to his own satisfaction, he consulted a brother-artist (well 
known for his clever delineation of animals), who said, " Why don't 
you go to Willis ? He will soon find you a dog, and ' set him up ' for 
you." Willis was a taxidermist, who lived on the north side of St. 
Andrew's Street, near Seven Dials, and to him Mr. Stone at once 
stated his requirements, with the result that in the course of a few days 
the stuffer of skins went to Mr. Stone's studio accompanied by a dog 
such as the artist had described. The animal being deemed suitable, 
its fate was sealed, and there is a touch of pathos in the recollection 
that the little creature made such friendly overtures to the artist during 
the interview that he felt very much averse to authorising its destruc- 
tion. However, sad to relate, he hardened his heart, and the poor beast 
was "set up" accordingly. On the evening of the day when Mr. 
Stone first called upon Willis, and observed the strange environment 
resulting from the man's occupation, he was invited by Dickens to go 
with him to the play, and between the acts the novelist enquired if he 
knew of any peculiar avocation, as he wished to make it a feature 
of his new story, — "it must be something very striking and unusual," 
he explained. The artist immediately recalled Willis as he appeared 
when "surrounded by the trophies of his art," and informed Dickens 
that he could introduce him to the very thing. Delighted with the 
suggestion, the novelist appointed "two o'clock sharp" on the follow- 

* This picture, called " Working and Shirking," was exhibited at the Royal Academy during 
the same year. 



200 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

ing day, for a visit to Willis. It happened that the man was absent 
when they called, but Dickens, with his unusually keen power of 
observation, was enabled during a very brief space to take mental 
notes of every detail that presented itself, and his readers were soon 
enjoying his vivid portrayal of that picturesque representative of a 
curious profession, Mr. Venus. The novelist was so elated by the 
discovery that he could not refrain from confiding the secret to 
Forster: "While I was considering what it should be," he wrote, 
" Marcus, who has done an excellent cover, came to tell me of an 
extraordinary trade he had found out, through one of his painting 
requirements. I immediately went with him to St. Giles's to look at 
the place, and found — what you will see." 

Mr. Stone visited Willis's shop two or three times for the purpose 
of sketching, in order that he might effectively introduce the more 
salient features into his drawing. The illustration gives an approximate 
representation of that dingy interior, with its " bones warious ; bottled 
preparations warious ; dogs, ducks, glass eyes, warious ; " but, in 
delineating the proprietor, the artist did not attempt to give a true 
presentment of Willis, whom, by the way, Dickens never saw, and 
who never suspected that it was his own establishment which figures 
in the story. 

In all the illustrations there is that happy delineation of character 
which indicates how admirably the artist understood his author. 
Perhaps the most successful designs are those where Rogue Rider- 
hood appears, particularly that in which we behold the thankless 
ruffian at the moment of his recovery from " that little turn-up with 
Death ; " while among other drawings deserving attention special 
mention must be made of those containing the quaint and pathetic 
figure of Jenny Wren, and of that entitled " The Boofer Lady," the 
latter denoting Mr. Stone's ability, even at this early date, in depicting 
a pretty woman, — an art in which he has since displayed such con- 
summate skill. 

Mr. Marcus Stone claims the credit of bringing into repute the 



Plate LX 

"TAKING LEAVE OF JOE" 

Facsimilt of the Original Drawing for the Library Edition of 
"Great Expectations" by 

MARCUS STONE, R.A. 

In the engraved version of this Design, Pip is seen wearing a " bowler " hat. 

Ltnt by tkt Artist. 



i 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 201 

now universal custom of duplicating drawings upon wood-blocks by 
means of photography, his illustrations for Anthony Trollope's story, 
" He Knew He was Right," being the first thus treated. The adop- 
tion of this plan secures the preservation of the original designs, and 
therefore renders them available for comparison with the engraved 
reproductions. Mr. Stone, nevertheless, is by no means satisfied with 
the engraver's treatment of his work, nor is this surprising when we 
critically examine such deplorable examples of wood-engraving as 
instanced in the illustrations entitled " The Garden on the Roof" 
and " Eugene's Bedside." In one of the designs, that representing 
"The Boffin Progress," it will be noticed that the wheels on the " off-" 
side of the Boffin chaise are omitted, an oversight (explains Mr. Stone) 
for which the engraver is really responsible. 

The original sketches for "Our Mutual Friend" were disposed 
of by the artist, many years ago, to the late Mr. F. W. Cosens, who 
desired to add them to his collection of Dickensiana. At the sale in 
1890 of that gentleman's effects at Sotheby's, the series of forty 
drawings (some of which were executed in pen-and-ink and others 
in pencil) sold for ;^66, the purchaser acting for a well-known 
firm of American publishers. The drawings were subsequently 
bound up in a copy of the first edition of the story, and the treasured 
volume now reposes in the library of a New York collector. 

Mr. Stone is naturally best known as a Dickens illustrator through 

his designs for " Our Mutual Friend." In addition 

Illustrations ^^ these, however, he has essayed some illustra- 

P ,, , tions (engraved on wood by Dalziel Brothers) for 

cheap issues of the works of the great novelist, of 

which the following is a complete list : — 

Little Dorrit — Firsi Cheap Edition, 1861. Frontispiece. 
Great Expectations — Library Edition, 1862. Eight Illustra- 
tions. 



202 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Pictures from Italy — Library Edition, 1862. Four Illustrations. 
American Notes — Library Edition, 1862. Four Illustrations. 
A Child's History of England — Library Edition, 1862. Eight 

Illustrations. 
A Tale of Two Cities — First Cheap Edition, 1864. Frontis- 
piece. 

From this record it will be seen that (with the exception, perhaps, 
of the frontispiece for " A Tale of Two Cities ") all the above- 
mentioned designs were executed prior to those for "Our Mutual 
Friend." It was hardly to be anticipated that Mr. Stone's pencil 
would rival the work of his more experienced contemporaries, yet it 
will be seen that these illustrations are characterised by the very 
essential quality of always telling their story. Mr. Stone much regrets 
that he never had the opportunity of doing himself justice in black- 
and-white Art. Needless to say, he revels in subjects appertaining 
to a bygone age, as they afford considerable scope for pictorial treat- 
ment, and one of the novels he would have most enjoyed to illus- 
trate is " Barnaby Rudge," because of the picturesque period in which 
the story is laid. In response to my enquiry why he did not under- 
take the illustration of Dickens's next and final romance, "The 
Mystery of Edwin Drood," Mr. Stone explains : " I had entirely 
given up black-and-white work when ' Edwin Drood ' was written, 
and was making an ample income by my pictures. I was not in 
the field at all." Indeed, black-and-white drawing possessed little 
to attract the young artist, who, preferring the more alluring charm 
of colour, had already begun to acquire a reputation as a painter. 
In 1877 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and 
ten years later was advanced to the full rank of Academician. During 
the last twenty years his most popular pictures have been his groups 
of interesting lovers and pathetic maidens ; for, after exhibiting in 
eighteen Academy Exhibitions various presentments ofhuman passion, 
he at last decided to limit himself to the one which makes the widest 



MARCUS STONE, R.A. 203 

appeal to all sorts and conditions of men and women, such as those 
subtle domestic dramas in which love plays the leading r$le. 

Mr. Marcus Stone's intimacy with Charles Dickens originated 
while his father, Frank Stone, and the novelist were living not more 
than a couple of houses apart ; but it should be understood that the 
elder artist and the author of "Pickwick" were friends many years 
before they were neighbours. From the days of his childhood until 
the famous writer breathed his last, Mr. Stone spent a portion of every 
year of his life at Dickens's abode. " I saw him," he observes, " under 
the most natural and simple conditions, and my affection and regard 
for him were intense. Dickens was one of the shyest and most 
sensitive of men, as I have reason to know, for I saw him constantly 
at his own home, often for weeks together. He used to treat me 
as though I were his son. Nothing was more delightful than the 
way in which he shared our pleasures and pursuits. His influence 
was like sunshine in my life whilst his own lasted." Mr. Stone 
occasionally took part in private theatricals at Tavistock House, where 
the novelist had installed " The Smallest Theatre in the World," and 
the artist has pleasant recollections of his own share in the various 
plays, such as Planchd's fairy extravaganza, " Fortunio," in which he 
impersonated the Captain of the Guard, and Wilkie CoUins's " The 
Frozen Deep," where, as an Officer in the British Navy, he had but 
three words to say. 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 

An Illustrator Required for "The Mystery of Edwin Drood"— Charles Alston Collins 
Offers his Services — His Design for the Wrapper — He Prepares Sketches for the First 
Number — Ill-Health — The Project abandoned — Death of Mr. Collins creates a Dilemma 
— "The Fellow for 'Edwin Drood'" Discovered — Luke Fildes, R.A. — His Drawing of 
"Houseless and Hungry" — Specimens of his Black-and- White Drawings Submitted to 
Dickens — A Complimentary Letter from the Novelist— Mr. Fildes Elected to Illustrate 
"Edwin Drood" — First Meeting of Author and Artist — A Pen-Portrait of Dickens — A 
Memorable Interview — Pictorial Exactness— Working under Difficulties — Studies from the 
Life — Successful Realisation of Types — The Opium-Smokers' Den — Cloisterham — The 
Artist's Method of Executing his Designs — The Engraved Reproductions — The Finale 
of the Story Hinted at — Mr. Fildes Invited to Gad's Hill — Suggestion for the Last Drawing 
— Death of Dickens — "The Empty Chair" — A Visit to John Forstcr — A Curious Coin- 
cidence—Pleasing Reminiscences of Dickens — Mementoes of the Novelist — Unpublished 
Drawings for " Edwin Drood." 

WHEN Mr. Marcus Stone, R.A., had completed his designs 
for " Our Mutual Friend," he determined to relinquish 
black-and-white drawing and to concentrate his energy 
upon painting ; but for this, it is probable that his skilled pencil would 
have been requisitioned for Charles Dickens's last story, " The Mystery 
of Edwin Drood." That the re-engagement of Hablot Browne as 
illustrator of that unfinished romance was not contemplated may be 
attributed chiefly to the fact that, in 1867, the clever artist whose 
name and fame will ever be associated with the writings of Dickens 
was unhappily struck with severe paralysis, and consequently his hand 
had lost its cunning. The assistance of either of these draughtsmen 
being, therefore, out of the question, the novelist was compelled 
to seek a new illustrator, and at this crisis his son-in-law, Charles 
Alston Collins (brother of Wilkie Collins), intimated that he would like 
to undertake the necessary designs for "Edwin Drood," or rather 
to test his powers in that direction. Although he occupied himself, 



Plate LXI 
luke fildes, r.a. 

From a Photograph specially taken for this Work by 
JAMES HYATT 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 205 

in a desultory fashion, with both Literature and Art, Charles Collins 
had been bred a painter, and achieved a notable position among the 
young artists of the Pre-Raphaelite School, He favoured the pen, 
however, rather than the pencil, his fugitive pieces being distinguished 
for the most part by humour of a charming quality. Dickens had 
great faith in his artistic talent, and accordingly (on September 14, 
1869) sent his publishers the following note: "Charles Collins 
wishes to try his hand at illustrating my new book. I want him to 
try the cover first. Please send down to him at Gad's Hill any of 
our old green covers you may have by you." The pictorial wrapper was 
satisfactorily completed, whereupon Charles Collins began to prepare 
sketches for the first number, an undertaking which he looked upon 
rather as an experiment. Ill-health, alas ! proved a serious obstacle, 
and, after making a futile endeavour to realise his conceptions, he was 
compelled to abandon the project altogether. It has been suggested 
that, as the leading incidents portrayed by him on the cover were 
intended to prefigure the course of the narrative, Charles Collins must 
have obtained a clue to the "mystery" involved in the story, Asa 
matter of fact, there is no evidence that he had the faintest notion 
of the meaning of the enigmatical little tableaux of which his design 
consists ; on the contrary, it is asserted that he merely received the 
novelist's verbal directions without obtaining any hint as to their real 
significance. Charles Alston Collins died in 1873 in his forty- 
fifth year, having " borne much suffering, through many trying years, 
with uncomplaining patience." He was a son-in-law of Charles 
Dickens, whose younger daughter, Kate, he married in i860, the 
occasion being signalised by much rejoicing on the part of the novelist's 
friends and neighbours at Gad's Hill. 

The speedy relinquishment by Charles Collins of the illustrating 
of " Edwin Drood " caused something of a dilemma. Dickens being 
again without an illustrator, he appealed for advice to his friends 
Mr. (afterwards Sir John) Millais, R.A., and Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A., 



2o6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

who promised to aid him in searching for a suitable artist. Shortly 
afterwards there was published in the initial number of The Graphic 
an engraving entitled " Houseless and Hungry," depicting a crowd 
of vagrants of both sexes awaiting admission to the workhouse, — 
a picture at once so powerfully conceived and so pathetic in sentiment 
that it immediately attracted the attention of Sir John Millais, who 
immediately hastened in a cab to Dickens's rooms at Hyde Park 
Place, bearing in his hand a copy of the new journal. Striding into 
the study, and waving The Graphic above his head, the famous 
painter exclaimed, " I've got him ! " 

" Got whom ? " inquired the novelist. 

" The fellow for ' Edwin Drood,' " replied Millais, as he threw the 
paper down on the table. 

No sooner had Dickens examined the picture than he became 
similarly enthusiastic in his praise, and wrote forthwith to his pub- 
lishers, requesting them to communicate with the artist, Mr. Samuel 
Luke Fildes, now a popular Royal Academician, but who was then 
comparatively unknown in the world of Art. At the period referred 
to, Mr. Fildes was a young man of five-and-twenty, who had but just 
begun to make his mark as a draughtsman in black-and-white. After 
some desultory study of drawing and painting at Chester and Warring- 
ton, he came to London in 1862 for the purpose of seeing the Great 
Exhibition, and was so impressed that he determined to make his 
future home in the Metropolis. In the following year he gained a 
scholarship at the South Kensington Schools, and afterwards became 
a student of the Royal Academy. The Cornkill, Once a Week, and 
other magazines then in the ascendant, owed much of their popularity 
to the beautiful designs by Millais, Leighton, and similarly distinguished 
artists, and these remarkable productions inclined Mr. Fildes to adopt 
book-illustration as a stepping-stone towards painting. Good-fortune 
attended his efforts, and in June 1869, by which time he had achieved 
a position as a black-and-white draughtsman, he received an inti- 
mation from Mr. W. L. Thomas that he had conceived the idea of 



Plate LXII 

study for the head of 
NEVILLE LANDLESS 

Facsimilt of an Original Sketch for " The Mystery of Edwin Drood ' by 

LUKE FILDES. R.A. 

Ltnl by the Artist. 



i 



•^^ 




LUKE FILDES, R.A. 207 

publishing a new illustrated paper, eventually called The Graphic, 
and suggested that he should draw something effective, the subject 
to be the artist's own choice, for publication therein. 

" I went home," says Mr. Fildes, "and, at ten o'clock on a terribly 
hot night, I sat with a piece of paper and sketched out the idea for 
' The Casuals.' Some few years before, when I first came to London, I 
was very fond of wandering about, and remember beholding somewhere 
near the Portland Road, one snowy winter's night, the applicants for 
admission to a casual ward." Recollecting the incident, Mr. Fildes 
endeavoured to reproduce this scene as a subject likely to prove accept- 
able to the manager of The Graphic, and it was that very picture 
which, as already related, led to the artist's introduction to the famous 
novelist. 

Messrs. Chapman & Hall, who had been authorised to write to 
Mr. Fildes respecting the illustration of " Edwin Drood," desired him 
to submit specimens of his black-and-white work, and at the same time 
expressed a hope that, as they had no recollection of having seen 
representations of beautiful women in any of his drawings, he would 
enclose a few examples of his ability in that direction, for the very 
important reason that in Charles Dickens's new story would appear 
two attractive heroines. Mr. Fildes immediately dispatched a parcel 
containing various illustrations designed by him for the magazines, 
and promised to execute, for the novelist's inspection, two or three 
drawings of scenes from one of his stories. A few days later the 
artist became the recipient of a very complimentary letter, in which 
Dickens said : "I beg to thank you for the highly meritorious and 
interesting specimens of your art that you have had the kindness to 
send me. I return them herewith, after having examined them with 
the greatest pleasure. I am naturally curious to see your drawing 
from ' David Copperfield,' in order that I may compare it with my 
own idea. In the meanwhile, I can honestly assure you that I enter- 
tain the greatest admiration for your remarkable powers." 

In accordance with his own proposal, Mr. Fildes prepared two or 



2o8 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

three designs from "Copperfield," one of which fulfilled the requisite 
condition that it should contain a representation of a pretty girl, the 
subject selected being the scene depicting Peggotty embracing Little 
Em'ly after the announcement of her betrothal to Ham. Dickens 
considered these drawings so eminently satisfactory that he desired 
the artist to call upon him at his temporary residence, No. 5 Hyde 
Park Place, for the purpose of consulting him regarding the illustrations 
for " Edwin Drood." The eventful day at length arrived when author 
and artist met for the first time, and the auspicious occasion is thus 
pleasantly recalled in the following note from Mr. Fildes (written for 
"Charles Dickens by Pen and Pencil"), in response to my inquiry 
respecting his earliest impressions of the novelist's personality : — 

" I can tell you so little of Dickens that is ' terse, graphic, or vivid.' 
It's so long ago! He passed by me so like a vision. At least it 
seems so to me now. When I first saw him, I felt a little oppressed — 
I don't know why— he loomed so large, and was so great in my imagi- 
nation. He rose from his writing-table to greet me. He was dressed 
in dark clothes ; I cannot quite recall the cut of coat, but it was loose 
and unbuttoned, — a black silk neckerchief was loosely tied, with hang- 
ing ends, round his throat. His general appearance, with the 'cut' of 
his head, gave me the idea — perhaps reminded me somehow — of one 
who was, or had been, connected with the sea. But I thought so 
much of the Man, and had so affectionate a respect, that it never 
occurred to me then nor since to take an inventory of his features or 
the details of his clothes. I could possibly be contradicted on nearly 
every point were I to attempt it. What I do remember — and it is as 
clear to me as yesterday — is the indescribable sweetness and kindness 
of manner — a frank affectionate way that drew me towards him the 
moment I saw him. I don't know what it was, or how — perhaps his 
smile, the clasp of his hand, the drawing me down to sit beside him — 
but I felt like one does with one's own father, that you ' get on with ' 
when a boy. That impression never left me." 

When, at this memorable interview, Dickens had expressed his 



Plate LXIll 

STUDIES FOR 
EDWIN DROOD 

Facrimile of Original Sketches by 
LUKE FILDES, R.A. 



This figure appears in the Illustration entitled " At the Piano.' 
ridf "The Mystery of Edwin Drood." 

Lent h the Artist. 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 209 

requirements, Mr. Fildes (as he himself informs me) explained to the 
novelist that, while fully appreciating the honour of being selected as 
illustrator of " Edwin Drood," he would be compelled most reluctantly 
to forego the privilege if it were really a sine qua non that the designs 
should be of a humorous character, following the lead of the versatile 
" Phiz." He conceived it advisable to make it clearly understood, 
there and then, that comic drawing was not his metier, and ventured to 
remind the novelist that his stories, in view of the fact that they 
possessed an intensely serious side as well as a jocular one, lent them- 
selves admirably to a graver style of Art. After pondering for a 
moment, Dickens observed that he was "a little tired" of being re- 
garded by his illustrators mainly as a humorist,— a remark, however, 
which he qualified in a manner that did not at all suggest dissatisfaction 
with those artists, but implied, rather, that he was not averse to the 
more solemn incidents in his writings being considered by his pictorial 
interpreters ; his agreement with Mr. Fildes in this respect might 
well have arisen from what he knew would be the leading character- 
istic of his last romance (certainly not humorous), which would give 
scope only to the "serious" artist. The interview resulted in the 
appointment of Mr. Fildes as illustrator of the forthcoming story, and 
in a letter to James T. Fields (of Boston, U.S.A.) the novelist said : 
" At the very earnest representations of Millais (and after having seen 
a great number of his drawings), I am going to engage with a new 
man ; retaining, of course, C. C.'s [Charles Collins's] cover." So con- 
tent was Dickens with his choice of this artist, that he could not 
refrain from expressing his satisfaction to his friends. 

As the date fixed for the publication of the first number of " Edwin 
Drood" was rapidly approaching, it became necessary 
The Mystery of ^.j^^^j. jyjj. YMe.s should immediately begin to prepare 
P ' his designs. Receiving the proof-sheets of each 

number, he studied them so diligently and care- 
fully that he allowed no incident or personal trait to escape him. 



210 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

Indeed, Dickens himself (as Mrs. Meynell tells us in The Century of 
February 1884) was astonished at the way in which his mind found 
itself mirrored in that of his coadjutor, both as regards the pictorial 
exactness of inanimate things and the appreciation of individual human 
character. The artist, however, was at first considerably perplexed 
in being kept in total ignorance of the plot, as Dickens volunteered no 
information respecting either the characters or the various parts they 
played, and although Mr. Fildes was much puzzled, before the plot 
began to develop, in discovering who was the hero and who the villain of 
the story, he hesitated to interrogate the novelist, because he surmised 
that there was a particular motive for his reticence. "He did, at my 
solicitation," observes Mr. Fildes, "occasionally tell me something — 
at first charily — for he said it was essential to carefully preserve the 
'mystery' from general knowledge to sustain the interest of the 
book, and later he appeared to have complete confidence in my 
discretion." 

Dickens, it seems, was seldom in advance with his manuscript, and 
each number was barely completed in time for the printers, thus neces- 
sitating excessive promptitude on the part of the engravers as well as 
the designer. The subjects of the earlier illustrations were selected 
by the author, who marked on the proofs the particular incidents to 
be depicted. In thus trotting after the novelist, the artist experienced 
a sense of restraint, and felt unable to do himself justice. At length, 
when Dickens proposed that one of the incidents to be delineated 
should be that in which John Jasper steals up a winding staircase in 
absolute darkness with murder on his face, Mr. Fildes courteously 
protested by pointing out the artistic disadvantages of illustrating such 
a scene, adding that it was already so graphically recounted that 
further elucidation became superfluous. Apropos of this, Mr. M. H. 
Spielmann remarks : " It is curious to observe how Dickens's dramatic 
sense obtruded itself when arranging for the drawings. He would 
always wish that scene or tableau to be illustrated on which he had 
lavished the whole force and art of his descriptive powers — naturally 



Plate LXIV 

studies for 
mr. jasper 

Facsimile of Original Sketches by 
LUKE FILDES, R.A. 

The figure on the right was inlroductd in the Illustration entitled 

" On IJangerous Ground. " 

Vide " The Mystery of Edwin Drood." 

Lent by the Artist. 



I t 



'W 




I 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 211 

the one that least required or justified illustration." By this time 
the novelist realised the advisability of leaving the responsibility of 
selection in the hands of the artist, who thenceforth was relieved of 
the limitations and restrictions hitherto imposed upon him. 

The requisite consultations between Dickens and his illustrator 
were invariably held at Hyde Park Place. Whenever practicable, 
Mr. Fildes made sketches from the life of suitable types for the 
characters in the story, and was fortunate in securing living models 
for the principal personages. Over the type of Jasper there was 
much discussion, the artist making several attempts before he obtained 
an exact portrait of the choirmaster ; and so successful and sympathetic 
were this and other delineations of character, that Dickens was de- 
lighted with them, declaring them to be like veritable photographs 
of the people themselves. The backgrounds, too, were drawn from 
actual scenes, as, for example, the opium-smokers' den which figures 
in the first and last illustrations ; this was discovered by the artist 
somewhere in the East End of London; the exact spot he cannot 
recall, nor does he believe that Dickens had any particular den in his 
mind, but merely described from memory the general impression of 
something of the kind he had observed many years before. The 
architectural details introduced in the illustration, " Durdles Cautions 
Mr. Sapsea against Boasting," were drawn from a careful sketch 
made within the precincts of Rochester Cathedral, although in the 
published design there is substituted a gateway different from that 
existing at this spot, in order to assist, no doubt, in promoting the 
novelist's obvious intention of disguising the identity of " Cloisterham." 
In the engraving entitled "Good-bye, Rosebud, darling! "it is very 
easy to recognise the quaint courtyard of Eastgate House in Rochester 
High Street. In the river scene we obtain a glimpse of Putney 
Church and of the picturesque wooden bridge which, until a few years 
ago, spanned the Theunes at that point ; ^ while in a third illustration, 

' By a curious coincidence, this scene is almost identical with that depicted by Seymour 
on the wrapper for the monthly parts of " Pickwick." 



212 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

" Under the Trees," the artist availed himself of a sketch (made some 
time previously) of the cloisters at Chester Cathedral. 

Concerning another of these designs, viz., " Mr. Grewgious Ex- 
periences a New Sensation," it may be mentioned that not only was 
this cosy interior actually drawn from a room in Staple Inn, but that 
the original of the capacious arm-chair in which Rosa is seated still 
remains in the artist's possession, it being almost the sole survivor of 
the furnishing items which formed part of his bachelor establishment. 

It is interesting to learn that Dickens, who placed such great con- 
fidence in his illustrator, did not consider it essential that preliminary 
sketches should be submitted to him. Mr. Fildes's original studies 
for his designs were vigorously executed with chalk upon tinted paper, 
the high-lights being emphasized with chinese-white ; the finished 
drawings were made upon paper and then photographed upon boxwood 
blocks. The engraving was at first entrusted to Dalziel Brothers, one 
of the best-known firms of wood-engravers of that day, but after 
the first two engravings were completed, Mr. Fildes intimated to the 
novelist a wish that the work of reproduction might be transferred to 
a former colleague of his, Charles Roberts, whereupon Dickens thus 
wrote to the late Frederick Chapman, of Chapman & Hall : " Mr. 
Fildes has been with me this morning, and, without complaining of 
Dalziel, or expressing himself otherwise than as being obliged to him 
for his care in No. i, represents that there is a brother-student of his, 
a wood-engraver, perfectly acquainted with his style and well under- 
standing his meaning, who would render him better. I have replied 
to him that there can be no doubt that he has a claim beyond dispute 
to our employing whomsoever he knows will present him in the best 
aspect. Therefore, we must make the change ; the rather because 
the fellow-student in question has engraved Mr. Fildes's most successful 
drawings hitherto." 

An examination of the illustrations discloses the fact that ten out 
of the full complement of twelve bear the signature of C. Roberts. 
In some instances, however, the result is disappointing, for the delicate 



Plate LXV 

study for 
"GOOD-BYE, ROSEBUD, DARLING" 

Facsimile of the Original Sketch for " The Mystery of Edwin Drood " by 
LUKE FILDES, R.A. 

l-eni by the Artist. 



I 



I 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 213 

tone-values which mark the original drawings are not apparent in the 
reproductions. This defect is chiefly due to the technical difficulties 
caused by the thick photographic film covering the surface of the 
wood-blocks, which curled up under the point of the graver ; un- 
engraved portions of the picture were thus lost, and the engraver, 
although carefully copying the missing portions, seldom succeeded in 
reproducing the characteristic touch of the artist. Mr. Fildes, 
perhaps, is hypercritical, for those who had not compared the en- 
graved replicas with the original designs were delighted with these 
decidedly effective illustrations, while Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A., quick 
to recognise the unusual ability displayed in them, wrote to the 
novelist complimenting him on securing so facile and graceful an 
interpreter of his text, — a comment with which Dickens was much 
gratified. As events proved, Mr. Fildes was as receptive as Dickens 
was impressive, and "vividly as Dickens saw the creatures of his 
brain, he saw them no otherwise than as they lived by this quick and 
sympathetic pencil." 

For reasons already explained, Dickens never wholly confided 
to his illustrator his intentions respecting the plot of the story. A 
part of the "mystery," however, was (in a sense) surprised out of him 
by the keenness and care with which the artist took up a suggestion. 
Mr. Fildes informs me that it happened in this way : " I noticed in 
the proof of the forthcoming number a description of Jasper's costume 
so markedly different from what I had been accustomed to conceive 
him as likely to wear, that I went at once to Dickens to ask him if 
he had any special reason for so describing him. It was a matter of 
a neck-scarf. Whereupon Dickens, after some little cogitating, said 
he had a reason, and that he wished the scarf to be retained, and, 
after some hesitation, told me why. He seemed to be rather troubled 
at my noticing the incident, and observed that he feared he was 
' paying out ' the ' mystery ' too soon, unconsciously doing so ; for, he 
said, he trusted to the 'mystery' being maintained until the end 
of the book. He seemed to me to think it was essential to do so, 



214 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

and especially enforced me to secrecy respecting anything I knew or 
might divine. This description of my interview with the novelist on 
the occasion in question gives, of course, only the sense of what 
transpired, and I do not pretend to quote exactly any of his words, 
or any phrase he may have used." The scarf was, in fact, the instru- 
ment of murder, employed by Jasper as the means of strangling the 
young breath of Edwin Drood on the night of the great gale. 

Mr. Luke Fildes having made so shrewd a guess respecting the 
important part to be played by Jasper in the story, Dickens thought 
fit to confide in him some details concerning the final scene. Princi- 
pally, perhaps, with this object in view, he invited the artist to spend 
a few days with him at Gad's Hill, in order that he might become 
familiar with the neighbourhood in which many of the scenes in 
" Edwin Drood " are laid. The novelist promised him that, if he 
were a good pedestrian, he would introduce him to some of the most 
charming scenes in Kent, and they would visit together the pictur- 
esque Hall at Cobham with its famous gallery of paintings, Cobham 
Park and village, and other interesting places in that locality. 
In the course of conversation during this interview, Dickens (who 
evidently anticipated much enjoyment from the little holiday) recalled 
that, when a boy, he had seen in Rochester a gaol or " lock-up," and 
significantly added that Mr. Fildes should make a note of one of 
the prison cells, which would do admirably to put Jasper in for the 
last illustration — thus pretty clearly foreshadowing the conclusion 
of the story. " I want you to make as good a drawing," said Dickens, 
"as Cruikshank's ' Fagin in the Condemned Cell,'" — a suggestion 
which Mr. Fildes did not approve, as any attempt on his part to 
treat the subject in the Cruikshankian manner might be resented as 
an obvious plagiarism, although a comparison of the two designs 
would have proved interesting. 

It was decreed, alas ! that Mr. Fildes 's visit to Charles Dickens's 
"little Kentish freehold" would never be realised while the great 
writer lived. On the morning of the appointed day, Dickens intended 



Plate LXVI 

study for 
MR. GREWGIOUS 

Facsimile of the Original Sketch by 
LUKE FILDES, R.A. 

This figure appears in the Illustration entitled •■ Mr. Grewgious has his 
Suspiaons." Vide - The Mystery of Edwin Drood." 

/^nt by the Anisl. 



^ 




LUKE FILDES, R.A. 215 

making his usual weekly call at the office of All the Year Round, 
and was to have been accompanied on his return by Mr. Fildes. 
That very day, however, the artist (whose luggage was packed ready 
for departure) took up the newspaper, and was startled to read the 
melancholy intelligence that Dickens was no more. This terribly 
sudden death changed everything ; but in order to fulfil the novelist's 
express desire, the artist was invited (after the funeral) to stay with 
the Dickens family. "It was then," remarks Mr. Fildes, "while in 
the house of mourning, I conceived the idea of " The Empty Chair," 
and at once got my colours from London, and made the water-colour 
drawing a very faithful record[of his library." * 

The death of Dickens had an extraordinary effect on Mr. Fildes, 
for it seemed as though the cup of happiness had been dashed from 
his lips. Following the example of Mr. Marcus Stone, he decided to 
abandon black-and-white illustration and direct his entire attention to 
painting, with what success all the world knows. In 1879 he was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and attained full honours 
eight years later. The first picture that brought him into notice was 
" Applicants for Admission to a Casual Ward " (exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1874), this being elaborated from The Graphic 
drawing, " Houseless and Hungry," which, as already described, led 
to his acquaintance with the author of " Pickwick." While occupied 
with this important canvas, Mr. Fildes was desired by Forster to 
call upon him, and, on entering the study, he was interrogated respect- 
ing his welfare ; for Forster apparently opined that the demise of the 
novelist, and the consequent termination of his illustration-work for 
" Edwin Drood," might have caused the young artist some embar- 
rassment. After listening intently to Mr. Fildes's description of the 
subject he was then painting, Forster suddenly exclaimed, " How 
very strange ! You are exactly depicting a scene witnessed by 
Dickens himself many years ago. I have just copied his letter 
referring to it, which has never been out of my possession ; " and 

' An engraved reproduction of this picture appeared in The Graphic Christmas number, 187a 



2i6 DICKENS AND HIS ILLUSTRATORS 

from an accumulation of papers on his desk (for he was then preparing 
his biography of the novelist) he abstracted the missive in which 
the novelist alluded to the unfortunate outcasts as " dumb, wet, silent 
horrors — sphinxes set up against that dead wall, and none likely to 
be at the pains of solving them until the general overthrow." Mr. 
Fildes was so struck by this coincidence, that he sought and obtained 
permission to quote Dickens's forcible sentence under the title of his 
picture when printed in the Academy Catalogue. 

Mr. Luke Fildes has many pleasant recollections of Charles 
Dickens to impart. " He was extremely kind to me," observes the 
artist, "and, when living in Hyde Park Place, asked me to many 
of his entertainments. He was almost fatherly, seeming to throw 
a protecting air over me, and always elaborately introducing me to 
his guests." The artist still cherishes, as valued mementoes, a little 
memorandum porcelain slate bound in leather, a quill pen with the 
blue ink dried upon it, and a square sheet of blue paper, which were 
given to him by Miss Hogarth, who found them on the novelist's 
desk just as he had left them. 

When Dickens died, only three numbers of " The Mystery of 
Edwin Drood " had been published. The illustrations for the ensuing 
portion of the story, as completed up to the time of his brief but fatal 
illness, had yet to be executed, and it is interesting to know that the 
titles for these were composed by the artist. With a view to future 
numbers, Mr. Fildes had made several drawings in Rochester, in- 
cluding the choir of the Cathedral and the exterior of Eastgate House 
{t.e. " The Nuns' House"), which were never utilised ; he also painted 
a view of Rochester Castle and Cathedral as seen from the Medway, 
this being reproduced as a vignette for the engraved title-page. The 
artist invariably signed his drawings " S. L. Fildes ; " but in the 
vignette here referred to the signature incorrectly appears as "J. 
L. Fildes." 

It will readily be conceded that Mr. Fildes's illustrations for 
Dickens's final romance are remarkable for a serious and sound 



4 



i 



* 

i 



w 



Plate LXVII 

STUDY FOR 
MR. GREWGIOUS 

Faesimilt of ihe Original Sketch by 
LUKE FILDES. R A. 

This figure appears in the Illustration entitled " Up the River." 
Vidt " The Mystery of Edwin Drood." 

Untby the Artist. 



I 



1 



LUKE FILDES, R.A. 217 

draughtsmanship, while the lifelike delineation of the various characters, 
as well as the pictorial exactitude of backgrounds and accessories, 
invite careful study and examination. Without unduly disparaging 
the excellent etchings by Cruikshank and " Phiz," it must be admitted 
that there is a vitality appertaining to Mr. Fildes's designs which 
imparts to them a reality not always discoverable in the illustrations 
produced by those admirable artists. 



APPENDIX 
I 

ILLUSTRATORS OF CHEAP EDITIONS 

C. R. Leslie, R.A. — Design for " Pickwick" — Washington living's Tribute to the Artist — Por- 
trait of "Dickens as Captain Bobadil"— T. Webster, R.A. — His Picture of "Dotheboys 
Hall"— A. Boyd Houghton— Illustrations for " Hard Times" and " Our Mutual Friend" 
— G. J. PiNWELL — Illustrations for "The Uncommercial Traveller" — Interesting Portrait 
of the Novelist— F. Walker, A.R.A. — Illustrations for "Reprinted Pieces" and "Hard 
Times "—Illustrators of the Household Edition— C. Green, F. Barnard, J. Mahonev, 
E. G. Dalziel, F. A. Fraser, G. Thomson, H. French, A. B. Frost, and J. 
M'^L. Ralston — Charles Green's Illustrations for"The Old Curiosity Shop," "Great Expec- 
tations," and the Christmas Books — F. Barnard, the Premier Illustrator of Dickens — The 
Novels Illustrated by him — His Favourite Model — Tragic Death of the Artist — An 
American Household Edition — New Designs by C. S. Reinhart, T. Worth, W. L. 
Sheppard, E. A. Abbey, A. B. Frost, and T. Nast— Illustrations by J. M'^Lenan— F. O. 
C. Darley — His Reputation as a Draughtsman — His Designs for an American House- 
hold Edition Engraved on Steel — Independent Illustrations — Death of the Artist — Sir 
John Gilbert's Designs for " Holiday Romance "— G. G. White— S. Eytinge— Prolific 
Contributor to Books and Periodicals — His Picture of " Mr. Pickwick's Reception " — De- 
signs for the Diamond Edition, &c. — Character Sketches — Dickens's Admiration of 
the Artist's Conceptions — Gives a Sitting for his Portrait — A Unique Print — Eytinge 
Visits Gad's Hill— Illustrations by H. Billings for "A Child's Dream of a Star"— The 
"Christmas Carol" Designs by Gaogengigl and Chominski— " The Cricket on the 
Hearth " Designs by Marold and MiTTis, and L. Rossi— Some Dickens Illustrations by 
J. Nash, T. W. Wilson, J. E. Christie, and G. Browne— Designs by E. J. Wheeler 
for "Tales from Pickwick"— Illustrations by Phil May, Maurice Greiffenhagen, and 
Harry Furniss — Coloured Frontispieces for the Temple Library Edition. 

BESIDES the illustrators of the original issues of Charles Dickens's novels 
there are other distinguished artists concerning whose designs for the 
cheaper editions some mention should be made in the present work. 
Besides Clarkson Stanfield, R.A., who has already been referred to as supplying 
the frontispiece to the first cheap issue of "American Notes," Dickens was under 
a similar obligation to two other Royal Academicians, Leslie and Webster, for 
frontispieces to the first cheap edition of "Pickwick" (1847) and "Nicholas 
Nickleby " (1848) respectively. Charles Robert Leslie, of whom Thackeray once 
r* 1? T r PA ^^^^ ^^^ ^° artist possessed so much as he "the precious 
. K» Vx& e, quality of making us laugh kindly," found a suitable subject 

in the twelfth chapter of "The Pickwick Papers," his illustration representing 

319 



220 APPENDIX I 

Mrs. Bardell fainting in the arms of Mr. Piclcwick, — an incident that had 
already been depicted by " Phiz." The original picture by Leslie — which 
was a commission from Dickens — is a cabinet-painting in grisaille or mono- 
chrome; it realised £137, lis. at the sale of the novelist's effects in 1870, 
and is now the property of Mr. William Wright, of Paris. It seems probable 
that Dickens owed his introduction to this artist through the friendly inter- 
vention of Washington Irving, who, in May 1841, thus wrote to the novelist: 
" Do you know Leslie the painter, the one who has recently painted a picture 
of Queen Victoria ? If you do not, I wish you would get acquainted with 
him. You would like one another. He is full of talent and right feeling. He 
was one of my choice and intimate companions during my literary sojourn in 
London. While I was making my early studies with my pen, he was working 
with his pencil. We sympathised in tastes and in feelings, and used to explore 
London together, and visit the neighbouring villages, occasionally extending our 
researches into different parts of the country. He is one of the purest and best 
of men, with a fine eye for nature and character, and a true Addisonian humour." 
In 1846 Leslie produced his well-known picture of Dickens as Captain Bobabil, 
in Ben Jonson's play, " Every Man in his Humour," which was exhibited in the 
Royal Academy the same year ; shortly afterwards the painting was reproduced 
in lithography by T. H. Maguire, impressions of which (especially those that 
were coloured) are now very scarce. 

The first cheap edition of " Nicholas Nickleby " was embellished by means 
_ __ p . of a frontispiece engraved on wood by T. Williams from 

' the picture by T. Webster, R.A., which (like Leslie's) was 

painted for the novehst. This exquisite painting (measuring only ten inches 
by seven inches) depicts the familiar scene at Dotheboys Hall, where Mrs. 
Squeers administers the much-dreaded brimstone and treacle; at the Dickens 
sale the interesting little picture reahsed the substantial sum of £535, los. It 
is said that the artist was so thorough and so persistent in illustrating the 
humours of boys' schools that he earned the sobriquet of " Dotheboys Webster." 

The first cheap editions of later works were graced with frontispieces from 

>.- A R H u '^^ pencils of two artists better known as draughtsmen than 

- /I r T P' 11 ^^ painters. These were A. Boyd Houghton, who designed 

the frontispiece for " Hard Times " (1865) and " Our Mutual 
Friend" (1867), and G. J. Pinwell, who furnished an illustration for "The Un- 
commercial Traveller" (1865) — all of which were engraved on wood by the 
Dalziel Brothers. In 1868 Pinwell likewise contributed four excellent woodcut illus- 
trations to the Library Edition of the same work,' and it is interesting to note 

' The later volumes of the Library Edition were issued at intervals during 1862- 1868. 



APPENDIX I 221 

that in one of these, "Leaving the Morgue," he has introduced a full-length 
presentment of the novelist.' Associated with the Library Edition we find the 
name of Fred. Walker, A.R.A., whose position as a designer in black-and-white 
F W lit AJRJ^ stands high in the first rank of English masters. This clever 
* artist prepared four illustrations respectively for " Reprinted 

Pieces" and "Hard Times" (1868), and for refinement of execution they have 
probably never been excelled. Fred. Walker, the painter of those world-famous 
pictures known as " The Harbour of Refuge," " The Bathers," " The Lost Path," 
&c., died prematurely of consumption in 1875, at the age of thirty-five, a loss 
which all artists and art-lovers have never ceased to deplore. The Library 
Edition of the "Christmas Stories" is illustrated by F. A. Fraser, H. French, 
E. G. Dalziel, J. Mahoney, Townley Green, and Charles Green, fourteen wood- 
cuts in all. 

After Dickens's death, that is, during 1871-79, Chapman & Hall issued 
a Household Edition of his novels, ensuring their further popularity by inserting 
entirely fresh illustrations. The artists selected for this undertaking were Charles 
Green, Fred. Barnard, J. Mahoney, E. G. Dalziel, F. A. Fraser, Gordon Thomson, 
H. French, A. B. Frost, and J. M<=L. Ralston, nearly all of whom had already been 
represented in the Library Edition. In commenting upon these designs, it may 
be remarked that, of his numerous illustrators, Dickens has never been more 
sympathetically interpreted than by Charles Green and Fred. Barnard. 

The thirty-two illustrations contributed by Charles Green to the House- 
_, J ^ hold Edition of " The Old Curiosity Shop " contrast most 

favourably with those by " Phiz " in the original issue ; 
these drawings, which, for the most part, were made upon paper by means of 
the brush-point, are entirely free from the gross exaggeration and caricature 
which impart such grotesqueness to the majority of the figure subjects by Habldt 
Browne for this story. Mr. Green's design for the wrapper enclosing each 
part of the Crown Edition of the novelist's works (subsequently published by 
Chapman & Hall) is cleverly conceived, for here he has introduced all the 
leading personages, happily grouped around the principal figure, Mr. Pickwick, 
who occupies an elevated position upon a pile of books representing the novels 
of Dickens. A few years ago Messrs. A. & F. Pears commissioned Mr. Green 
to design a number of illustrations for a series of their Annuals, the artist's 
services being specially retained for the following reprints of Dickens's Christmas 
Books: "AChristmas Carol" (1892), twenty-seven drawings; " The Battle of Life " 
( 1 893), twenty-nine drawings ; "The Chimes" (1894), thirty drawings; and "The 
Haunted Man" (1895), thirty drawings. His latest productions as a Dickens 

' The Library Edition of "The Uncommercial Traveller" also contains four illustrations 
signed " W.M.," which are much inferior to Pinwell's designs. 



222 APPENDIX I 

illustrator consist of a series of ten new designs, reproduced by photogravure 
for the Gadshill Edition of "Great Expectations," recently published by Chapman 
& Hall. Undoubtedly Mr. Green's most important work in connection with 
Dickens is to be found in his water-colour drawings of scenes from the novels, 
of which a complete list is given in the chapter entitled "Dickens in Art."^ 

Fred. Barnard has come to be considered, par excellence, the illustrator of 
F (4 B «1 ^^ famous novelist; indeed, he has been not inaptly termed 
"the Charles Dickens among black-and-white artists." Like 
Dickens himself, he was essentially a humorist, and his designs, although 
never lacking in infectious humour, had always something in them which raised 
them above the commonplace. To his skilful and vigorous pencil the House- 
hold Edition is indebted for the majority of the illustrations appearing therein, as 
the following list testifies: "Sketches by Boz," "Nicholas Nickleby," "Martin 
Chuzzlewit," "Barnaby Rudge," "Master Humphrey's Clock" (incidental chapters), 
" David Copperfield," " Dombey and Son," " Bleak House," " Christmas Books," 
"A Tale of Two Cities," "Hunted Down," "Holiday Romance," and -"George 
Silverman's Explanation," — making a grand total of nearly four hundred and 
fifty drawings. There is no doubt that Fred. Barnard "knew his Dickens" 
as well as any man, and he produced (independently of the foregoing designs) 
a number of pictures and drawings of characters and scenes from the novels, 
to which special reference is made in the next chapter. 

Mr. M. H. Spielmann informs me that, for the purposes of his Dickensian 
subjects, the model who sat to Barnard was the late well-known French. The 
tragic death (in his fiftieth year) of this popular artist in September 1896 is 
not yet forgotten. He had accustomed himself to the pernicious habit of 
smoking in bed, and falling asleep (under the influence of a powerful drug) 
while his pipe was yet alight, the bedding caught fire, with the result that he 
was suffocated by the smoke, his body being much burned. 

The Household Edition was simultaneously published in London and New 

York, Harper & Brothers having arranged with Chapman & Hall to be 

supplied with clichh of the illustrations. For some reason, however, the English 

engravings do not appear in several of the volumes thus issued in America, there 

, being substituted for them a similar number of entirely new designs 

"Household ^^ ^^^ following American artists: C. S. Reinhart ("Nicholas 

Edition." Nickleby," "The Uncommercial Traveller," and "Hard Times"), 

Thomas Worth ("The Old Curiosity Shop"), W. L. Sheppard 

("Dombey and Son"), E. A. Abbey, R.A. ("Christmas Stories"), A. B. Frost 

("Sketches by Boz"), and Thomas Nast ("Pickwick" and "American Notes"). 

' During the printing of this work, the death was announced of Mr. Charles Green, R.I., 
who succumbed to a painful illness of long standing. 



I 



APPENDIX I 223 

Mr. Nast has also illustrated various Dickens subjects for American magazine*, 
and independent works such as "Gabriel Grub" (from "Pickwick"), issued by 
McLoughin as a Christmas book. Mr. Frost is likewise responsible for twelve 
illustrations engraved on wood for an edition of " Pickwick " published a few years 
ago by Ward, Lock & Co., of London and New York ; and there is a design by 
him in Scribner's Magazine, December 1897, entitled "That Slide," and depicting 
the familiar scene described in the thirtieth chapter of "Pickwick." In 1859 
Harper & Brothers printed " A Tale of Two Cities " as a serial in Harper's 
Weekly, with thirty-four woodcut illustrations by a New York artist, J. M^Lenan, 
and in the following year the same firm similarly produced " Great Expectations," 
with twenty-seven illustrations by that artist, the first chapter appearing in 
November i860. Both stories were subsequently issued in volume form by 
T. B. Peterson & Brothers, of Philadfelphia. 

Perhaps the best of Dickens's American illustrators was Felix Octavius Carr 
F O C D I Darley, a most eminent and successful " character " draughts- 

man, whose productions are both original and clever. When, 
in 1 860, an octavo edition (also designated the Household Edition) was prepared 
by W. A. Townsend & Co. of New York, it was proposed that the services of 
Darley and Mr. (afterwards Sir) John Gilbert should be secured as illustrators for 
the new venture, this resulting in the American artist executing nearly the whole 
of the vignette designs, all of which assumed the form of frontispieces. He had 
already prepared more than five hundred illustrations for an edition of Cooper's 
novels, so it is probable that the excellence of those drawings led to his engage- 
ment in a like capacity for this Household Edition of Dickens. His designs, which 
were beautifully engraved on steel, are very refined both as regards conception and 
execution, and are especially interesting as indicating an intelligent appreciation, 
on the part of a Transatlantic artist, of the nov^ist's characterisation, the ex- 
travagant and grotesque being instinctively avoided. Darley, although born in 
Philadelphia in 1822, was the son of an English actor; his natural gift for draw- 
ing was properly encouraged, and he developed into one of the most efficient book- 
illustrators of his time ; in addition to this he achieved a distinct reputation 
through the production of large prints, such as "The Village Blacksmith," "The 
Unwilling Labourer," " The Wedding Procession," " Washington's Entry into New 
York," and other popular subjects. The Dickens series of designs have recently 
been reprinted by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. (Boston and New York) for their 
Standard Library Edition. Darley also prepared six drawings for a little work 
entitled " Children from Dickens's Novels," and subsequently painted a series 
of eight familiar scenes from Dickens, which were reproduced as photo-etchings 
and issued in sets ; these afterwards appeared in an Imperial Edition of 
the novelist's works by Estes & Lauriat, Boston, U.S.A. Darley continued 



224 APPENDIX I 

to occupy himself with his art up to the end of his life, but withdrew in his latter 
years from the cities to his home at Clayton, Delaware, where he died, March 
27, 1888.1 

The small number of frontispieces furnished by Sir John Gilbert to W. A. 
_, _ , /"|c__t p A Townsend & Co.'s Household Edition are reprinted, with 
' those of Darley, in Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s Standard 

Library Edition. It is perhaps not generally known that, in 1868, four woodcut 
illustrations were specially designed by Sir John for one of Dickens's minor pro- 
ductions, " Holiday Romance," — a short story written expressly for Our Young 
Folks, a magazine published by Ticknor & Fields, of Boston, U.S.A. In the 
original announcement we read that the artist had " consented to waive his decision 
not to draw again on wood, in order to give additional interest to Mr. Dickens's 
' Romance,' " by which it may be inferred that these are among the last examples 
of Sir John's skill in that direction. For the initials in " Holiday Romance," a 
Transatlantic artist, G. G. White, was responsible. Sir John Gilbert, R.A., P.R.W.S., 
also produced a series of" Pickwick " illustrations, now exceedingly rare, particulars 
of which will be found in the next chapter. This accomplished painter and prolific 
designer died so recently as October 5, 1897, in his eightieth year, and of him it 
has been truly observed that in his most distinctive line — viz., illustration — we 
can look in vain for his equal. It is recorded that he must have contributed 
no fewer than thirty thousand subjects to the pages of The Illustrated London 
News alone, besides supplying innumerable designs to The London Journal and 
other publications. It is therefore no exaggeration to say that Sir John Gilbert 
stands out pre-eminently the great popular illustrator of the Victorian era. 

Among the American illustrators of the writings of Dickens, an important 
„ _ , place must be conceded to Sol. Eytinge, who was born in New 

York in 1833. He began to draw at a very early age, and for 
forty years was a most industrious illustrator of books, papers, and magazines. For 
a long time he was connected with Harper & Brothers, but subsequently became 
the chief artist of Every Saturday, published by Fields, Osgood & Co., to which 
he contributed many Dickensian subjects, notably a large picture entitled "Mr. 
Pickwick's Reception," representing Sam Weller introducing to Pickwick the lead- 
ing characters in the various novels. To the Diamond Edition of Dickens's works, 
launched by Ticknor & Fields in 1867, Eytinge made several full-page drawings, 
each of the principal stories containing sixteen illustrations, all of which were en- 
graved on wood. He also made some drawings for a volume of " The Readings of 
Mr. Charles Dickens," and subsequently prepared a series of character sketches, 

* For many of these particulars I am indebted to Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co.'s 
Standard Library Edition of Dickens's Works. . 



APPENDIX I 225 

which were etched for the " Dickens Dictionary [of Characters]," published by 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. in their Standard Library Edition. Concerning Sol. 
Eytinge's illustrations Dickens said : " They are remarkable alike for a delicate 
perception of beauty, a lively eye for character, a most agreeable absence of 
exaggeration, and a general modesty and propriety which I greatly like." On 
the whole these pictures are well done, although it must be admitted that the 
artist has not always succeeded in satisfactorily interpreting his author. When 
the novelist last visited America (1867-68), his portrait was painted by Eytinge, 
probably from sittings, and it is now in the possession of Mr. W. E. Benjamin of 
New York. A lithographic reproduction of this painting, by the artist himself, 
was published by Ticknor & Fields of Boston and New York in 1868, copies 
of which are now seldom met with. I am enabled, through the kindness of 
Mr. Stuart M. Samuel, to include in this volume a replica of a particularly 
interesting impression of this rare print, on which Dickens has written the 
concluding words of "A Christmas Carol:" "And so, as Tiny Tim observed, 
God Bless Us, Every One." In the summer of 1869 Eytinge visited the 
novelist at Gad's Hill, in company with Lowell and Fields, on which occasion 
they together explored the slums of East London, including the opium-dens 
so faithfully described in "Edwin Drood." The artist has now been dead for 
some years ; during the latter part of his career he lived in retirement, on account 
of ill-health. 

I hav^ not attempted to enumerate all the illustrators who have executed 
drawings for the innumerable editions of the works of Charles Dickens, pro- 
duced by various publishing houses both at home and abroad, as their name 
is Legion. There are, however, two or three artists, not already mentioned, 
to whom a slight reference may fittingly be made. In 1871, Fields, Osgood 
& Co. reprinted Dickens's beautiful and pathetic sketch entitled "A Child's 
Dream of a Star," with ten full-page drawings by an American artist, Hammatt 
Billings, which were engraved on wood by W. J. Linton. The imprint of 
another Transatlantic publisher, S. E. Cassino, appears on the title-page of a 
choice edition of "A Christmas Carol," 1887, quarto size, containing twenty-four 
photogravure reproductions of new designs by J. M. Gaugengigl and T. V. 
Chominski, which forms an attractive item for the collector of fine books. 
This work was also on sale in England by G. Routledge & Sons, who, in 
1894, brought out a diminutive edition of "The Cricket on the Hearth," very 
tastefully printed by Guillaume of Paris, and containing several little woodcuts 
designed by Marold and Mittis. The same story was included in the reprints 
of Dickens's Christmas Books published by A. & F. Pears, having twenty- 
five clever illustrations by Lucius Rossi, carried out in a style somewhat 
similar to those by Charles Green. Particular interest attaches to certain 
volumes published by Cassell & Co., entitled "Gleanings from Popular 

P 



226 APPENDIX I 

Authors" (1882, &c.), as they contain several illustrations of Dickens scenes 
by Joseph Nash, Fred. Barnard, T. Walter Wilson, J. E. Christie, and Gordon 
Browne, the son of the famous "Phiz." To a booklet entitled "Tales from 
Pickwick" (G. Routledge & Sons, 1888), Mr. E. J. Wheeler contributed seven 
original and well-executed designs. 

Messrs. Chapman & Hall's recently-pubHshed Gadshill Edition of "Hunted 
Down " and " George Silverman's Explanation " contains three designs by Mr. 
Maurice Greiflfenhagen, who, like Mr. Phil May, now figures as an illustrator 
of Dickens for the first time. Mr. Greiffenhagen is also preparing six original 
drawings for " American Notes " and " Pictures from Italy," which will be repro- 
duced by photogravure for the same Edition, while another well-known artist, 
Mr. Harry Fumiss, has been commissioned to provide four illustrations pf a like 
character for " The Uncommercial Traveller." 

As I write, another edition of " David Copperfield " is announced for early 
publication by Mr. George Allen, the special feature of which will be the thirty- 
six designs by a new Dickens illustrator, Mr. Phil May, whose admirable 
draughtsmanship is familiar to us; there will also be issued a limited number 
of sets of the illustrations, — full-size facsimiles of the drawings, signed by the 
artist and accompanied by descriptive text. Messrs. J. M. Dent & Co. are 
preparing an edition of Dickens's Works for their Temple Library, an interesting 
feature of which will be a series of coloured frontispieces, from original drawings 
by Miss L. M. Fisher, Mr. F. C. Tilney, and W. C. Cooke. 



APPENDIX 

II 

CONCERNING "EXTRA ILLUSTRATIONS" 

Independent Publications— Unauthorised Designs— List of Additional Illustrations— Diclceni'$ 
Calendars, Relief Scraps, &c— "Alfred Crowquill"— His Etchings in Beniltys 
Miscellany — An Admirable Vocalist— His Illustrations for "Pickwick Abroad"— Kennv 
Meadows- "The Nestor of Punch's Staff"— His Drawings in the Illustrated London 
News — His Work Criticised — A Civil-List Pension — A Delightful Raconteur — T. Onwhyn 
—His Signatures of "Sam Weller, Junr.," and "Peter Palette"— Illustrates Cockton's 
Novels— Plates for "Pickwick" Recently Discovered— "Jacob Parallel"— A Punning 
Advertisement — His Designs for " Charley Chalk"— F. W. Pailthorpe— The only Survivor 
of the "Old School"— A Friend of George Cruikshank— Coloured Plates— C. D. GIBSON— 
His Drawing of the Pickwick Club — His Individuality of Style. 

SINCE the publication of "The Pickwick Papers" there have appeared, from 
time to time, a number of designs illustrating the novels of Charles Dickens 
which were issued independently of the particular stories that inspired 
them, and generally without letterpress. Artists and publishers alike thus availed 
themselves of the enormous popularity achieved by Dickens's writings, confident 
in the belief that financial success would attend their efforts. Among those 
responsible for the designing of what are usually termed " Extra Illustrations " 
were many well-known draughtsmen of the day, including Habl6t K. Browne 
(" Phiz "), Sir John Gilbert, R.A., Onwhyn, Kenny Meadows, Alfred Forrester 
(" Crowquill "), and, more recently, Fred. Barnard and F. W. Pailthorpe. It must, 
however, be admitted that, with regard to certain productions by artists less 
skilled in the use of the pencil or etching-needle, such attempts to interpret 
Dickens's conceptions conspicuously fail. 

In particular instances the publication of supplementary plates was approved 
by Dickens, but, for the most part, these independent illustrations were really 
unauthorised, the booksellers merely trading on the popularity of the novels 
(especially the earlier ones), which afforded unlimited scope for pictorial treatment. 
That there must have been a fairly constant demand for them is proved by their 
number and variety, nearly every form of reproductive art being made available 
for these designs, including steel-engraving, etching, wood-engraving, lithography 
chromo-Uthography, photogravure, &c. Some of the scarcer sets realise high 

"7 



228 APPENDIX II 

prices, and are naturally much in request. In the following list, which, I believe, 
is practically complete, I have included a few Dickens illustrations that were 
published in periodicals, in some cases with letterpress; although these cannot 
strictly be regarded as " Extra Illustrations," they are not without interest to 
the collector of such ephemeral productions. The names of the artists are 
alphabetically arranged. 



J. Absolon and F. Corbeaux. 

Barnaby Rudge. — Four engravings on steel by Finden, from drawings by 
Absolon and Corbeaux. Crown 8vo, green wrapper, price one shilling. To 
accompany the first Cheap Edition, 1849. London: Chapman & Hall, 186 
Strand, N.D. 

These designs were portraits of the principal characters, viz., Dolly Varden 
and Barnaby Rudge, by J. Absolon ; Emma Haredale and Miss Miggs, by 
F. Corbeaux — the latter plate forming the frontispiece. 



F. Barnard. 

Character Sketches from Dickens.— Six lithographs, portraits of Mrs. 
Gamp, Alfred Jingle, Bill Sikes and his Dog, Little Dorrit, Sidney 
Carton, Pickwick. Elephant folio. London : Cassell, Petter & Galpin, N.D. 
[1879]. Afterwards issued as photogravures (20 in. by 14J in.), price one 
guinea. Reproductions on a reduced scale, etched by C. W. Walker, were 
published by Estes & Lauriat, New York, N.D. 

Character Sketches from Dickens.— Second Series. Six photbgravures. 
Portraits of the two Wellers, Caleb Plummer and his Blind Daughter, 
Rogue Riderhood, Mr. Peggotty, Little Nell and her Grandfather, Mr- 
Pecksniff. Same publishers, 1884. 

Character Sketches from Dickens. — Third Series. Six photogravures. 
Bob Cratchit and Tiny Tim, Uriah Heep, Dick Swiveller and the 
Marchioness, Betsy Trotwood, Captain Cuttle, Mr. Micawber. Same 
publishers, 1885. 

The entire series of eighteen plates were republished in Mr. Thomas 
Archer's " Charles Dickens : Gossip about his Life, Works, and Characters," 
issued by the same firm. Sixteen of these Character Sketches were 
subsequently reproduced in a cheap form, and presented to the readers 
of CasselCs Family Magazine upon the occasion of its enlargement in 
December 1896. 
Two series of "Character Sketches," reproduced by photogravure, were 



% 

I 



Plate LXVIII 

ALFRED CROWQUILL (A. H. FORRESTER) 

From a Phoiograph by 
J. F. KNIGHTS 

FREDERICK BARNARD, R.i. 

From a Photograph by 
J. W. ROLLER 

I^tit by Mrs. P. Barnard. 




]^cU^cy/<^ '^^^ 



APPENDIX II 229 

included in "Gebbie's Select Portfolios of Literature and Art," Gebbie & 
Husson Co. (Limited), Philadelphia, 1888-89. Eighteen of these were 
executed from the above designs by F. Barnard, five from drawings by 
other artists, and one from a photograph, the six additional subjects being 
portraits of characters not comprised in Barnard's gallery, viz., Henry 
Irving as Jingle, Mr. Toole as the Artful Dodger, Lotta as the Marchioness, 
Jo the Crossing-Sweeper, Newman Noggs, Mr. Squeers and Mr. Snawley, 
Montagu Tigg introduces himself to Martin Chuzzlewit and Tom Pinch. 

The India-Proof Edition was issued in portfolios, green and buff, with 
embossed design in gold and colour. 
The Shakespeare-Dickens Combination Company.— Published in Lika 
Joko, an Illustrated Weekly Conducted by Harry Fumiss, from November 
17, 1894, to February 23, 1895. 



W. G. Baxter. 

Studies from Charles Dickens. Two series of portraits of the principal 
characters, twenty-two in each series. Published in Momus, an illustrated 
comic weekly periodical, Manchester, from September 25, 1879, to February 
2, 1882. A selection from these portraits were reprinted in C. H. Ros^s 
Variety Paper, February 1 888. 

C. B. Bracewell. 

Barnaby Rudge. — Etching of Barnaby, with a view of the " Boot " Inn. (The 
only impression I have seen is in Mr. J. F. Dexter's Collection.) 

H. K. Browne ("Phiz"). 

Pickwick. — " Illustrations to the Cheap Edition of the Works of Mr. Charles 
Dickens." Six Illustrations to The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick 
Club, Engraved [on wood] from the Original Drawings by " Phiz." Green 
wrapper, small 8vo, price one shilling, N.D. [ 1 847]. London : Darton & 
Clark, Holborn Hill; Joseph Cundall, 12 Old Bond Street; John Menzies, 
Edinburgh ; Cumming & Ferguson, Dublin ; James Macleod, Glasgow. And 
sold by all Booksellers in Town and Country. The word "misletoe" is 
misspelt in the title on one of the woodcuts. {Seep. 72.) 

The Old Curiosity Shop. — "Four Plates, engraved [in stipple] under 
the superintendence of Habldt K. Browne and Robert Young, to illustrate 
the first Cheap Edition of ' The Old Curiosity Shop.' " Price one shilling. 
Green wrapper. The subjects are: Little Nell and her Grandfather, the 
Marchioness, Barbara, and The Death of Little Nell. " Published with the 



230 APPENDIX II 

Approbation of Mr. Charles Dickens." London: Chapman & Hall, 1848. 
Also proofs on india-paper, one shilling each portrait. A few sets coloured, 
now very scarce. {See p. 85.) 

Barnaby Rudge. — "Four Plates, engraved [in stipple] under the superin- 
tendence of Habldt K. Browne and Robert Young, to illustrate the Cheap 
Edition of ' Barnaby Rudge.' " Portraits of Emma Haredale, Dolly Varden, 
Barnaby and Hugh, Mrs. Varden and Miggs. " Published with the Approba- 
tion of Mr. Charles Dickens." London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 1849. 
Issued in green wrapper, price one shilling. A few sets coloured, now 
very scarce. These and the preceding designs were re-engraved by E. Roffe 
in 1889. {Seep. 85.) 

"Little Nell" and "Dolly Varden." Engraved on steel by Edwin 
Roffe, from hitherto unpublished drawings by Habldt K. Browne. On india- 
paper, the impression limited to lOO proofs, with remarques printed in black, 
and 100 with remarques in brown, after which the remarques were cancelled. 
These plates were accompanied by explanatory text, and issued in a leatherette 
case, price los. 6d. Published by Frank T. Sabin, 3 Garrick Street, W.C, 
and John F. Dexter, 16 Minford Gardens, West Kensington, 1889. 

DOMBEY AND SON.— " The Four Portraits of Edith, Florence, Alice, and Little 
Paul. Engraved [on steel] under the superintendence of R. Young and 
H. K. Browne. From Designs by Habldt K. Browne. And Published with 
the Sanction of Mr. Charles Dickens." London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 
1848. In green wrapper, price one shilling. These engravings were also 
published as proofs on india-paper, 4to, price one shilling each portrait. 
Some sets coloured. 

DOMBEY AND SoN. — " Full-length Portraits of Dombey and Carker, Miss Tox, 
Mrs. Skewton, Mrs. Pipchin, Old Sol and Captain Cuttle, Major Bagstock, 
Miss Nipper, and Polly. In Eight Plates, Designed and Etched by Habldt 
K. Browne, and published with the Sanction of Mr. Charles Dickens." 
London: Chapman & Hall, 186 Strand, 1848. In green wrapper, price two 
shillings. Some sets coloured. The series of twenty plates, viz., "The Old 
Curiosity Shop," " Barnaby Rudge," and " Dombey and Son," were recently 
reprinted on india-paper, and issued by F. T. Sabin in a portfolio, price 
£2, 10s. {See pp. loo-ioi.) 

"Brush." 

Master Humphrey's Clock.— No. I. Portraits of Master Humphrey, Little 
Nell, and the Old Man, with remarks on each character, and an address, 
stating that "The following sketches are the commencement of a series 
illustrating the principal characters in 'Master Humphrey's Clock,' to 
appear at monthly intervals, in parts similar to the present." Etchings by 



APPENDIX II 231 

"Brush." London, printed for the proprietor by W. T. Davey, 16 Great 
Sutton Street, Clcrkenwell; published by W. Britain, 1 1 Paternoster Row, 1840. 
Price one shilling. 

Alfred Bryan. 

Characters from Dickens.— Full-length studies of the principal characters 
Published m Jack and Jill, 1886. 

Christopher Coveny. 

Twenty Scenes from the Works of Dickens.— Designed and etched by 
Christopher Coveny, with letterpress descriptions. Sydney: Printed for 
Thos. H. Fielding by John Sands, 374 George Street, 1883. 4to. 

The subjects of eleven of these plates are taken from " Pickwick." A 
duplicate plate (No. 7), representing Mr. Pickwick and his friends on the 
ice, is also included, the subject being re-etched and the design altered 
because the first plate too much resembled "Phiz's" rendering of this 
scene. 

"Alfred CROWQUILL" (Alfred Henry Forrester). 

Pictures Picked from the Pickwick Papers. — Forty lithographs (etchings 
on stone) by Standidge & Co., from drawings by "Alfred Crowquill," com- 
prising nearly two hundred subjects. Issued in ten parts (or sheets), bufl 
illustrated wrappers, from May i to November 9, 1837. Price of each 
part, one shilling plain, two shillings coloured. Published complete in 
lavender-tinted wrapper, demy 8vo, and in cloth. London : Ackermann 
& Co., 96 Strand [1837]. The plates in Part \. only are signed. Repro- 
ductions have also been issued, etched on copper by F. W. Pailthorpe 
and published by F. T. Sabin, 1880. Price, coloured, £2, 15s., uncoloured, 
£\, 1 8s. Within the last few years sets of the "Crowquill" plates have 
been catalogued at twenty guineas. {See also " Thomas Onwhyn.") 

F. O. C. Darley. 

Scenes from Dickens. — Eight photo-etchings, from original paintings — the 
last productions of this American artist. Issued in a portfolio, and afterwards 
printed in the Imperial Edition of the novelist's works by Estes & Lauriat, 
Boston, U.S.A. 

A. DULCKEN. 

Scenes from the Pickwick Papers. — Designed and drawn on stone by 
Augustus Dulcken. Four plates, oblong folio, illustrated wrapper. Under 
each plate is a descriptive quotation. London : Bickers & Bush, i Leicester 



232 APPENDIX II 

Square, N.D. [1861]. Proofs, los. 66. Very scarce. The subjects of the 
designs are : (i) Death of the Chancery Prisoner ; (2) Meeting of the Ebenezer 
Temperance Association ; (3) The Leg of Mutton " Swarry ; " (4) The Old 
Man's Tale about a Queer Client. On the wrapper are depicted portraits 
of Pickwick, Sam Weller, and Alfred Jingle; and scenes representing the 
Shooting Party at Wardle's, and Mrs. Weller entertaining Stiggins. 

J. W. Ehninger. 

Dickens Characters. — Photographic reproductions of drawings by J. W. 
Ehninger. Cabinet size, price one shilling each portrait. Published by 
W. A. Mansell & Co., 316, 317 (now 405), Oxford Street, London, 1876. 
The series included the following : Mr. Pickwick, Sam Weller, The Fat Boy, 
Rev. Stiggins, Mrs. Gamp, Mr. Pecksniff, Little Nell and her Grandfather, 
Dolly Varden, Florence and Paul Dombey, Edith Dombey (two versions). 
Little Em'ly, and Little Dorrit 

C. D. Gibson. 

The People of Dickens. — Six large photogravures from original drawings. 
Issued in a portfolio, proofs, 20s. London : John Lane ; New York : 
R. H. Russell, 1897. These drawings were originally made for an 
American publication called The Ladies^ Home Journal, and were reprinted 
in Black and White at intervals during 1 896-97. 

Sir John Gilbert, R.A. 

Pickwick. — "Appleyard's Edition. Price 2d. Plates to illustrate the Cheap 
Edition of the Works of Mr. Charles Dickens. From original designs by 
John Gilbert, Esq. Engraved [on wood] by Messrs. Greenaway & Wright." 
Eight monthly parts, post 8vo, each containing four plates engraved on 
wood. Buff illustrated wrappers. Part 4 was issued with Part 5 in one 
wrapper, and the same condition was observed regarding Parts 7 and 8, the 
price of these double numbers being fourpence. Some of the designs are 
printed on the front of the wrappers, and on the inside of the back of the last 
wrapper appears a list of the thirty-two plates, with pagination. A limited 
number were printed on india-paper. London : E. Appleyard, 86 Farring- 
don Street, N.D. [1847]. These excellent plates are extremely rare. 

Nicholas Nickleby. — "Appleyard's Edition. Price 2d. Plates to illustrate 
the Cheap Edition of the Works of Mr. Charles Dickens." Thirty-two 
designs, engraved on wood by Greenaway & Wright, and published in 
parts. Post 8vo. The first instalment (with portrait of Squeers on a buff 
illustrated wrapper) contains four designs, which were all that Gilbert pro- 



Plate LXIX 

F. W. PAILTHORPE 

From a Photograph by 
F. W. CLARK 

Lenliji Ihi Artist. 

CHARLES GREEN, R.L 

From a Photograph 

Leat by Mr. TmenUy Green, A". /. 



1 




^\>r9uiL^ 





APPENDIX II 233 

duced, the remainder (unsigned) being by inferior artists, the majority 
engraved by C. M. Gorway. Published complete in a yellow illustrated 
wrapper by E. Appleyard, 86 Farringdon Street, London. Price is. 6d. 
"The Cricket on the Hearth."— Six woodcut Portraits of the Principal 
Characters. Unsigned. The Pictorial Times, Dec. 27, 1845. 

W. Heath. 

" Pickwickian Illustrations."— Twenty etched designs, demy 8vo. Orna- 
mental paper wrapper, having title printed in gold on a black label. Price 58. 
London: T. McLean, Haymarket, 1837. All the plates bear the title, 
" Pickwickian Illustrations " as a headline, and, with the exception of the last 
four, are numbered ; the last four bear the publisher's imprint. A set of these 
scarce etchings was recently catalogued at twenty guineas. 

" Kyd " (J. Clayton Clarke). 

The Characters of Charles Dickens.— A series of original water-colour 
drawings, signed with monogram, J.C.C. A collection of these, 241 in 
number, reaUsed ten guineas at the Cosens sale in 1890. Mr. Thomas 
Wilson possesses 331 drawings by "Kyd," which probably include those 
formerly owned by the late Mr. F. W. Cosens. 

A series of twenty-four of these drawings were reproduced by chromo- 
lithography, small 410, illustrated boards, and published by Raphael Tuck & 
Sons, London, Paris, and New York, N.D. 

The Characters of Dickens.— Studies of a few of the leading personages in 
the novels. The Fleet Street Magazine, 1887. 

•W. Maddox and H. Warren. 

"Little Nell" and "Mrs. Quilp." — Engraved by Finden from drawings by 
W. Maddox and H. Warren respectively, for the first Cheap Edition of " The 
Old Curiosity Shop," 1848. London: Chapman & Hall. Kenny Meadows 
designed a portrait of " Barbara " for the same work. 

Kenny Meadows. 

Dickens Characters.— " Gallery of Comicalities." — "London Particulars." 
This series of portraits (some of which are signed with the artist's initials) 
include Fagin, the Artful Dodger, Charley Bates, Sam Weller, Oliver Twist, 
Mr. Bumble. Each portrait is accompanied by a poem of forty lines. Pub- 
lished in Belts Life in London, 1838. 

Heads from "Nicholas Nickleby." — Portraits of twenty-four of the prin- 
cipal characters, "from drawings by Miss La Creevy." Six parts, demy Svo, 



234 APPENDIX II 

price 6d. each. London: Robert Tyas, Cheapside, N.D. [1839]. The separate 
parts were enclosed in a buff illustrated wrapper, having at each corner a 
portrait of a member of the Nickleby family, and in the centre a representa- 
tion of Miss La Creevy, seated before a portrait of " Boz " (after S. Laurence). 
Included among the advertisements in the first number is an announcement 
of this production, with an engraving depicting Miss La Creevy at work. 
The illustrations are here said to be "etched by A. Drypoint," but they are 
really woodcuts. The following explanatory statement, which forms part of 
the announcement, is not without interest : " These ' Heads ' will comprise 
Portraits of tlie most interesting individuals that appear in 'The Life and 
Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby,' selected at the period when their very 
actions define their true character, and exhibit the inward mind by its out- 
ward manifestations. Each Portrait will be a literal transcript from the 
accurate and vividly minute descriptions of this able and graphic author, and 
will present to the eye an equally faithful version of the maiden simplicity of 
Kate Nickleby — the depravity of Sir Mulberry Hawk — the imbecility of his 
dupe — the heartless villainy of the calculating Ralph — the generosity of the 
noble-minded Nicholas — the broken spirit of poor Smike — and the brutality 
of Squeers. These and many others furnish subjects for the display of the 
Artist's genius, and will form an interesting and most desirable addition to 
the work." The " Heads " were also issued in a collected form, in a green 
wrapper and in cloth, and were republished in " The Scrap Book of Literary 
Varieties," the names of the characters being changed into brief descriptive 
titles, such as " Miniature Painter" instead of " Miss La Creevy." Cloth, 8vo. 
London : Edward Lacy, 74 St. Paul's Churchyard, N.D. 
" Barbara." — Engraved by Finden, and published with two plates by W. 
Maddox and H. Warren to illustrate the first Cheap Edition of "The Old 
Curiosity Shop," 1848. Price 7d. London: Chapman & Hall. 

Thomas Onwhyn ("Sam Weller," "Peter Palette"). 

Illustrations to the Pickwick Club.— Thirty-two plates by "Samuel 
Weller." "The local scenery sketched on the spot." The majority are 
signed "Samuel Weller, delt. ;" a few bear the artist's initials, "T.O.," while 
others have no signature appended. Issued in eight monthly parts, green 
wrappers, demy 8vo, one shilling each, and published complete in one 
volume, boards, price 9s. London: E. Grattan, 51 Paternoster Row, 
1837. According to the announcement on the cover of Part I., there were 
to have been ten parts, and india-proof impressions, 4to, price 2s. Some of 
the unsigned plates are much inferior to those bearing Onwhyn's signature. 
A set of these " Pickwick " plates, in the original parts, have been catalogued at 
fifteen guineas. Lithographic replicas were issued in small 8vo by J. Newman, 



APPENDIX II 235 

48 Watling Street, 1848, for insertion in the first Cheap Edition of "Pickwick." 
Twelve of these plates (etched by J. Yeagcr) were included in a "new 
edition " of " Pickwick " published by Carey, Lea, & Blanchard, Philadelphia, 
1838, and reprinted in 1850. {See also "Alfred CrowquiU.") 

Illustrations to the Pickwick Club. — Twelve etchings on steel, 1847. 
Published in green wrapper by A. Jackson, 224 Great Portland Street, in 1894. 
Prices, per set, india-proofs 30s. ; coloured by Pailthorpe, 25s. ; plain, 188. 

Illustrations to "Nicholas Nickleby." — "Edited by 'Boz.' By Peter 
Palette, Esq." Forty etchings, comprising ten portraits and thirty scenes. 
Issued in nine parts, demy 8vo, price one shilling each, green and buff 
wrappers, having a design representing an easel with a palette affixed. 
Published at intervals from June 30, 1838, to October 31, 1839, and subse- 
quently as a volume. London : E. Grattan, Paternoster Row, 1839. The 
publisher, when launching these designs, seemed unable to determine the 
exact number of parts in which they should appear. On the wrappers of 
Parts I to 5 it is stated that they would be completed in eight parts ; on the 
wrappers of Parts 6 and 7, in ten parts ; and on that of Part 8, in nine parts. 
Parts I to 5 contain four plates each, 6 to 8 contain five plates each, and 9 
contains five plates, thus making the full complement of forty designs. The 
work was afterwards republished by Grattan & Gilbert, 5 1 Paternoster Row, 
and again reprinted {circa 1847) — thirty-two plates only, which were styled 
" proofs " — in small 4to, on buff paper. About the same time a similar 
number of these designs were issued as lithographs, in eight parts, small 4to. 
Newman, N.D. 

In 1897, Mr. George Allen, of 156 Charing Cross Road, issued india-proof 
impressions from the thirty-two original steel plates for " Pickwick," and 
from thirty-eight for " Nickleby," the edition being strictly limited to 250 
sets for each work. Price £S, 5s. per set. Cloth portfolio, 12 by 9 inches, 
with title-page and list of subjects. The plates have been well preserved. 

H. M. Paget. 

Pickwick Pictures. — Six character sketches, printed in colours, with letter- 
press. Crown 8vo. Illustrated wrapper. London : Ernest Nister, 24 St. 
Bride Street, E.G. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 31 West Twenty-Third 
Street, N.D. 

F. W. Pailthorpe. 

Pickwick. — Twenty-four etchings, from original drawings, of scenes not pre- 
viously illustrated. Impl. 8vo. Illustrated wrapper. London : Robson & 
Kerslake, 1882. Price two guineas the set, proofs on india-paper (before 
letters), three guineas. 



1 



236 APPENDIX II 

Pickwick. — Three vignette titles, etched in 1892 for an extended version of the 
Victoria Edition. An original tinted drawing (unpublished) of " Gabriel Grub 
and the Goblin " is included in Mr. Thomas Wilson's Collection. 

Oliver Twist. — Twenty-one etchings. London : Robson & Kerslake, 23 
Coventry Street, Haymarket, 1886. Only fifty sets printed, a few of which 
were coloured by the artist, also proofs on india-paper, in portfolio. 

Great Expectations. — Twenty-one etchings. London : Robson & Kerslake, 
23 Coventry Street, Haymarket, 1885. Only fifty sets printed, a few of 
which were coloured by the artist ; also proofs on india-paper, in portfolio. 

Mr. Pailthorpe has designed and etched frontispieces (some coloured) for 
reprints of the following : " The Strange Gentleman " and " The Village 
Coquettes," 1880 (C. Hindley); "Is She His Wife?" "Mr. Nightingale's 
Diary," and "The Lamplighter," 1887 (Robson & Kerslake). The first 
set of impressions of the frontispiece for "The Village Coquettes" was 
coloured, after which the plate disappeared, so that no plain impressions 
could be issued. The only uncoloured print, taken before the completion 
of the etching, is included in Mr. Thomas Wilson's Collection. This plate 
was the artist's second attempt at designing. 

Mr. Pailthorpe has etched a portrait of Samuel Weller writing his love- 
letter, for "The Origin of Sam Weller" (Jarvis & Son), 1883; the frontis- 
piece and vignette-title for "A New Piljian's Projiss, written by Mrs. Gamp, 
edited by Charles Dickens," 1890 (unpublished); etched borders containing 
characters and scenes from Dickens, for Mr. William Wright, of Paris. The 
artist also designed six new plates for the " Memoirs of Grimaldi," which, 
however, were only edited by Dickens. 

"Jacob Parallel." 

"Jacob Parallel's Hands to Humphrey's Clock; or. Sketches from the 
Clock Case." — Twelve etchings on steel, illustrating "The Old Curiosity Shop " 
and "Barnaby Rudge." Two parts, Impl. 8vo, green illustrated wrappers, 
price two shillings each. London : G. Berger, Holywell Street, Strand, 
N.D [1840-41]. A series of illustrations of the principal scenes and portraits 
of the characters, ten for the first story and two for the second. The design 
on the wrapper represents Master Humphrey standing on a chair winding 
up the clock, against which rests a framed portrait of " Boz." 

E. Richardson. 

Barnaby Rudge's Portrait Gallery. — During the serial issue of " Barnaby 
Rudge," Mr. W. Britain, 11 Paternoster Row, advertised on one of the 
weekly wrappers (August 28, 1 841) a series of twenty "splendid engrav- 
ings " by this artist, price twopence, but I have never seen them. 



APPENDIX II 237 



Thomas Sibson. 

"SiBSON's Racy Sketches of Expeditions, from the Pickwick Club."— 
Ten etchings, with letterpress, demy 8vo, green illustrated wrappers, 
price 2s. 6d. London: Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper, 1838. The design on 
the wrapper depicts Dickens standing on Mr. Pickwick's head, holding aloft 
an enormous quill pen, the pseudonym " Boz " appearing on his coat-sleevea.* 
The above title is printed on the wrapper, but on the title-page it runs thus : 
" Sketches of Expeditions, from the Pickwick Club." The Preface reads as 
follows: "Originally the Pickwick Club appeared with four Illustrations: 
but since Death chilled the life-depicting hand of poor Seymour, two Em- 
bellishments have disappeared, while eight pages of letterpress have been 
added. These papers, thus arranged, bursting as they do with incident, and 
intoxicated as they are with wit, must have come before the public without 
Illustrations for many of their most striking scenes. Reader, were it not so, 
these Sketches had never seen the light of your eyes. The artist's hope is 
(may you find it not a vain one) that these humble efforts may afford some of 
the pleasure he enjoyed when imagining them. — 11 Buckingham St., Portland 
Place, London. January ist, 1838." A copy of this scarce work realised 
;{ri8 at Sotheby's in 1895. 

"Illustrations of Master Humphrey's Clock." — Seventy-two etchings, 
issued during the publication of this work, 1840-41. Eighteen parts, each 
containing four plates, some with remarques. Impl. 8vo, green wrappers, 
price one shilling each part. Afterwards issued in two volumes. London : 
Robert Tyas, Paternoster Row, 1842. Only seventy plates are mentioned 
on the title-page and in the index. On some of the wrappers is a vignette 
of a clock, and on others we find a representation of Master Humphrey 
sitting on a chair. These plates are exceedingly scarce in the original parts 
as issued, sets having been catalogued at twenty-five guineas. Copies of 
some of the Sibson designs were etched by J. Yeager for contemporary pub- 
lication in a Philadelphia edition of " Barnaby Rudge," together with similar 
replicas of a few of " Phiz's " woodcuts which appeared in the authorised 
English edition. 

F. Stone, A.R.A. 

Nicholas Nickleby. — "Three Portraits of Kate Nickleby, 'Tilda Price, and 
Madeline Bray, from original paintings by Frank Stone, engraved [on steel] 
by Edward Finden, and published with the approbation of Mr. Charles 
Dickens." For the first Cheap Edition of " Nicholas Nickleby." Crown 8vo, 
green wrappers, price one shilling. Proofs on india-paper, 4to, one shilling 



238 APPENDIX II 

each portrait. London: Chapman & Hall, i86 Strand, 1848. The engraved 
titles are as follow : " Kate Nickleby sitting for her Portrait," " 'Tilda Price 
dressing for the Tea Party," and "Madeline Bray pausing in her Work." 
{See pp. 178-9). 

" Stylus." 

"The Dickens Aquarelles. First Series."— " Twelve Original Character 
Illustrations of the Pickwick Papers." Portfolio, illustrated boards. New 
York. J. W. Bouton, 1152 and 706 Broadway, 1888. 

"The Dickens Aquarelles. Second Series." — "Twelve Original Char- 
acter Illustrations of ' The Old Curiosity Shop.' " Portfolio, illustrated 
boards. Same publisher and date. These inferior drawings are crudely 
coloured by hand, the name of each Character being written in the margin. 



Weld Taylor. 

Nicholas Nickleby.— " The Baron von Grogzwig." Lithograph, Impl. 8vo. 
"Sketches by Weld Taylor, No. i." London: J. Mitchell, 33 Old Bond 
Street, N.D. In 1838 Weld Taylor reproduced by lithography the beautiful 
portrait of " Boz " by S. Laurence. 



C. H. Wall. 

Martin Chuzzlewit. — Four woodcuts, 8vo, green illustrated wrapper, price 
sixpence. London : Hezall & Wall, 1 1 3 Strand. 



Nelson P. Whitlock. 

Dickens Illustrations.—" Twenty-four Original Sketches from the Writings 
of Charles Dickens." 4to. No publisher's imprint, N.D. 



T. C. W. 

"Illustrations to Master Humphrey's Clock."— Four lithographs, 
illustrating the first portion of the story. Impl. 8vo. No publisher's im- 
print, N.D. Issued without a wrapp>er. Only two of these plates are 
signed (T. C. W.), and under each appears a descriptive quotation. 



! 



APPENDIX II 239 

w. c. w. 

Pickwick. — Twelve woodcut portraits of " Pickwick " characters, first published 
in "Sam Weller's Jest Book," issued in penny numbers, and afterwards 
in Nos. 48, 51, 52 of a weekly paper called Tlu Casket (Dec. 2, 23, 30, 1837) 
in twopenny numbers. London: Berger & Co., Holywell Street, and 
Piggott & Co., Fleet Street, 1837. 



Anonymous. 

"Original Illustrations to the Pickwick Papers." — Four parts, each 
containing four designs. Price 2d. each part. Small 8vo. Green illustrated 
wrapper, depicting portraits of fourteen Pickwickian characters. London : 
W. Strange, Paternoster Row, N.D. [1847]. These woodcuts were intended 
for binding in the first Cheap Edition. On the wrapper of Part I. it is announced 
that the work would be completed in eight parts, and that four engravings 
would be issued monthly; but it is believed that the fourth part was the 
final one. 

In 1838, a number of woodcut portraits of Dickens Characters were 
published in The Penny Satirist and in Cleave' s Penny Gazette of Variety 
(Late the London Satirist), afterwards called Cleaves Gazette of Varieties. 
These woodcuts consist of a series of twelve " Portraits of Oliver Twist " and 
twelve "Characters from 'Nicholas Nickleby,'" with descriptive quotations, 
&c., and were enlarged copies of the figures in the original etchings by Cruik- 
shank and "Phiz." They were afterwards re-issued on a broad sheet, 
with the title, " Cleave's Twelfth-Night Characters," and sold by J. Cleave, i 
Shoe Lane, Fleet Street. 

In 1 84 1, Cleave issued a work called " Parley's Penny Library," in which 
were introduced selections (in the form of dialogues) from "The Old 
Curiosity Shop" and "Bamaby Rudge," then in course of pubhcation. 
They were illustrated by means of wood-engravings, the majority of those 
in " Barnaby Rudge " being enlarged copies from " Phiz's " original designs. 
These woodcuts (twelve in number) were also reprinted, with the title, 
" Cleave's Gallery of Comicalities — Recollections of Barnaby Rudge." 

On the wrapper of the fourth weekly number of " Master Humphrey's 
Clock" (April 25, 1840) appears the following announcement: "Cheap 
illustrations of Boz. Now publishing, on a broad-sheet, nearly as large as 
The Times, price 2d. * The Twist and Nickleby Scrap Sheet,' with twenty- 
four engraved portraits. Also, price 2d., ' Sam Weller's Scrap Sheet,' con- 
taining forty portraits of all the Pickwick characters. The above sheets are 



240 APPENDIX II 

enriched with poetic effusions by A. Snodgrass, Esq., M.P.C., and will be 
found worthy the attention of all who desire ' to laugh and grow fat ; ' they 
are alike fit for the scrap-book of the mansion or the walls of the cottage." 
These scarce sheets were issued by Cleave, having doubtless first been 
published in his Gazette. 

Certain dramatised versions of Dickens's stories, by E. Stirling and 
others (published by John Buncombe & Co., lo Middle Row, Holborn), 
contain frontispieces etched by Findlay, which are worthy of the Collector's 
attention. Besides these, innumerable Dickens illustrations have appeared 
from time to time, embracing every form of reproductive art. Calendars, 
relief scraps, booklets, &c., &c., both in colour and in black-and-white, are 
brought out by enterprising firms year by year, and merely to catalogue 
them would now be practically impossible. 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE ARTISTS. > 

"Alfred CrowqUILL." — The actual name of the artist who favoured this 
pseudonym was Alfred Henry Forrester. Born in 1804, he began his career 
as a draughtsman when eighteen years of age, distinguishing himself rather 
by his correctness than by serious forms of illustration. At the death of 
Seymour in 1836, he competed with "Phiz," Thackeray, Leech, and others 
for the vacant post as illustrator of " Pickwick," but without success. For a 
time he belonged to the staff of Bentley's Miscellany, and many of his etchings 
appeared in that journal during 1840-43. He was able to use his pen and 
pencil with equal facility and ability ; in addition to this he was an admirable 
vocalist, and we are told that most of the Christmas pantomimes of his day 
were indebted to him for clever designs, devices, and effects. Forrester was 
also a member of the Punch staff, where, owing to his happy and genial 
disposition, he was highly popular. Besides his " Pickwick Pictures," there 
are other designs by him possessing a Dickensian interest, viz., the illus- 
trations which he supplied to a curious production entitled " Pickwick 
Abroad; or, The Tour in France," which was launched by G.,W. M. Reynolds 
in 1839. "Alfred Crowquill" died in 1872, aged sixty-eight. 

Kenny Meadows. — This clever draughtsman (who abandoned the use of his 
first Christian name, Joseph), was the son of a retired naval officer, and was 
bom at Cardigan in 1790. He has been described as "the Nestor oi Punch's 
staff," and not only did he contribute many humorous designs to the pages 
of the Fleet Street journal during the 'forties, but he frequently prepared 
elaborate drawings for the Illustrated London News, in the early volumes 
of which may be found his most successful delineations. His representations 
of fairy subjects, although marked by mannerisms, were in great request. 



APPENDIX II 241 

His work is hardly remembered in this generation, but to speak of Kenny 
Meadows " is to recall the typical art of the illustrator and (such as it was) 
of the comic draughtsman of the first half of the century." 

During his last years Kenny Mcadows's services as an illustrator of books 
were rewarded by a pension from the Civil List of ;{^8o per annum. He 
was a boon companion, a delightful raconteur when at the club, and a jovial, 
roystering Bohemian when he left it. This generous and kind-hearted man 
died in 1874, when he had almost completed his eighty-fifth year. 

It is worth recording that a highly-finished drawing, in pen and ink 
and sepia, of Ralph Nickleby, designed by Kenny Meadows as an illustra- 
tion for his series of " Heads from ' Nicholas Nickleby,' " realised £j, los. 
at Sotheby's in 1893, the drawing being about twice the size of the 
engraving. 

T. OnwhyN. — This artist, best known perhaps by his Extra Illustrations to 
" Pickwick " and " Nicholas Nickleby," was the son of a bookseller in 
Catherine Street, Strand. He signed his Dickens etchings with a pseudonym, 
adopting in the one instance that of "Sam Weller, Junr.," and in the 
other that of " Peter Palette." Onwhyn also prepared several plates for 
"Valentine Vox" and other novels by Cockton. He occasionally contri- 
buted to Punch, but was more accustomed to the etching-needle than the 
pencil, his drawing on wood being hard and unsympathetic. This popular 
book-illustrator died in 1886, having then relinquished drawing for a period 
of sixteen years. 

The twelve plates etched by Onwhyn in 1847 to illustrate the first Cheap 
Edition of " Pickwick " were intended for independent publication, to com- 
pete with the series of extra engravings by Gilbert; but before there was 
time to complete the necessary arrangements the set of etchings produced 
by him in 1837 were re-issued. This took the artist by surprise, and he 
therefore abandoned the idea of circulating the new designs. The plates 
were put aside, and their existence forgotten until 1893, when they were 
unearthed by the Onwhyn family, and subsequently purchased by Mr. 
Albert Jackson, of Great Portland Street, who published them in 1894. 

"Jacob Parallel." — The etched illustrations by this artist for "Master 
Humphrey's Clock " are decidedly crude, contemporary criticisms notwith- 
standing. Their publication was announced in a somewhat original manner 
on the wrappers of Dickens's work, when the latter was launched in weekly 
numbers. One of these advertisements begins thus: "A clock is of no 
use without hands! Then, buy 'Hands to Master Humphrey's Clock.'" 
Concerning these curious illustrations a contemporary critic punningly ob- 
served : " These ' Hands ' are, upon the face of them, a very striking matter, 
and no clock ought to be wound up without them. . . . They give the finish 

Q 



242 APPENDIX II 

that was wanted to the ' Clock,' and the public will, we have no doubt, keep 
them going." 

In 1840, a book was published in parts (by G. Berger, Holywell Street), 
entitled "Charley Chalk; or, The Career of an Artist," with illustrations 
by " Parallel." These designs were declared to be " superior to many in 
* Nickleby,' " while the volume itself was described by reviewers as " another 
' Pickwick,' " and as " the only work fit to stand by the side of ' Boz.' " 
F. W. PailTHORPE. — This essentially humorous artist and etcher, who is still 
living, may be correctly designated the only survivor of the "old school" of 
book-illustrators, as represented by Cruikshank and " Phiz." Mr. Pailthorpe 
was a personal friend of the former, to whom he sometimes alludes as 
"dear old George Cruikshank," and doubtless this association with the 
famous designer considerably influenced the style and manner of Mr. Pail- 
thorpe's work. Indeed, this seems obvious to any one who compares the 
many Dickens plates drawn and etched by him with similar designs by the 
illustrator of " Sketches by Boz " and " Oliver Twist." A noteworthy feature 
of Mr. Pailthorpe's illustrations for Dickens's works is that a limited 
number of impressions have been coloured by his own hand, and the 
designs so treated are, in that respect, reminiscent of John Leech's plates 
for " A Christmas Carol." 

Mr. Pailthorpe, by reason of his unique position as the sole represen- 
tative of the "old school" of book-illustrators, has received commissions 
from publishers to copy the etched designs by other artists, in cases where 
the original plates have been lost or are otherwise inaccessible. He has 
thus reproduced " Crowquill's " " Pickwick " illustrations, the two cancelled 
designs by Buss for the same work, two of Onwhyn's illustrations for 
"Nickleby," and, quite recently, the two etchings by Cruikshank for the 
Mudfog Papers ; these replicas have just appeared in the Gadshill Edition 
now being issued by Chapman & Hall. 
Charles Dana Gibson. — This young American artist, who has frequently con- 
tributed to a New York journal called Life, recently essayed to illustrate 
Dickens by means of a series of cleverly-executed drawings representing 
some of the principal characters and incidents. The most satisfactory is 
his picture of the Pickwick Club, the portrait of Mr. Pickwick himself being 
capitally depicted. There is a distinct individuality of style in Mr. Gibson's 
work, rendered for the most part in pen-and-ink, and marked by a simplicity 
of treatment which is eminently attractive and effective. Although great 
ability in draughtsmanship distinguishes all his drawings, it may be con- 
tended that he is not invariably fortunate in realising the novelist's con- 
ceptions. Mr. Gibson's drawings of Dickens subjects have been excellently 
reproduced on both sides of the Atlantic. 



APPENDIX 
III 

DICKENS IN ART 

Paintings of Scenes and Characters in Dickens's Novels— Portraits of Dolly Varden and 
Kate Nickleby Painted for the Novelist by Mr. W. P. Frith, R.A.— A Humorous Adver 
tisement— Sale of the Two Pictures— Mr. Frith's Recollections— Mr. James Hamilton 
Presents to Dickens his Sketch of "What are the Wild Waves Saying?"— The Artist 
Rewarded for his Generosity — Water-Colour Drawings by Charles Green — How they 
Originated — An Interesting Series. 

THE novels of Charles Dickens are an interminable storehouse of subjects 
for pictures, so it is not surprising that they have always exercised a 
fascination over painters. The following is a list merely of those pictures 
that have come under my notice, — a collection which, doubtless, could be much 
amplified by reference to the catalogues of the Royal Academy and other im- 
portant Art galleries. 

\y. A. Atkinson. — " Little Nell and the two Gravediggers " ("The Old Curiosity 

Shop"). Royal Academy, 1856. 
Fred. Barnard.—" Sidney Carton " ("A Tale of Two Cities ")• Exhibited at 
the Royal Academy, 1882. 
" Horatio Sparkins " (" Sketches by B02 "). Institute of Painters in Water- 
Colours, 1885. 
W. H. Bartlett.— " ' The sea, Floy, what is it always Saying ? ' " (" Dombey 

and Son "). 
Edgar Bundy, R.I. — " Bamaby Rudge at the Country Justice's." Institute of 

Painters in Oil-Colours, 1896. 
R. W. Buss.—" Peerybingle, Dot, and Tilly Slowboy " (" The Cricket on the 
Hearth"). 
"Joe Willet taking leave of Dolly Varden" ("Bamaby Rudge"). 
"Trotty Veck and his Dinner" ("The Chimes"). {Seep. 55.) 
G. Cattermole.—" Little Nell's Home" ("The Old Curiosity Shop"), 1842. 

" Little Nell's Grave" (companion picture), 1842. {Seep. 134.) 
Horace H. CauTY. — "Bebelle looking out for the Corporal" ("Somebody's 
Luggage"). Society of British Artists, 1880. 

•43 



244 APPENDIX III 

Herbert Dicksee. "The Grandfather at the Grave of Little Nell." Royal 
Academy, 1887. 

W. Maw Egley. — "The Marchioness Playing Cribbage in Dick Swiveller's 
Sick-Room " ("The Old Curiosity Shop "). Royal Academy, 1898. 

F. Edwin Elwell. — " Charles Dickens and Little Nell." A bronze group, pur- 
chased by the Fairmount Park Art Association for the Fairmount Park, 
Philadelphia, U.S.A. The figure of Little Nell was exhibited at the Art Club, 
Philadelphia, and awarded the Gold Medal, while the entire group obtained 
a prize at the Columbian Exhibition. When exhibited in England, this 
work of Art met with warm approval, and the sculptor offered it to the 
London County Council, but the emphatic wish of Dickens (as expressed in 
his Will) prohibited their acceptance of this interesting memorial. 

W. P. Frith, R.A. — " Dolly Varden," 1843. Also replicas and other portraits, 
including one representing her with Emma Haredale. {See pp. 246-7.) 
"Kate Nickleby at Madame Mantalini's." Royal Academy, 1843. 
" The Jailer's Little Daughter Feeding ' the Birds in the Cage.' " (" Little 

Dorrit "). 
" Little Dorrit Visits Arthur Clennam at the Marshalsea." 
The first portrait of Dolly Varden was engraved by C E. Wagstaffe in 
1843; the third (now in South Kensington Museum) was reproduced in 
mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds; the fourth, "Dolly Varden and Emma 
Haredale," was engraved by S. W. Reynolds and G. S. Shury in 1845. 
The second portrait of Dolly, which was painted for Dickens, has never 
■ been engraved; there are in existence, however, a few impressions of a 
chromo-lithographic reproduction (now very scarce) of Mr. Frith's original 
sketch for the picture, the publication of which was unauthorised. The 
portrait of Kate Nickleby was engraved by W. HoU, A.R.A., and published 
in 1848 exclusively for the members of the National Art Union for Ireland. 

The "Dorrit" pictures were painted in 1859, and engraved on steel by 
Lumb Stocks, R.A., as vignettes for the Library Edition, then in course of 
publication. 

W. Gale.—" Mr. F.'s Aunt " (" Little Dorrit "). Royal Academy, 1857. 

When Wilkie Collins saw this clever picture at the Academy, he was so 
much impressed that he wrote at once concerning it to Dickens, who replied 
(May 22, 1857): "I am very much excited by what you tell me of Mr. F.'s 
Aunt. I already look upon her as mine. Will you bring her with you ? " 
The painting was purchased by Dickens through Collins, and realised at the 
sale of the novelist's effects the sum of sixty guineas. 

Florence Graham. — "Little Nell seated in the Old Curiosity Shop." En- 
graved in mezzotint by Edward Slocombe, and published by Buck & Reid, 
179 New Bond Street, 1888. 



APPENDIX III 245 

Largt Drawings in Water-Coloun. 

Charles Green, R.I.—" Gabriel Varden Preparing to go on Parade " ('• Bamaby 
Rudge"). 
"Tom Pinch and Ruth" ("Martin Chuzzlewit "). 

" Nell and her Grandfather at the Races " ("The Old Curiosity Shop"). 
" Captain Cuttle and Florence Dombey." 
" Little Dorrit's Visit to her Sister at the Theatre." 
" Mr. Turveydrop's Dancing Academy " (" Bleak House "). 
"Mr. Mantalini and the Brokers" ("Nicholas Nickleby"). 
"The Pickwick Club." 

Small Drawings in Water-Colours. 

" Barnaby Rudge with the Rioters." 

"Simon Tappertit addressing the Rioters at the 'Boot' Tavern" ("Bar- 
naby Rudge "). 

"Dolly Varden's Visit to Miss Haredale" ("Barnaby Rudge"). 

"Dick Swiveller and the Marchioness" ("The Old Curiosity Shop"). 

" Dick Swiveller and Fred. Trent in the Old Curiosity Shop." 

"Sam Weller's Valentine." 
James Hamilton.— "What are the Wild Waves Saying?" ("Dombey and Son"). 
Edgar Hanley. — " Dolly Varden." Royal Academy, 1883. 
E. Hunter.— " Little Charlotte's Writing- Lesson " ("Bleak House"). Royal 

Academy, 1858. 
C. R. Leslie, R.A.— " Mr. Pickwick and Mrs. Bardell." Painted for Dickens and 

engraved for the first Cheap Edition of the "Pickwick Papers." {Seep. 220.) 
Eleanor E. Manly. — " ' It's Cobbs ! It's Cobbs ! ' cries Master Harry. ' We 

are going to be married, Cobbs, at Gretna Green. We have run away on 

purpose ' " (" Boots at the Holly Tree Inn "). Royal Institute of Painters in 

Water-Colours, 1893. 
Mrs. M^Ian. — "Little Nell Reading Inscription on the Tombstone." Presented 

to Dickens by the artist. 
Fred. Morgan. — "Little Nell and her Grandfather." Royal Academy, 1883. 
R. H. NiBBS.— " Peggotty's Hut " (" David Copperfield "). Royal Academy, 1852. 
Charles W. NichoLLS. — "What are the Wild Waves Saying?" ("Dombey 

and Son "). Engraved by G. H. Every, and published by A. Lucas, 37 Duke 

Street, Piccadilly, 188 1. 
Kate PeruGINI. — " Brother and Sister. — ' Oh, Floy ! ' cried her brother, ' how 

I love you ! how I love you, Floy ! ' ' And I you, dear.' ' Oh, I am sure 

of that, Floy ' " (" Dombey and Son "). Royal Academy, 1893. 

"Little Nell." Institute of Painters in Water-Colours, 1885. 
Mary S. Pickett.—" Little Nell in the Old Church." Royal Academy, 1898. 



246 APPENDIX III 

A. J. RaemaKER. — " What are the Wild Waves Saying ? " Sculpture. 

J. HalfORD Ross. — "Our Mutual Friend." Eight Original Drawings in Water- 

Colour, illustrating incidents in the story. 
H. R. Steer, R.I.— "The Ball at Dr. Blimber's Establishment" ("Dombey 
and Son "). 
"Little Nell and her Pet Bird." Royal Institute of Painters in Water- 

Colours, 1888. 
"Nicholas Nickleby Interposes on Smike's Behalf." Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water-Colours, 1897. 
Lawson Stewart. — " ' A Quiet Happy Place — A Place to Live and Learn to Die 
In.' " The Graveyard in " The Old Curiosity Shop." Institute of Painters 
in Water-Colours, 1885. 
Frank Stone, A.R.A,— " 'Tilda Price ," " Madeline Bray," and " Kate Nickleby." 

These three pictures were painted for Dickens. {See pp. 178-9.) 
F. W. TOPHAM. — " Barnaby Rudge and his Mother." Presented to Dickens 
by the artist. (5«/>. 190.) 
"Little Nell and her Grandfather in the Tent, making Bouquets for the 
Racecourse." Presented to Dickens by the artist. {See p. 190.) 
H. Wallis.— " The Devotion of Sydney Carton " (" A Tale of Two Cities "). 
T. Webster, R.A. — "Dotheboy's Hall: The Brimstone and Treacle Scene." 
Painted for Dickens, and engraved for the first Cheap Edition of " Nicholas 
Nickleby." {See p. 220.) 

In the above list the most interesting picture, in many respects, is Mr. Frith's 
" Dolly Varden." The artist was quite a young man, just rising into fame, when 
(in 1843) he made great success with several charming presentments of the 
locksmith's bewitching daughter, and on seeing one of these (described by DickenS 
as "Dolly with the bracelet"), the novelist so much admired it that he com- 
missioned Mr. Frith to paint another portrait of her, together with a companion 
picture of Kate Nickleby. Writing shortly afterwards to the artist, whose 
acquaintance Dickens then made, he said, in reference to an engraving of the 
subject by C. E. Wagstaffe : " I saw an unfinished proof of Dolly at Mitchell's 
some two or three months ago : I thought it was proceeding excellently well then. 
It will give me great pleasure to see her when completed." The two pictures, 
when finished, were hung in the dining-room of the novelist's house. At the 
expiration of a few years, the portrait of Kate Nickleby was sent to Ireland 
(by Mr. Frith's desire) for the purpose of being engraved, and was delayed there 
so long that Dickens began to feel impatient. Accordingly, one morning he 
forwarded to the artist the following document, indited by himself: — 

"Advertisement. — To K — e N — y.— The Young Lady in Black, K.N.— If 
you will return to your disconsolate friends in Devonshire Terrace your absence 
in Ireland will be forgotten and forgiven, and you will be received with open arms. 



APPENDIX III 247 

Think of your dear sister Dolly, and how altered her appearance and character 
are without you. She is not the same girl. Think, too, of the author of your 
being, and what he must feel, when he sees your place empty every day I 
" October Tenth, 1848." 

For each of these remarkable canvases Mr. Frith received the by no means 
extravagant sum of twenty pounds, that being the price demanded by him. At 
the sale of Dickens's effects, however, the portrait of Dolly Varden realised 
a thousand guineas, while that of Kate Nickleby found a purchaser, on the 
same eventful occasion, for two hundred guineas — a tribute alike to author and 
artist. Mr. Frith has favoured me with some interesting information respecting 
his presentments of Dolly Varden : — 

"The picture of 'Dolly Varden' which I painted for Dickens was never 
engraved. Before I began it I made a study of the figure, but only the half- 
length, down to below the waist. This study was bought by Sir R. Rawlinson, 
who allowed (without asking my. permission) a most villainous chromo-lithograph 
to be made from it, and one day to my horror I saw it in a shop-window. For 
anything I know to the contrary, many of these things may have been sold.* 
The original completed picture never left Dickens's possession from the time it 
was finished till he died, nor was it ever exhibited. The portrsiit of Dolly (the 
'laughing' Dolly) now in the South Kensington Museum, was bequeathed by 
Forster, who had it from Frank Stone, for whom I painted it. I painted two 
copies of the 'laughing' Dolly, but I don't know what became of them. I also 
painted two pictures in which Dolly figures in company with Emma Haredale — 
in one she .is feeling in her pocket for a letter addressed to Miss Haredale, and 
in the other she is disdainfully treating Miss Haredale's hints about Joe Willet — 
she throws up her head and ' hopes she can do better than that, indeed ! ' I have 
just remembered another — a small half-length — in which she is looking at herself 
in a mirror and giving her curls a ' killing twist.' I have no idea where these 
pictures are. I may add that when Dickens came to see (on completion) my 
portraits of Dolly Varden and Kate Nickleby, which I painted expressly for him, 
he told me they were ' exactly what he meant.' This, of course, delighted me. 
They led to a friendship which lasted till his death." It will be remembered that 
in 1859 the novelist gave sittings for his portrait by Mr. Frith, which was 
painted as a commission from Forster, by whom it was bequeathed to the 
Nation. This portrait, now at South Kensington, occupies the most important 
place between the earlier portraits of Dickens by Samuel Laurence, Maclise, and 
R. J. Lane, and the later presentments of him by photography. 

It is not generally known that Mr. Frith once had the privilege of illustrating 

' That Mr. Frith did not always entertain such an absolute objection to this reproduction is 
testified by the following memorandum written by him on a copy of the print now in the collec- 
tion of Mr. W. R. Hughes : — " This is a very good chromo-lithograph from the first study for the 
picture painted by me for the late Charles Dickens. (Signed) W. P. FRITH, December 22, 1884.'' 



248 APPENDIX III 

a Dickens novel, Apropos of which the artist writes : " I told Dickens one day 
when he was sitting for his likeness that I should like to be allowed to illustrate 
one of his books. He seemed pleased, and proposed ' Little Dorrit' I forget to 
whom I sold the pictures, and where they are now I know not." The two 
paintings were beautifully engraved on steel by Lumb Stocks, R.A., as vignettes 
for the Library Edition, 1858-59. 

The sketch by an American artist, Mr. James Hamilton, of "What are the 
Wild Waves Saying ? " has a little history attached to it. While Dickens was in 
Philadelphia, during his last visit to America, he expressed a wish to purchase a 
painting of this subject, — one of the artist's most successful productions, — but, 
much to the novelist's regret, it had already been sold. The original sketch was 
still available, however, and with this Dickens was so greatly pleased that he 
immediately offered to buy it ; whereupon the artist insisted on presenting it to 
the famous author of " Dombey and Son." Soon afterwards, Mr. Hamilton was 
agreeably surprised to receive a set of Dickens's novels, containing a pleasant 
inscription in the novelist's autograph. 

The titles of Mr. Charles Green's admirable series of Dickens pictures were 
supplied to me by the artist himself, who favoured me with a complete list shortly 
before his death. In reference to these remarkable drawings I have received 
the following communication from Mr. William Lockwood, of Apsley Hall, 
Nottingham, for whom they were painted on commission : " The first work of Mr. 
Green's that really attracted my attention was his famous water-colour Race 
drawing, entitled, I believe, ' Here they come ! ' I saw that at a friend's house, and 
was so struck with admiration of Mr. Green's delicate sense of humour, subtle 
rendering of character, and fine drawing, that I at once told my friend of my 
great appreciation of Charles Dickens, and saw that, in my opinion, Mr. Charles 
Green would make the very best illustrator of his day of that great man's work. 
I then sought an introduction to Mr. Green, which resulted not only in my 
beautiful series of drawings, but in a warm friendship with the artist. In the 
execution of these pictures Mr. Green found most congenial work, and I think 
fully justified my judgment of his special power. When the series was exhibited 
at our local museum, it attracted universal admiration and the delighted apprecia- 
tion of all classes." Mr. Lockwood has generously lent these pictures to many 
London galleries, including the English Humorists' Exhibition, held at the Royal 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colours in 1889. 



INDEX 



Abbey, E. A., R.A., 322. 

Absolon, J., 228 

Ainsworth, H., 21, 23, 24, 54, 65, 1 13. 

All the Year Round, 111, 160, 215. 

"American Notes," designs for, 157-158, 202, 

219, 221, 222, 226. 
" Artist and the Author, The," 22. 
Athenaum, The, 33, 43, 44, 60, 76. 
Atkinson, W. A., 243. 

Barnard, Fred, 221, 222, 226, 227 ; character 
sketches, 228-229 ; pictures, 243. 

Bartlett, W. H., 243. 

"Battle of Life, The," designs for, 142-145, 
151, 156-157, 164-168, 221. 

Baxter, W. G., 229. 

Becker, F. P., 137, 163. 

Bell, Mackenzie, 33. 

Belts Life in London, 3, 30, 139, 233. 

Benjamin, W. E., 225. 

Bentley, Richard, 9, 61. 

BentUys Miscellany, ()-\o, 11, 17, 19,21,25-26, 
61, 340 ; designs by G. Cruikshank, 25, 242. 

Bicknell, E., 114. 

Billings, H., 225. 

Bolton, T., 158. 

Bonchurch, 118, 147. 

Bracewell, C. M., 229. 

Browne, Dr. E. A., 99, loi. 

Browne, Gordon, 226. 

Browne, Habldt K. ("Phiz"), 25, 52, 54, 59- 
120, 122, 123, 124, 132, 146, 147, 192, 193, 
•95. 197. 204, 209, 217, 221, 226, 227, 229- 
230, 239, 240, 242 ; biographical sketch, 
113-118; remuneration, 116; illness, 116; 
applies for pension, 117; death, 117; 
pers0n.1l characteristics, 117-118; water- 
colour replicas of Dickens illustrations, 
118 ; " extra illustrations," 229-230. 

" Browne, Habl6t K., " Life and Labours of," 
96, III, Ii9-I2a 

Browne, W. G. R., in. 

Brune, Morton, 61. 



"Brush," 330-231. 

Bryan, Alfred, 231. 

Bull and Mouth Street, St. Martin's le 
Grand, 48. 

Bundy, E., 243. 

Burnett, H., 47. 

Buss, Frances Mary, 49, 57. 

Buss, Rev. A. J., 51, 56, 57. 

Buss, Robert W., 47-57, 58, 60, 62, 63, 64 ; 
remuneration for the "Pickwick" designs, 
51 ; his pictures, 55-56, 243; his illustra- 
tions, 56 ; death, 57. 

Calvert, E., 183. 

Cambridge, 59. 

Camden Street, Camden Town, 57. 

Cancelled designs — by G. Cruikshank, 16-17, 

23; by R. W. Buss, 50-51, 242; by J. 

Leech, 141. 
Canonbury Tower, 30. 
Canterbury Cathedral, 105. 
Casket, The, 239. 
Caswell, E., 74. 
Cattermole, G., 80, 82, 83, 121-135, 162 ; 

pictures, 134, 843 ; illness and death, 134. 
Cauty, H. H., 343. 
Century, The, 3 10. 
Chapman, E., 33, 37, 38, 43, 44, 45, 47, 61, 83, 

128, 139, 158. 
Chapman, F., 139, 212. 
Character Studies — by F. Barnard, 238-339 ; 

by W. G. Baxter, 229 ; by A. Bryan, 231 ; 

by J. W. Ehninger, 232 ; by C. D. Gibson, 

232, 239, 242 ; by " Kyd," 233 ; by " Stylus," 

238 (and see 343-348.) 
" Charles Dickens by Pen and Pencil," 308. 
" Charles Dickens : Gossip about his Life, 

Works, and Characters," 228. 
" Charley Chalk : or the Career of an Artist," 

242. 
Charterhouse, The, 138. 
Cheap editions, illustrators ol, 219-226. 
Cheltnam (engraver), 137. 



250 



INDEX 



"Children from Dickens's Novels," designs 

by F. O. C. Darley, 223. 
"Child's Dream of a Star, A," designs by 

H. Billings, 225. 
" Child's History of England, A," designs for, 

189, 193, 202, 221. 

Chominski, T. V., 225. 

"Chimes, The," designs for, 141, 144, 150-151, 
155-156, 162-163, 221 ; picture by Buss, 55, 

243- 

Christie, J. E., 226. 

Christmas Books, designs for, 119, 322. 

"Christmas Carol, A," designs for, 140, 144, 
146, 221, 225, 242. 

Christmas Stories, designs for, 221, 222. 

Clarke, J. Clayton. See " Kyd." 

Clint, G., A.R.A., 48. 

Colbom, Henry, 25. 

Collins, C. Alston, 204, 205, 209. 

Collins, Wilkie, 159, 203, 204, 244. 

Cooke, W. C, 226 

Corbeaux, F., 228. 

Corbould (engraver), 137, 173. 

Cornwall, Logan Stone in, 154 ; St. Nighton's 
Keive in, 168. 

Cosens, F. W., 13, 77, 86, 118, 201, 233. 

Coveny, C, 231. 

" Cricket on the Hearth, TTie," designs for, 
141-142, 151, 156, 163-164, 180, 225, 233; 
picture by R. W. Buss, 55, 243. 

"Crowquill, Alfred," see ''A. H. Forrester." 

Cruikshank, George, 1-28, 33, 47, 54i 55. 60, 
68, 91, 114, 133, 146, 214, 217, 239, 242 ; 
portraits of, 5-6 ; Fairy Tales, 26-27 ; de- 
scribed by Mrs. Gamp, 27-28 ; as an actor, 
28 ; remuneration, 28 ; death, 28 ; bust by 
Adams, 28. 



Daily News, 99, 182. 

Daly, Augustin, 37, 38. 

Dalziel Brothers, 137, 167, 198, 201, 212. 

Dalziel, E. G., 221. 

Dariey, F. O. C, 223-224, 231 ; pictures by, 

223. 
Devonshire Terrace, Regeiit's Park, 246. 
Dexter, J. F., 85, 86, 89, 93, 98, 100, io8, 1 11, 

112, 141, 229. 
" Dickens and Punch," 174. 
Dickens, Charles, portraits of, 5-6, 56, 74, 

168, 220, 221, 225, 236, 237, 238, 247. 



Dickens, Frederick, 44, 45. 

Dickens, Kate, 205 (and see "Kate Peru- 

gini"). 
Dickens, Lieut. Sydney, 178. 
Dickens, Mrs. Charles, 44, 45, 191. 
Dickleburgh, 121. 
Dicksee, H., 244. 
Dobson, Austin, 15. 
Dolly Varden, notes on portraits by W. P. 

Frith, R.A., 246-247. 

Doyle,J. ("H. B."), 149. 

Doyle, R., 137, 141, 142, 149-152, 165, 172. 

Drury Lane, Theatre Royal, 154. 

Duchess of St. Albans, The, 85, 98, 104, 107. 

Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, 56. 

Dulcken, A., 231-232. 

Du Manner, G., 146. 

Eastlake, Sir C, 181. 
East London Theatre, 1 53. 
Eddystone Lighthouse, C. Stanfield's act- 
drop, 159. 
Edinburgh, 153; theatre, 154. 
Edwards (engraver), 85, loa 
Egley, W. M., 244- 
Ehninger, J. W., 232. 
Elderton, Miss, 121. 
Elwell, F. E., 244. 
"Empty Chair, The" 215. 
" English Graphic Satire," 57. 
" Etchings and Sketchings," by John Leech, 

139- 
Etty, William, R.A., 63. 
Everitt, Graham, 26. 
Eytinge, Sol., 224-225. 

"Fagin in the Condemned Cell," 15-1O, 21- 

22, 23, 214. 
" Fairy Library, The," 27. 
Fennell, J. G., 62, 117. 
Field Lane, 21. 
Fields, J. T., 209, 225. 
Fildes, Luke, R.A., 117, 204-217 ; recollections 

of Dickens, 208, 216 ; his drawing of " The 

Empty Chair," 215. 
Finden, E. & W., 60, 62, 63, 64, 74, 114, 119, 

120, 179, 228, 233. 
Findlay (engraver), 10, 240. 
Fisher, Miss L. M., 226. 
Flaxman, 138. 
Fleet Market, 132. 



INDEX 



25» 



Forrester, A. H. ("Alfred Crowquill"), 59, 

337, 231, 240. 
Forster, John, i8, 19, 32, 24, 51, 92, 93, 94, 

107, 118, 127, 134, 143, 1 44, "45. 147, «5o, 

154, 156, 157, 163, 163, 164, 165, 168, 169, 

170,200,215,247. 
" Fortunio," 203. 
Fraser, F. A., 221. 
" Frauds on the Fairies," 26. 
French, 222. 
French, H., 221. 

Frith, W. P., R.A., 148, 205, 213 ; pictures, 244. 
Frost, A. B., 221, 222, 223. 
" Frozen Deep, The," 203. 
Furniss, H., 226. 
Fumival's Inn, 36, 39, 45, S9i 9". "9- 

" Gabriel Grub," (" Pickwick"), designs by 

T. Nast, 223. 
Gad's Hill, 205, 214, 225. 
Gale, W., 344. 
Gaugengigl, J. M., 225. 
"George Silverman's Explanation," designs 

by F. Barnard, 222 ; by M. Greiffenhagen, 

336. 
Gibson, C. D., 232, 242. 
Gilbert, Sir John., R.A., 223, 224, 227, 232- 

333. 241- 
" Gleanings from Popular Authors," Dickens 

illustrations by J. Nash, F. Barnard, T. W. 

Wilson, J. E. Christie, and G. Browne, 326. 
Gorway, C. M., 233. 
Graham, Florence, 244. 
Graphic, The, 206, 207, 2 1 5. 
Gray, C., 61, 80, 137. 
"Great Expectations," designs for, 201, 221, 

222, 223, 236. 
Greenaway (engraver), 232. 
Green, Charies, 221-222, 225 ; pictures, 245, 

248. 
Green, Townley, 221 
Green, W. T., 85, 137, 198. 
Greiffenhagen, M., 226. 
Groves (engraver), 137. 

Habl6t, Colonel, 114. 

Hall, Mr. (Chapman & Hall), 44i 49. "6. 

Hamerton, P. G., 2, 183. 

Hamilton, Colonel, 6. 

Hamilton, J., 245, 248. 

Hampstead Road, 199. 



Hanley, E., 245. 

" Hard Times," designs for, 22o, 321, 323. 

Harley, J. P.. 73. 

Harrison, F., Ho, 83. 

"Haunted Man, The," designs for, 146, i$7, 

'73. »75-'78, 331. 
Haweis, Rev. H. R., 151. 
Heath, W., 233. 
" Heiress, The," 32, 38. 
Highgate Cemetery, 116, 179. 
" History of Punchy' 149. 
Hodder, G., 1 5. 

Hogarth, Miss G., 100, 168, 216. 
" Holiday Romance," designs by F. Barnard, 

222 ; by Sir J. Gilbert and G. G. White, 

224. 
"Holly Tree Inn, The," picture by Eleanor 

E. Manly, 245. 
Hood, Tom, 113, 14a 
" Hook and Eye" Club, The, 6. 
Hook, Theodore, 32. 
Houghton, A. Boyd, 220. 
Household Words, 23, 26, 189. 
Hove, 117. 
Hughes, W. R., 347. 
Hunted Down," designs by F. Barnard, 333 ; 

by M. Greiffenhagen, 236. 
Hunter, E., 24;. 
Hunt, Holman, 148. 
Hunt, Leigh, 32, 107, 150. 
Hyde Park Place, 206, 208, 21 1, 216. 

Illustrated London News, 224, 240. 

Irving, Washington, 22a 

Ishngton, 3'. 35. 38- 

"Is She His Wife?" design by F. W. 

Pailthorpe, 236. 
Italy, 162, 182. 

" Jack Ketch," 33. 

Jackson, John, 4, 36, 41, 48, 54, 56. 

Jackson, Mason, 6a 

"Jacob Parallel," 236, 241-242. 

"Jack Straw's Castle," Hampstead, 162. 

Jerrold, Blanchard, 24. 

Jerrold, Douglas, 140, 153. 

Jodrell, Rev. Sir E. R., 168. 

Kate Nickleby, notes on the portraits by 

W. P. Frith, R.A., 246-347. 
Keeley, Robert, 143. 



I 



252 



INDEX 



Kennington, 113. 

Kensal Green, 28. 

" Ketch Papers, The," 33. 

Knight (engraver), 85, icxj. 

Knight, Admiral Sir John, 114. 

Knight, Charles, 56. 

" Kyd" (pseudonym of J. Clayton Clarke), 233. 

" Lamplighter, The," 25 ; design by F. W. 

Pailthorpe, 236. 
" Lamplighter's Story, The," 25-26. 
Landells, E., 46, 80. 

Landseer, Sir E., R.A., 135, 137, 162, 180-181. 
Lane, R. J., A.R.A., 247. 
Lang, A., 92. 
Laurence, S., 238, 247. 
Leamington, 96. 
Lee, 59. 

Leech, John, 59, 60, 114, 138-148, 161, 173, 
176, 240; extraordinary blunder in "The 
Battle of Life" by, 145; "The Rising 
Generation," 147 ; as an actor, 147 ; acci- 
dent to, 147 ; death, 148 ; portrait by Sir J. 
E. Millais, P.R.A., 148. 
Leighton, Lord, P.R.A., 195, 206. 
Leslie, C. R., R.A., 219-220, 245. 
Letters : — 

Browne (H. K.) to W. G. R. Browne, 1 1 1- 
112 ; to Morton Brune, 61 ; to Dickens, 
83, 84, 115 ; to R. Young, 113, 120. 
Cattermole (G.) to Dickens, 13a 
Chapman (E.) to Dickens, 43. 
Chapman (F.) to Anon., 139. 
Cosens (F. W.) to author, 118. 
Cruikshank (G.) to Dickens, 14 ; to The 

Times, 19-22. 
Dickens (C.) to Anon., re "Pickwick," 
36-37 ; to The Athenaum, 43-44 ; to 
H. K. Browne, 88-89, 93. 94> 96-97, 99, 
100, in, 1 1 5-1 16; to G. Cattennole, 
122-134; to Chapman & Hall, 205; 
to E. Chapman, 83-84, 158; to F. 
Chapman, 212 ; to G. Cruikshank, 16- 
17 ; to C. Dickens the younger, 44-45 ; 
to Mrs. C. Dickens, 191 ; to J. T. 
Fields, 209 ; to L. Fildes, R.A., 207 ; 
to J. Forster, 24, 92, 94, 103, 145, 147, 
'57) 179) 200; to T. Longman, 194; 
to S. Palmer, 184 ; to R. Seymour, 39- 
40 ; to C. Stanfield, R.A., 154, 155-156, 
159 ; to F. Stone, A.R.A., 158-159, 176- 



178 i to M. Stone, R.A., 193, 196, 197- 
198 ; to Wilkie Collins, 244. 
Fennell (J. G.) to author, 62. 
Leech (J.) to J. Forster, 143-144. 
Lockwood (W.) to author, 248. 
Maclise (D., R.A.) to C. Dickens, 169- 
170; to J. Forster, 163, 164, 165, 166, 
167, 170. 
Young (R.) to author, 64. 
" Letters of Charles Dickens, The," 159. 
Lever, Charles, 65, 113. 
" Library of Fiction, The," 3, 33, 45-46, 54-55, 

61-62. 
" Lighthouse, The," 1 59. 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, 163. 
Linnell, J., 182. 
Linton, W. J., 137, 140, 144 (and see note 

144), 225. 
" Little Talk about Spring and the Sweeps, A," 

designs by Buss and Cruikshank, 54-55. 
Liverpool Road, Islington, 35. 
Lockwood, W., 248. 

Mackenzie, Dr. S., 17-18, 19. 

Maclise, D., R.A., 74, 122, 134, 137, 143, I44. 
I54i 161-171, 247 ; amusing sketch by, 
163 ; portrait of Dickens by, 168 ; letter 
re "Grip," 169-170; death, 170; Dickens's 
tribute, 1 70-171. 

Macready, W., 127. 

Macrone, J., 3, 4, 25, 115. 

Maddox, W., 233. 

Maguire, T. H., 220. 

Mahoney, J., 221. 

Manly, Eleanor E., 245. 

Marold, 225. 

Marshalsea, The, in. 

Martin (engraver), 137, 173. 

" Maxims and Hints for an Angler," 31, 38. 

Mayhew, Horace, 15, 32. 

M«Ian, Mrs., 245. 

McLean, 32. 

M^Lenan, J., 223. 

Meadows, Kenny, 227, 233-234, 240-241. 

" Memoirs of Grimaldi," designs by G. 
Cruikshank, 24 ; by F. W. Pailthorpe, 236. 

Meynell, Mrs., 210. 

Millais, Sir J. E., P.R.A., 148, 195, 205, 206. 

Minories, The, 97. 

Mittis, 225. 

Monthly Magazine, The, 3, 116. 



INDEX 



253 



Morgan, F., 34$. 

Morning Chronicle, The, 3. 4, 33. 

" Mr. Nightingale's Diary," design by F. W. 

Pailthorpe, 336. 
Mudfog Papers, The, designs by G. Cruik- 

shank, 35, 343. 

Nash, J., 336. 

Nasmyth, 154. 

Nast, T., 323, 333. 

" Nemo " (pseudonym of H. K. Browne), 65. 

Newman Street, 62. 

" New Piljian's Projiss, A," 37 ; designs by 

F. W. Pailthorpe, 336. 
Nibbs, R. H., 345. 
Nicholls, C. W., 345. 
Nickleby, Kate, Notes on the Portraits by W. 

P. Frith, R.A., 346-347. 

Onwhyn, T., 237, 234-235, 241. 

"Origin of Sam Weller, The," design by 

F. W. Pailthorpe, 336. 
Our Young Folks, 334. 

Paget, H. M., 335. 

Pailthorpe, F. W., 6, 73. 227. 231, 235-236, 
242. 

Palmer, A. H., 184, 185, 188. 

Palmer, Samuel, 182-188: his water-colour 
drawings, 183, 184 ; etchings, 183. 

" Parallel, Jacob," 236, 241-242. 

Payn, James, 108. 

Peggotty's Boat, 103. 

Perugini, Kate, 345 (and see " Kate Dickens"). 

" Peter Palette " (pseudonym of Thomas 
Onwh>Ti), 227, 234-235. 

Phillips, Watts, ni. 

" Phiz," 65 (and see " Habl6t K. Browne")- 

Pickett, Mary S., 245. 

Pickwick, Mr., prototype of, 38-39 ; Sketches 
by H. K. Browne, 72 ; by C. U. Gibson, 343. 

" Pickwick Papers, The, An Account of the 
Origin of," 42. 

"Pickwick, Tales from," designs by E. J. 
Wheeler, 236. 

" Pic Nic Papers, The," 35, 115. 

Pictures of Dickens subjects, 243-248. 

" Pictures from Italy," 182 ; designs by H. K. 
Browne, 1 19 ; by S. Palmer, 183-187 ; by M. 
Stone, R.A., 202 ; by G. Thomson (House- 
hold Edition), 321 ; by M. Greiffenhagen, 326. 



Phiwell, G. J., 880. 

Pl.inchrf, I $0,303. 

Portraits :— 

Cruikshank (G.), 5-6, 38 ; Dickens (CX 
K-d, $6, 74, i6«, 330, 231, 225, 336, 337, 
338, 347; Dickens (Lieut. Sydney), 178 ; 
Leech (J.), 148 ; Seymour (R-X 37. 

Punch, 75, 136, 138, 139, 140, 147, 150, 173, 
'73. «74, 240. 241. 

"Punch's Valentines," 75. 

Putney Bridge, 31 1 ; church, 43, 211. 

" Quiz" (pseudonym of Dickens), 74. 

Raemaker, a. J., 346. 

Ralston, J. M=L., 331. 

"Readings of Mr. Charles Dickens, The," 

designs by S. Eytinge, 334. 
Regent's Canal, 199. 
Reinhart, C. S., 333. 
" Reprinted Pieces," designs by F. Walker, 

A.R.A., 321 ; by E. G. Dalziel (Household 

Edition), 331. 
Richardson, E., 236. 
"Rising Generation, The," by John Leech, 

147- 
Roberts, C, 313. 
Roberts, D., R.A., 154. 
Rochester, 314 ; Castle, 3i6 ; Cathedral, 3ii, 

316; Eastgate House, 211, 216; High 

Street, 211. 
Roe (engraver), 59. 
Roffe, E., 330. 
Ross, J. Halford, 346. 
Rotherhithe, 198. 
Ruskin, Prof John, i, 16, 83, I3i, 146, 15a 

Sala, G. a., 4, 28, 67, 143. 

" Sam Weller " (pseudonym of Thomas On- 

whyn), 327, 234-235 ; " The origin oi;" 336. 
"Sam Weller's Jest Book," 239. 
Sands (engraver), 63. 
Sandys, F., 195. 
Scenes (various) from Dickens, depicted by 

C. Coveny, 231 ; by F. O. C. Darley, 331 ; 

by N. P. Whitlock, 338 ; by C. D. Gibson, 

332, 342 ; miscellaneous, 340 ; pictures, 

343-248- 
" Scrap Book of Literary Varieties, The," 234. 
Seymour, Mrs., 42, 44 ; her " Pickwick " 

pamphlet, 42-45. 



254 



INDEX 



Seymour, R., 29-46, 47, 5«. 54. 60. 64, 66,211, 
240 ; death of, 35, 36-37. >39 ; tribute to, 
35 ; final drawing, 36 ; remuneration, 40 ; 
portrait of, 46. 

Seymour, R., jun., 43. 

Shaw, William, prototype of Squeers, 75-76. 

Sheppard, W. L., 222. 

Shury, G. S., 244. 

Sibson, T., 237. 

" Sketches of Young Couples," designs by 
H. K. Browne, 74. 

" Sketches of Young Gentlemen," designs by 
H. K. Browne, 74. 

" Sketches of Young Ladies," designs by H. 
K. Browne, 74. 

Smith (engraver), 137. 

Smith, Orrin, 61. 

"Somebody's Luggage," picture by H. H. 
Cauty, 243. 

Spielmann, M. H., 60, 77. "49. 210. 222. 

" Squib Annual, The," 43- 

St. Andrew's Street, Seven Dials, 199. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 138. 

St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street, 150, 155. 

St. James's Theatre, 73, 191. 

St. James's, Westminster, 20, 21. 

St. Martin's Lane, 63. 

St. Nighton's Keive, near Tintagel, 168. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, 28, 181. 

Stanfield, C, R.A., 137. 150, 153-160, 168, 
173. 2'9 ; presents from Dickens, 155, 157, 
159 ; drawing of S.S. Britannia, 15S ; Eddy- 
stone Lighthouse, act drop, 159; nick- 
names, 159; death, 160 ; Dickens's tribute, 
160. 

Stanfield, F., 156, 159. 

Stanfield, G., 160. 

Staple Inn, 212. 

Steer, H. R., 246. 

Stewart, Lawson, 246. 

Stone, F., A.R.A., 137, 158, i73. 175-179, 192, 
'94. 195. 203, 237-238, 247 ; as an actor, 
178 ; Mrs. Gamp's description of, 178 ; 
nicknames, 178 ; his portrait of Lieut. Syd- 
ney Dickens, 178 ; death, 179 ; pictures, 246. 

Stone, Marcus, R.A., 113, 175, 177,192-203, 
204, 215 ; his first design for Dickens, 195 ; 
his drawings for" Our Mutual Friend," 195- 
201 ; the prototype of Mr. Venus, 199-200 ; 
private theatricals, 203. 

" Strange Gentleman, The," 73 ; designs by 



H. K. Browne, 73 ; by F. W. Pailthorpe, 

236. 
"Stroller's Tale, The" ("Pickwick"), 36, 39- 

40. 
"Stylus," 238. 

" Sunday Under Three Heads," 61-62. 
Swain, Joseph, 106, 137, 15a 

Talfourd, Sergeant, 84. 

Tavistock House, 158, 159, 175, 203 ; Square, 

179- 
Taylor, Weld, 238. 
Tenniel, Sir John, 136, 137, 147. 172-174, 176, 

191. 
Thackeray, W. M., 12-13, '5. 28, 59, 62, 135, 

138, 139, 166, 175, 180, 195, 219, 240. 
Theatrical entertainments, 27, 158-159, 178, 

190, 191, 203. 
Thomas, W. L., 206. 
Thomson, D. C, 96, iii, 119. 
Thomson, Gordon, 221. 
Thompson, J., 137, 166. 
Tilney, F. C, 226. 

" Timothy Sparks" (Dickens's pseudonym), 61. 
Topham, F. W., 189-191 ; pictures of scenes 

in "Master Humphrey's Clock," 190, 246; 

love of acting, 190-191 ; ability as a 

juggler, 191. 
Topham, F. W. W., 190. 
"Travelling Sketches" ("Pictures from 

Italy"), 182. 
Trollope, Anthony, 113, 201. 
" Tuggses at Ramsgate, The," 33, 54 ; designs 

by Seymour and Cruikshank, 46. 

"Uncommercial Traveller, The," designs 
for, 320, 221, 222, 226. 

Varden, Dolly, notes on portraits by W. P. 

Frith, R.A., 246-247. 
Vasey (engraver), 80. 
"Village Coquettes, The," design by F. W. 

Pailthorpe, 236. 

Walker, C. W., 228. 

Walker, F., A.R.A., 195, 221 ; pictures by, 

221. 
Wall, C. H., 238. 
Wallis, H., 246. 
Warren, H., 233. 



INDEX 



255 



Weatherhead (engraver), 64. 

Webster, T., R.A., 219, 220, 146. 

Wedmore, F., 6, 7. 

" Weller, Sam " (pseudonym of Thomas 

Onwhyn), 227, 234-235 ; " The Origin of,' 

236. 
Wheeler, E. J., 226. 
White, G. G., 224. 
Whitehead, C, 33, 45. 
" Whole Hogs," 23. 
Williams, S., 80, 123. 
Williams, T., 133, 137, 167, 220. 
Willis (prototype of Mr. Venus), 199-200. 



Wilson, Thomas, 233, 336. 
Wilson, T. Walter, 3j6. 
Worth, T., 222. 
Wright (engraver), 232. 
Wright, W., 4, 105, 220, 236. 
W., T. C, 238. 
W., W. C, 239. 

Yarmoitth Dbnks, 103, 106. 
Yates, Edmund, 60. 
Yeagcr, J., 235, 237. 

Young, Robert, 63, 64, 85, 87, loo, 113, 117, 
119-120, 329. 



REFERENCES TO THE PRINCIPAL WORKS 



" Barnaby Rudge," 81-86, 127-133, 169, 202. 
Designs by Habl6t K. Browne, 85-86, 
230 ; by George Cattermole, 127-133 ; by 
Frederick Barnard, 222; by Absolon and 
Corbeaux, 228 ; by C. B. Bracewell, 229 ; 
by E. Richardson, 236 ; by T. Sibson, 
237 ; Anon., 239. Pictures by E. Bundy, 
243; by R. W. Buss, 55, 243 ; by W. 
F. Frith, R.A. 244, 246-247 ; by C. Green, 
245 ; by E. Hanley, 245 ; by F. W. Topham, 
igo, 246 (and see " Master Humphrey's 
Clock "). 

"Bleak House," 106-109, 193. Designs by 
H. K. Browne, 106-109 ; by F. Barnard, 
222. Pictures by C. Green, 245 ; by E. 
Hunter, 245. 

"David Copperfield," 102-106, 207, 208. 
Designs by H. K. Browne, 102-106 ; by F. 
Barnard, 222 ; by Phil May, 226. Picture 
by R. H. Nibbs, 245. 

"Dombcy and Son," 90-101, 170. Unpub- 
lished designs by R. W. Buss, 55 ; designs 
by H. K. Browne, 90-101, 230; by F. 
Barnard, 222 ; by W. L. Sheppard, 222. 
Pictures by H. K. Browne, 99 ; by W. H. 
Bartlett, 243 ; by C. Green, 245 ; by J. 
Hamilton, 245, 248 ; by C. W. Nicholls, 
245 ; by K. Perugini, 245 ; by A. J. Rae- 
maker (sculpture), 246 ; by H. R. Steer, 246. 



" Little Donrit," 109-111, 160. Designs by H, 
K. Browne, 109-111 ; by M. Stone, R.A. 
195, 201 ; by J. Mahoney (Household 
edition), 221 ; by W. P. Frith, R.A., 244, 
247. Pictures by W. P. Frith, R.A., 244 ; 
by W. Gale, 244 ; by C. Green, 245. 

"Martin Chuizlewit," 86-90. Designs by 
H. K. Browne, 86-90 ; by F. Stone, A.R.A., 
179 ; by F. Barnard, 222 ; by C. H. Wall, 
238. Picture by C. Green, 245. 

" Master Humphrey's Clock," 79-86, 239-240. 
Designs by H. K. Browne, 79-86 ; by G. 
Cattermole, 122-134, 162; by D. Maclisc, 
R.A., 162 ; by F. Barnard, 222 ; by "Brush," 
230-231 ; by "Jacob Parallel," 236, 241-242 ; 
by T. Sibson, 237 ; by T. C. W., 238 (and 
see "The Old Curiosity Shop" and "Bar- 
naby Rudge "). 

" Mystery of Edwin Drood, The," 202, 204, 
205, 206, 207, 208, 209-216, 225. C. A. 
CoUins's design for wrapper, 205 ; designs 
by L. Fildes, R.A., 208-217. 

"Nicholas Nickleby," 74-78, 168, 180. De- 
signs by H. K. Browne, 76-78 ; by F. Stone, 
A.R.A., 178-179, 237-238 ; by T. Webster, 
R.A., 220 ; by F. Barnard, 222 ; by C. S. 
Reinhart, 222 ; by Sir John Gilbert, R.A., 
232 ; by K. Meadows, 233-234, 241 ; by T. 
Onwhyn, 235, 042 j by W. Taylor, 338; 



256 



INDEX 



Anon., 239. Pictures by W. P. Frith, R.A., 
244, 246-247 ; by C. Green, 245 ; by H. R. 
Steer, 246 ; by F. Stone, A.R.A., 178-179, 
246 ; by T. Webster, R.A., 220, 246. 

"Old Curiosity Shop, The," 80-81, 123-127 ; 
Designs by H. K. Browne, 80-81, 85, 221, { 
229-230; by G. Cattermole, 123-127, 133; 1 
by D. Maclise, R.A., 162 ; by C. Green, 221 ; , 
by T. Worth, 222 ; by W. Maddox and H. 
Warren, 233 ; by K. Meadows, 234 ; by 
" Stylus," 238 ; Anon., 239 ; Water-colour 
drawings by H. K. Browne, 86. Pictures ' 
by G. Cattermole, 134, 243 ; by W. A. 
Atkinson, 243 ; by H. Dicksee, 244 ; by W. 
M. Egley, 244 ; by F. E. Elwell (sculpture), 
244 ; by F. Graham, 244 ; by C. Green, 245 ; 
by Mrs. M'lan, 245 ; by F. Morgan, 245 ; 
by M. S. Pickett, 245 ; by K. Perugini, 245 ; 
by H. R. Steer, 246 ; by L. Stewart, 246 ; by 
F. W. Topham, 190, 246 (and see " Master 
Humphrey's Clock "). 

"Oliver Twist," 9-24, 60. Designs by G. 
Cruikshank, 9-24 ; sale of original drawings, 
13 ; water-colour replicas, 13 ; Edition <U 
luxe, 13; The Cancelled Plate, 16-17, 22: 
Cruikshank's Account of the Origin of the 
Story, 17-24. Designs by H. K. Browne, 
119; by J. Mahoney (Household edition), 
221 ; by F. W. failthorpe, 236; Anon., 
2.39- 



" Our Mutual Friend," 148, 192, 195-201, 204. 
Designs by A. B. Houghton, 220 ; by J. 
Mahoney (Household edition), 221. Pic- 
tures by J. H. Ross, 246. 

"Pickwick Papers, The," 29, 32-45, 47, 48, 
49-54, 58-61, 139, 182, 211, 213, 240. 
Designs by R. Seymour, 36-37, 41, 50, 64 ; 
by R. W. Buss, 50-54, 62, 64, 242 ; by J. 
Leech, 60, 139; by H. K. Browne, 62-73, 
229 ; by C. R. Leslie, R.A., 219, 220 ; by T. 
Nast, 222 ; by A. B. Frost, 223 ; by E. J. 
Wheeler, 226 ; by C. Coveny, 231 ; by 
"Crowquill,"23l, 242 ; by A. Dulcken, 231- 
232 ; by Sir John Gilbert, R.A., 232, 241 ; 
by W. Heath, 233 ; by T. Onwhyn, 234- 
235 ; by H. M. Paget, 235 ; by F. W. 
Pailthorpe, 235-236 ; by T. Sibson, 237 ; by 
"Stylus," 238; by W. C. W., 239; Anon., 
239. Pictures by C. Green, 245 j by C. R. . 
Leslie, R.A., 200, 245. J^— 

" Sketches by Boz," 3-9, 23, 24, 32, 46, 60, 
73. Designs by G. Cruikshank, 3-9, 54 ; by 
H. K. Browne, 118-119; by F. Barnard, 
222 ; by A. B. Frost, 222. Picture by F. 
Barnard, 243. 

"Tale of Two Cities, A," 111-113, 192. 
Designs by H. K. Browne, 112-113 ; by M. 
Stone, R.A., 202 ; by F. Barnard, 222 ; by 
J. M'Lenan, 223. Pictures by F. Barnard, 
243 ; by H. Wallis, 246. 



THE END 



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